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Encyclopedia > German Language
German
Deutsch 
Pronunciation: [dɔɪ̯tʃ]
Spoken in: Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, and in some border areas, Belgium, Italy and Russia as a minority language and Alsace in the form of a dialect. 
Region: Central Europe, Western Europe
Total speakers: Native speakers: ca. 105 million [1][2]
Non-native speakers: ca. 80 million[1] [1] 
Ranking: 10
Language family: Indo-European
 Germanic
  West Germanic
   German 
Writing system: Latin alphabet (German variant
Official status
Official language in: Austria
Belgium
Province of Bolzano-Bozen, Italy
Germany
Liechtenstein
Luxembourg
Switzerland
European Union (official and working language)

Further official standings in: Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The German alphabet consists of the same 26 letters as the modern Roman alphabet: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J... The Province of Bolzano-Bozen[1][2][3] (Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: Provinzia autonoma de Bulsan), also referred to in English as Alto Adige (from the Italian name) or South Tyrol (from the German name Südtirol) is an autonomous province of Italy. ...


Krahule/Blaufuß, Slovakia (Official municipal language)[3]
Namibia (National language; official language 1984-90) [4]
Poland(Auxiliary language in several municipalities) [5]
Vatican City (Administrative and commanding language of the Swiss Guard) [6] Žiar nad Hronom District in the Banská Bystrica Region of Slovakia Krahule is a village and municipality in Žiar nad Hronom District in the Banská Bystrica Region of central Slovakia. ... Papal Swiss Guards in traditional uniforms Swiss Guards are Swiss mercenary soldiers who have served as bodyguards, ceremonial guards, and palace guards at foreign European courts from the late 15th century until the present day (in the form of the Papal Swiss Guard). ...


Recognised minority language in:


Czech Republic [7]
Denmark [8]
Hungary [9]
Romania [10]
Slovakia [1],[3]

Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: de
ISO 639-2: ger (B)  deu (T)
ISO 639-3: variously:
deu – Modern German
gmh – Middle High German
goh – Old High German
gsw – Swiss German
swg – Swabian German
gct – Alemán Coloniero
wae – Walser German
bar – Austro-Bavarian
yid – Saxon-Thuringian Dialect
mhn – Yiddish
nds – Mócheno
sxu – Low German
cim – Upper Saxon
sli – Cimbrian
wep – Lower Silesian language
pfl – Palatinate German
pdt – Plautdietsch
vmf – Main-Franconian
ksh – Kölsch
pdc – Pennsylvania German language
geh – Hutterite German
ltz – Luxembourgish language
rip – Ripuarian (language)
uln – Unserdeutsch 

Major German-speaking communities

The German language (Deutsch, [dɔʏ̯tʃ] ) is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. German is closely related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. Around the world, German is spoken by approximately 100 million native speakers and also about 80 million non-native speakers, and Standard German is widely taught in schools, universities and Goethe Institutes worldwide. ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Middle High German (MHG, German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... Swiss German (Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in Switzerland. ... Swabian (Schwäbisch) is one of the Alemannic dialects of High German, spoken in the region of Swabia. ... Alemán Coloniero, spoken in Colonia Tovar, is a dialect that belongs to the Low Alemannic branch of German. ... Distribution of Highest Alemannic dialects The Walser language, in German Walserdeutsch, is a group of Highest Alemannic dialects spoken in Walser settlements in parts of Switzerland, Italy, Liechtenstein, and Austria. ... Austro-Bavarian or Bavarian is a major group of Upper German varieties. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... Mócheno is an Upper German dialect spoken in three towns of the Fersina Valley (German: Fersental, Italian: Valle del Fersina), in Trentino-South Tyrol, northeastern Italy. ... Low German (also called Niederdeutsch, Plattdeutsch or Plattdüütsch) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers to... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cimbrian refers to any of several local Upper German dialects spoken in northeastern Italy. ... Westphalian is one of the major dialect groups of West Low German. ... Palatinate German (Pfälzisch/Pälzisch) is a West Franconian dialect of German which is spoken in the Rhine Valley between the cities of Zweibrücken, Kaiserslautern, and Mannheim. ... Plautdietsch or Mennonite Low German, is a language (or groups of dialects of Low German) spoken in Canada, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Honduras, Belize, and Argentina by over 300,000 Mennonites, members of a religious group that fled from Holland and Belgium in the 1500s to escape... Main-Franconian is group of German dialects being part of the East Franconian group. ... The term Kölsch refers to: the top-fermented Kölsch beer brewed in and around Cologne, Germany the Kölsch dialect, spoken in Cologne, Germany This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Kölsch is a very closely related small set of dialects, or variants, of the Ripuarian Middle German group of languages. ... Hutterite German (Hutterisch) is an Upper German dialect of the Austro-Bavarian variety of the German language, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States. ... Luxembourgish (Luxembourgish: , French: , German: , Walloon: ), also spelled Luxemburgish, is a West Germanic language spoken in Luxembourg. ... For other uses, see Ripuarian (disambiguation). ... Unserdeutsch (literally, Our German) is a German-based creole language spoken primarily in Papua New Guinea and the northeast of Australia. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File links De-Deutsch. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ... Standard German is the prescriptive norm variant of the German language used as a written language, in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas. ... Goethe in der Campagna The Goethe-Institut (GI) is a German non-profit organisation whose mission is to promote German language and culture outside of the German-speaking countries. ...

