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Encyclopedia > German Romanticism

For the general context, see Romanticism. Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe. ...


In the philosophy, art, and culture of German-speaking countries, German Romanticism was the dominant movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Indeed, the Romantic movement in general saw its greatest achievements in Germany. German Romanticism developed relatively late compared to its English counterpart, coinciding in its early years with the movement known as German Classicism or Weimar Classicism, which it opposed. In contrast to the seriousness of English Romanticism, the German variety is notable for valuing humor and wit as well as beauty. The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ...


The early German romantics tried to create a new synthesis of art, philosophy, and science, looking to the Middle Ages as a simpler, more integrated period. As time went on, however, they became increasingly aware of the tenuousness of the unity they were seeking. Later German Romanticism emphasized the tension between the everyday world and the seemingly irrational and supernatural projections of creative genius. Heinrich Heine in particular criticized the tendency of the early romantics to look to the medieval past for a model of unity in art and society. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (born Chaim Harry Heine, December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. ...


Key figures of German romanticism are listed below.

Contents

Literary and philosophical figures

Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (born Chaim Harry Heine, December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... ETA Hoffman Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (January 24, 1776 - June 25, 1822), was a German romantic and fantasy author and composer. ... Friedrich Hölderlin Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin (March 20, 1770 – June 6, 1843) was a major German lyric poet. ... Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist (October 18, 1777 – November 21, 1811) was a German poet, dramatist and novelist. ... Adam Heinrich Müller (June 30, 1779 - January 17, 1829) was a German publicist, literary critic, political economist, theorist of the state and forerunner of economic romanticism. ... Novalis was the pseudonym of Friedrich Leopold, Freiherr von Hardenberg (May 2, 1772 - March 25, 1801), a German poet and novelist. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (January 27, 1775 - August 20, 1854) was a German philosopher. ... Karl Wilhelm Friedrich von Schlegel (March 10, 1772 - January 11, 1829), German poet, critic and scholar, was the younger brother of August Wilhelm von Schlegel. ... August Wilhelm von Schlegel (September 8, 1767 - May 12, 1845), German poet, translator and critic, was born at Hanover, where his father, Johann Adolf Schlegel (1721_1793), was a Lutheran pastor. ... Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 - February 12, 1834) was a theologian and philosopher. ... Ludwig Tieck Johann Ludwig Tieck (May 31, 1773 – April 28, 1853) was a German poet, translator, editor, novelist and critic, who was part of the Romantic movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Johann Ludwig Uhland (April 26, 1787 - November 13, 1862), was a German poet. ... Freiherr Joseph von Eichendorff (March 10, 1788 - November 26, 1857), German lyricist and narrator. ... Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814) was a German philosopher. ... Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder (July 13, 1773–February 13, 1798) was a German attorney and writer. ...

Composers

  • Carl Maria von Weber. Perhaps the very first of Romantic musicians, if we exclude Beethoven, in the sense that Weber was the first major composer to emerge as a wholesome product of the Romantic school, as contrasted with Beethoven, who had started off as a Classicist (see below). The emotional intensity and supernatural, folklore-based themes in his operas presented a radical break from the Neoclassical traditions of that time.
  • Franz Schubert. Universally acknowledged as the greatest composer of German Lieder; called 'the most poetic musician ever' by Franz Liszt.
  • Robert Schumann. Primarily a miniaturist of piano music, his works recall the nostalgia of lost childhood innocence, first love, and the magnificence of the German countryside. As an influential critic, he played a major role in discovering new talents, among them Chopin and Brahms. He stands at the forefront of German Romantics.
  • Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy. A composer of the Early Romantic period, together with such figures as Schumann, Chopin and Liszt. One of the persons responsible for reviving interest in the almost-forgotten music of Johann Sebastian Bach.
  • Franz Liszt. Liszt was by nationality a Hungarian, but nevertheless he spent much of his most fruitful years in Germany, and his first language was German. His flamboyant style, seen in such pieces as his 'Hungarian Rhapsodies', the first piano concerto, the 'la Campanella' Etude, and the 'Fantasia on Hungarian Themes', makes him the 'Byron' of Romantic music. Credited as the inventor of the tone poem. In his old age, Liszt adopted a more dissonant, ominous flavour, characteristic works being 'la Lugubre Gondola' and 'Die Zelle in Nonnenwerth'--predating Impressionism and 20th century atonalism.
  • Johannes Brahms. His works are cast in the formal moulds of Classicism; he had a profound reverence for Beethoven. Brahms was also attracted to the exoticism of Hungarian folk music, and used it to good effect in such pieces as his famous 'Hungarian Dances', the final movement of his violin concerto, and the 'Rondo alla zingarese' from the piano quartet.
  • Richard Wagner. The greatest composer of German opera; was an exponent of Leitmotif. One of the main figures in the so-called War of the Romantics.
  • Ludwig van Beethoven. Considered by many to be the greatest composer who ever lived. In his earlier works, Beethoven was a Classicist in the traditions of Mozart and Haydn (his tutor), but his Middle Period, beginning with his third symphony (the 'Eroica'), bridges the worlds of Classical and Romantic music. Because Beethoven wrote his greatest music after he became totally deaf, he embodies the Romantic ideal of the tragic artist who defies all odds to conquer his own fate. His later works portray the triumph of the human spirit, most notably his 'Choral' Symphony No. 9; the stirring 'Ode to Joy' from this symphony has been adopted as the anthem of the European Union.

