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Encyclopedia > German New Guinea

German New Guinea (Ger. Deutsch-Neuguinea) was a German protectorate from 1884 to 1914, consisting of the northeastern part of New Guinea and several nearby island groups. German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... A protectorate is, in international law, a political entity (a sovereign state or a less developed native polity, such as a tribal chiefstainship or feudal princely state) that formally agrees (voluntarily or under pressure) by treaty to enter into an unequal relationship with another, stronger state, called the protector, which... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


The main part of German New Guinea was formed by Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, the northeastern part of New Guinea, at present part of Papua New Guinea. The islands in the Bismarck Archipelago situated east of Kaiser-Wilhelmsland and nowadays also belonging to Papua New Guinea, were also part of the protectorate. Kaiser-Wilhelmsland was the north-eastern part of New Guinea. ... The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the coast of New Guinea in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, named in honour of the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck and belonging to Papua New Guinea. ...


In addition most other German lands in the Pacific were part of German New Guinea: the German Solomon Islands (Buka, Bougainville and several smaller islands), the Carolines, Palau, the Marianas (except for Guam), the Marshall Islands and Nauru. The Solomon Islands is a nation in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New Guinea and is part of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Buka Island is the second largest island in the Papua New Guinean province of Bougainville. ... Location of North Solomons (Bougainville) Province in Papua New Guinea This article is about the island; Bougainville is also the name of a commune in the Somme département of France. ... The Caroline Islands should not be confused with Caroline Island, part of Kiribati (Southern Line Islands), also in the central Pacific. ... Mariana Islands (sometimes called The Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called the Ladrone Islands) are a group of islands made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the Pacific Ocean. ...

Contents


History

Although the western half of New Guinea had been administered by the Netherlands for some time, the eastern half had not yet been annexed by any European power until the 1880s. In 1883, the British colony of Queensland (Australia) annexed the southeastern part of New Guinea against the wishes of the British government. This initiated German interest in the remaining quarter of the island. On 3 November 1884, under the flag of the newly founded Neuguinea-Kompagnie (New Guinea Company), the German flag was flown over Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, the Bismarck Archipelago (formerly New Britain) and the German Solomon Islands. // Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Emblems: Faunal - Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus); Floral - Cooktown orchid (Dendrobium bigibbum); Bird - Brolga (Grus rubicunda); Aquatic - Barrier Reef Anemonefish (Amphiprion akindynos); Gem - Sapphire; Colour - Maroon Motto: Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Const. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... After Queenslands annexation of part of eastern New Guinea, German interest in the area grew. ... (This article is about the island of New Britain in Papua New Guinea. ...

5-pfennig overprint of 1897 used in 1899, probably at Stephansort
5-pfennig overprint of 1897 used in 1899, probably at Stephansort

On April 1, 1899, the German government formally took control of these lands, and the area became a protectorate. A treaty with Spain, signed later that year on July 30, ensured German control over several island groups in the Pacific, and these were added to the protectorate of German New Guinea. The Marshall Islands were added in 1906. ImageMetadata File history File links Stamp_German_New_Guinea_1897_5pf. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Stamp_German_New_Guinea_1897_5pf. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Following the outbreak of World War I, Australian troops captured Kaiser-Wilhelmsland and the nearby islands in 1914, after a short resistance led by Captain Carl von Klewitz and Lt. Robert "Lord Bob" von Blumenthal, while Japan occupied most of the remaining German possessions in the Pacific. The only significant battle occurred on September 11, 1914 when the Australian Military and Naval Expeditionary Force attacked the low-power wireless station at Bitapaka (near Rabaul) on the island of New Britain (Neu Pommern). The Australians suffered six dead and four wounded--the first Australian military casualties of the First World War. The German forces fared much worse, with one German officer and 30 native police killed and 1 German officer and ten native police wounded. On September 21, all German forces in the colony surrendered. Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First World War, also known as... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Von Blumenthal is a noble family from Brandenburg, Prussia. ...


However, Leutnant (later Hauptmann) Hermann Detzner, a German officer, and some 20 native police evaded capture in the interior of New Guinea for the entire war. Unbeknownst to Detzner, the war had started while he was still on a surveying expedition to map the border with Australian-held Papua. He claimed to have penetrated the interior of the German portion (Kaiser Wilhelmsland) in his 1920 book Vier Jahre unter Kannibalen ("Four Years Among Cannibals"). These claims were heavily disputed by various German missionaries, and Detzner recanted most of his claims in 1932.


After the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, Germany lost all its colonial possessions, including German New Guinea. It became the Territory of New Guinea, a League of Nations Mandate Territory under Australian administration until 1949 when it was merged with the Australian territory of Papua to eventually become the northern part of modern Papua New Guinea. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, built between 1929 and 1938, was constructed as the Leagues headquarters. ... League of Nations mandates were territories established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, 28 June 1919. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... The Territory of Papua was an Australian possession comprising the southeastern quarter of the island of New Guinea, existing from roughly 1902 to 1949. ...