Contents

Geographic distribution

Europe

Main article: German-speaking Europe
Further information: German as a minority language

German is spoken primarily in Germany (95%), Austria (89%) and Switzerland (64%) together with Liechtenstein, Luxembourg (D-A-CH-Li-Lux) constituting the countries where German is the majority language. German language skills of European Union citizens. ... German-speaking minorities live in many countries and on all six inhabited continents: the countries of the former Soviet Union, Poland, Romania, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Belgium, Italy, the United States, Latin America, Namibia, Israel, and Australia. ...


Other European German-speaking communities are found in Italy (Alto Adige/Südtirol), in the East Cantons of Belgium, and in some border villages of the former South Jutland County (in German, Nordschleswig, in Danish, Sønderjylland) of Denmark. South Tyrol (German Autonome Provinz Bozen-Südtirol, Italian Provincia autonoma di Bolzano-Alto Adige , Ladin Provinzia autonóma de Bulsan-Südtirol) is an autonomous province of Italy. ... The German-speaking Community of Belgium or Deutschsprachige Gemeinschaft Belgien in German is one of several federal communities in Belgium. ... Sønderjyllands Amt (English: South Jutland County) is a county (Danish, amt) on the Jutland peninsula in southern Denmark. ...


Some German-speaking communities still survive in parts of Romania, the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, and above all Russia and Kazakhstan, although forced expulsions after World War II and massive emigration to Germany in the 1980s and 1990s have depopulated most of these communities. It is also spoken by German-speaking foreign populations and some of their descendants in Portugal, Spain, Italy, Morocco, Egypt, Israel, Cyprus, Turkey, Greece, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Scandinavia, Siberia in Russia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and the former Yugoslavia (Bosnia, Serbia, Macedonia, Croatia and Slovenia). For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


In Luxembourg and the surrounding areas, big parts of the native population speak German dialects, and some people also master standard German (especially in Luxembourg), although in the French regions of Alsace (German: Elsass) and Lorraine (German: Lothringen) French has replaced the local German dialects as the official language, even though it has not been fully replaced on the street. Elsaß redirects here. ... (Région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Meurthe-et-Moselle Meuse Moselle Vosges Arrondissements 19 Cantons 157 Communes 2,337 Statistics Land area1 23,547 km² Population (Ranked 11th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...


Overseas

Main article: German diaspora
Examples of German language in Namibian everyday life.
Examples of German language in Namibian everyday life.

Outside of Europe and the former Soviet Union, the largest German-speaking communities are to be found in the United States, Canada, Brazil and in Argentina where millions of Germans migrated in the last 200 years; but the vast majority of their descendants no longer speak German. Additionally, German-speaking communities can be found in the former German colony of Namibia independent from South Africa since 1990, as well as in the other countries of German emigration such as Canada, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile, Peru, Venezuela (where Alemán Coloniero developed), South Africa and Australia. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (841x557, 179 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): German language Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (841x557, 179 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): German language Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... German colonial empire This is a list of former German Empire colonies and protectorates (German: Schutzgebiete), the German colonial empire. ... Alemán Coloniero, spoken in Colonia Tovar, is a dialect that belongs to the Low Alemannic branch of German. ...