Carl Maria von Weber Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Freiherr von Weber (November 18, 1786 in Eutin, Holstein – June 5, 1826 in London, England) was a German composer, conductor, pianist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. ... Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828) was an Austrian composer. ... Lied (plural Lieder) is a German word, literally meaning song; among English speakers, however, it is used primarily as a term for European classical music songs, also known as art songs. Typically, Lieder are arranged for a single singer and piano. ... For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Felix Mendelssohn wrote his first symphony at the young age of fifteen. ... Places in which Bach resided throughout his life Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and keyboard virtuoso whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and... Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Liszt Ferenc; the surname is pronounced as the English word list, that is ) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian [1] virtuoso pianist and composer of the Romantic period of German descent. ... Lord Byron, Anglo-Scottish poet George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (January 22, 1788–April 19, 1824) was an Anglo-Scottish poet and a leading figure in Romanticism. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one movement in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... The impressionist movement in music is a movement in European classical music that had its beginnings in the late nineteenth century and continued into the middle of the twentieth century. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 – February 13, 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1820 portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler Beethoven redirects here. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... Portrait by Thomas Hardy, 1792 Franz[1] Joseph Haydn (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was one of the most prominent composers of the Classical period, and is called by some the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. A life-long resident of Austria, Haydn spent... The name Eroica (Italian: heroic) could refer to: the Eroica Symphony, by Ludwig van Beethoven the Eroica Variations for piano, by Beethoven the Eroica Piano Trio, an American chamber ensemble Franz Liszts 7th Transcendental Etude Eroica Classical Recordings, a record label Eroica, a film by Andrzej Munk Eroica, an... To Joy (An die Freude in German, in English often familiarly called the Ode to Joy rather than To Joy) is an ode written in 1785 by the German poet and historian Friedrich Schiller, known especially for its musical setting by Ludwig van Beethoven in the fourth and final movement...

Visual Artists

Self-portrait in chalk, 1810 by fellow artist Georg Friedrich Kersting, 1812 Caspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774 – May 7, 1840) was a 19th century German romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement. ... Franz Gerhard von Kügelgen (February 26, 1772, Bacharach am Rhein - March 27, 1820, Dresden) was a German painter, famous for his portraits and history paintings. ... -1... Bridal Procession in a Spring Landscape Adrian Ludwig Richter (1803-09-28-1884-06-19), German painter and etcher, was born at Dresden, the son of the engraver Karl August Richter, from whom he received his training; but he was strongly influenced by Erhard and Chodowiecki. ... Philipp Otto Runge (1777–1810) was a German Romantic painter. ... The Poor Poet, 1839. ... Eberhard Wächter (Stuttgart 29 February 1762 – Stuttgart 14 August 1852) was a German painter. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Romanticism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2470 words)
Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement in the history of ideas that originated in late 18th century Western Europe.
Romanticism, by having a unique reverence for what was old as being separate from the present, had strains which both revelled in form, and which rebelled against strictures not seen as "essential".
In France, Romanticism is associated with the 19th century, particularly in the paintings of Théodore Géricault and Eugène Delacroix, the plays of Victor Hugo and the novels of Stendhal.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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