Postage stamps

20-pfennig "Yacht", postmarked Matupi, 11 March 1902
20-pfennig "Yacht", postmarked Matupi, 11 March 1902

The first postage stamps of the colony were issued in 1897, as overprints reading "Deutsch - / Neu-Guinea" on the current stamps of Germany. In 1901, the Yacht issue included stamps for the colony, inscribed "DEUTSCH-NEU-GUINEA." The 5pf, 10pf, and 5m values were reprinted in 1914 on watermarked paper and inscribed "DEUTSCH-NEUGUINEA," but these did not reach the colony before it was occupied and were never put in use, nor was the reprint of the 3pf value made in 1919. ImageMetadata File history File links Stamp_German_New_Guinea_1901_20pf. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Stamp_German_New_Guinea_1901_20pf. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This 1974 stamp from Japan depicts a Class 8620 steam locomotive. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... An overprint is the addition of text (and sometimes graphics) to the face of a postage stamp after it has been printed. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Theese stamps, which bore the image of the Kaisers yacht, Hohelzollern, were used in all of Germanys colonies (German South West Africa, German New Guinea, Kiatschou, Togo, Samoa, Marshall Islands, Mariana Islands, Caroline Islands) from 1900 until the First World War. ... This Crown & CA (for Crown Agent) watermark was standard for postage stamps of the British colonies from the 1880s to the 1920s. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The stamps are available to collectors today at prices ranging from about $1 US, up to $500 for a validly used 5m stamp. Very few stamps of the higher values were ever used, and their prices are 10-20 times higher than for mint copies. Fake cancellations exist. A machine cancellation On mail, a cancellation (or cancel for short) is a postal marking applied to a postage stamp or postal stationery indicating that the item has been used. ...


After the Australian occupation, stocks of the unwatermarked stamps, along with some registration labels, were overprinted with "G.R.I." and a value in pence or shillings; see New Britain for further details. (This article is about the island of New Britain in Papua New Guinea. ...


See also

Papua is: Another name for New Guinea Papua (Australian territory): A former Australian territory comprising the southeastern quarter of the island of New Guinea, now the southern part of Papua New Guinea Papua (Indonesian province): An Indonesian province comprising the western half of the island of New Guinea Related Words... Map showing Papua province in Indonesia Papua is a province of Indonesia comprising part of the western half of the island of New Guinea and nearby islands (see also Western New Guinea). ... Map showing Papua province in Indonesia Papua is a province of Indonesia comprising part of the western half of the island of New Guinea and nearby islands. ... Map showing West New Guinea region Western New Guinea is the western half of the island of New Guinea. ... The Territory of Papua was an Australian possession comprising the southeastern quarter of the island of New Guinea, existing from roughly 1902 to 1949. ... Dutch New Guinea was a common name of western New Guinea while it was a colonial possession of the Netherlands. ... Unserdeutsch (Our German), or Rabaul Creol German, is a German-based creole language spoken primarily in Papua New Guinea and the northeast of Australia. ... Kaiser-Wilhelmsland was the north-eastern part of New Guinea. ...

External links

  • Archives of the German Colonial Society (in German)
Former German Schutzgebiete (colonies and protectorates)

Colonies Africa German East Africa (Tanganyika, Rwanda, Burundi)
Witu   (sultan under protectorate)
German South-West Africa     (Namibia)
German West Africa (Kamerun, Togoland)

Pacific German New Guinea and   (German Solomon Islands, German Marshall Islands
associated Pacific islands  Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, Nauru, Palau)
German Samoa

Concessions China Kiaochow / Kiautschou
Tsingtao (leased)

Unrecognized New Swabia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Papua New Guinea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2070 words)
The Independent State of Papua New Guinea (informally, Papua New Guinea or PNG) is a country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and numerous offshore islands (the Indonesian provinces of Papua (Indonesian province) and West Irian Jaya (Irian Jaya Barat) occupy the western half of New Guinea).
Papua New Guinea is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state.
New Guinea is part of the humid tropics, and many Indomalayan rainforest plants spread across the narrow straits from Asia, mixing together with the old Australian and Antarctic floras.
NEW GUINEA - LoveToKnow Article on NEW GUINEA (5543 words)
New GUinea was actually annexed in 1793 by two commanders in the East India Companys service, and the island of Manasvari in Geelvink Bay was held for some months by their troops.
By authority, therefore, of Queensland, the mainland of New Guinea, opposite her shores east of the 14151 meridian, was annexed to that colony in 1883.
New Pomerania, New Mecklenburg, with New Hanover and the Admiralty Islands and the Solomon Islands (Bougainville and Buka).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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