South America

In Brazil the largest concentrations of German speakers are in Rio Grande do Sul (where Riograndenser Hunsrückisch was developed), Santa Catarina, Paraná, and Espírito Santo, and large German-speaking descendant communities in Argentina, Uruguay and Chile. In the 20th century, over 100,000 German political refugees and invited entrepreneurs settled in Latin America, such as Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela and the Dominican Republic to establish German-speaking enclaves, and there is a reportedly small German immigration to Puerto Rico. Flag of Rio Grande do Sul See other Brazilian States Capital Porto Alegre Largest City Porto Alegre Area 282,062 km² Population   - Total   - Density 10. ... Riograndenser Hunsrückisch (hunsriqueano riograndense) is a Brazilian variation of the German dialect Hunsrückisch, which is originally from the Hunsrück region of Germany (Rheinland-Pfalz). ... Capital Florianópolis Largest city Joinville Demonym Catarinense or Barriga-verde Government  -  Governor Luiz Henrique  -  Vice Governor Leonel Pavan Area  -  Total 95. ... Capital (and largest city) Curitiba Demonym Paranaense Government  -  Governor Roberto Requião  -  Vice Governor Orlando Pessuti Area  -  Total 281. ... Motto Trabalha e Confia (Portuguese) Work and Trust [in God] Capital Vitória Largest city Vila Velha Demonym Capixaba or Espiritossantense Government  -  Governor Paulo Hartung  -  Vice Governor Ricardo Ferraço Area  -  Total 46. ... For other uses, see Refugee (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... During the mid-19th century, hundreds of German families fled Europe and immigrated to the New World in search of a better life. ...


North America

The United States has the largest concentration of German speakers outside of Europe; an indication of this presence can be found in the names of such villages and towns as New Leipzig, Munich, Karlsruhe, and Strasburg, North Dakota, and New Braunfels, Texas. Though over the course of the 20th century many of the descendants of 18th and 19th-century immigrants ceased speaking German at home, small populations of elderly (as well as some younger) speakers can be found in Pennsylvania (Amish, Hutterites, Dunkards and some Mennonites historically spoke Pennsylvania Dutch (a West Central German variety) and Hutterite German), Kansas (Mennonites and Volga Germans), North Dakota (Hutterite Germans, Mennonites, Russian Germans, Volga Germans, and Baltic Germans), South Dakota, Montana, Texas (Texas German), Wisconsin, Indiana, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Early twentieth century immigration was often to St. Louis, Chicago, New York, Pittsburgh and Cincinnati. Most of the post-World War II wave are in the New York, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, San Francisco and Chicago urban areas, and in Florida, Arizona and California where large communities of retired German, Swiss and Austrian expatriates live. New Leipzig is a city located in Grant County, North Dakota. ... Munich is a city located in Cavalier County, North Dakota. ... Karlsruhe is a city located in McHenry County, North Dakota. ... Strasburg is a city in Emmons County, North Dakota in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... New Braunfels is a city located in Texas, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... Like the two best-known Anabaptist denominations, the Amish and the Mennonites, the Hutterites had their beginnings in the Radical Reformation of the 16th Century. ... Dunkard may mean: Dunkard Township, Pennsylvania - a township in Greene County, Pennsylvania The term has been used to describe any one of several Christian pietist sects such as: Dunkard Brethren Old German Baptist Brethren Schwarzenau Brethren Category: ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... Pennsylvania German, or more commonly Pennsylvania Dutch, (Deitsch, Pennsylvania Deutsch, Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch, Pennsilfaani-Deitsch, Pennsilweni-Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch), is a West Central German variety spoken by 150,000 to 250,000 people in North America. ... West Central German (Westmitteldeutsch) is a High German dialect family in the German language. ... Hutterite German (Hutterisch) is an Upper German dialect of the Austro-Bavarian variety of the German language, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Volga German pioneer family commemorative statue in Victoria, Kansas, USA. The Volga Germans (German: or Russlanddeutsche) were ethnic Germans living near the Volga River in the region of southern European Russia around Saratov and to the south, maintaining German culture, language, traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutheranism, Reformed and Roman Catholicism... The German minority in Russia and the Soviet Union was created from several sources and in several waves. ... The Baltic Germans (German: , or Baltendeutsche) were mostly ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today form the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Texas German is a dialect of the German language that is spoken by descendants of German immigrants who founded the town of Fredericksburg, Texas in 1846. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... Cincinnati, Ohio viewed from the SW, across the Ohio River from Kentucky. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


In Canada there are people of German ancestry throughout the country and especially in the western cities such as Kelowna. German is also spoken in Ontario and southern Nova Scotia. There is a large and vibrant community in the city of Kitchener, Ontario. German immigrants were instrumental in the country's three largest urban areas: Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver, but post-WWII immigrants managed to preserve a fluency in the German language in their respective neighborhoods and sections. In the first half of the 20th century, over a million German-Canadians made the language one of Canada's most spoken after French. Locator map for Kelowna, BC Kelowna (2001 population 96,288, metropolitan population 147,739) is a city on Okanagan Lake in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... , The City of Kitchener (IPA ) is a city in southwestern Ontario, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... German-Canadians are those Canadians of German decent. ...


In Mexico there are also large populations of German ancestry, mainly in the cities of: Mexico City, Puebla, Mazatlán, Tapachula, and larger populations scattered in the states of Chihuahua, Durango, and Zacatecas. German ancestry is also said to be found in neighboring towns around Guadalajara, Jalisco and much of Northern Mexico, where German influence was immersed into the Mexican culture. Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... The Mexican state of Puebla is located in the center of the country, to the east of Mexico City. ... Coordinates: , Country State Municipality Mazatlán Government  - Mayor Alejandro Higuera Osuna Area  - Municipality 3,068. ... Tapachula is a city in the Mexican state of Chiapas. ... THEY SUC |native_name = |nickname = Lady of the Desert |settlement_type = |motto = |image_skyline = |imagesize = |image_caption = |image_flag = Mexico stateflags Chihuahua. ... Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Zacatecas is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ... Coordinates: , Country State Foundation 1542 Government  - Mayor Alfonso Petersen Farah ( PAN) Area  - City 187. ...


Plautdietsch/Plattdeitsch is a large minority language spoken in the north by the Mennonite communities, and is spoken by more than 200,000 people in Mexico, while standard German is spoken by the affluent German communities in Puebla, Mexico City, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi and Quintana Roo. Plautdietsch or Mennonite Low German, is a language (or groups of dialects of Low German) spoken in Canada, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Honduras, Belize, and Argentina by over 300,000 Mennonites, members of a religious group that fled from Holland and Belgium in the 1500s to escape... A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Other Mexican States Capital Monterrey Other major cities Area 64,924 km² Ranked 13th Population (2000 census) 3,826,240 Ranked 9th Governor (2003-09) José Natividad González Parás (PRI/PVEM) Federal Deputies (11) PRI/PVEM = 10 PAN = 1 Federal Senators PAN = 2 PRI = 1 ISO 3166-2 Postal abbr. ... San Luis Potosí is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Quintana Roo is a state of Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. ...


Creoles

There is an important German creole being studied and recovered, named Unserdeutsch, spoken in the former German colony of New Guinea and in North Australia, by few elderly people. The risk of its extinction is serious and efforts to revive interest in the language are being implemented by scholars. Unserdeutsch (literally, Our German) is a German-based creole language spoken primarily in Papua New Guinea and the northeast of Australia. ...


Internet

According to Global Reach (2004), 6.9% of the Internet population is German.[11][12] According to Netz-tipp (2002), 7.7% of webpages are written in German,[13] making it second only to English. They also report that 12% of Google's users use its German interface.[13] Global Reach is a business initiative to increase the access between a company and their current and potential customers through the use of the Internet. ...


Older statistics: Babel (1998) found somewhat similar demographics.[14] FUNREDES[15] (1998) and Vilaweb[16] (2000) both found that German is the third most popular language used by websites, after English and Japanese.


History

Main article: History of German
The German-speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 962.
The German-speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 962.

The history of the language begins with the High German consonant shift during the migration period, separating High German dialects from common West Germanic. The earliest testimonies of Old High German are from scattered Elder Futhark inscriptions, especially in Alemannic, from the 6th century, the earliest glosses (Abrogans) date to the 8th and the oldest coherent texts (the Hildebrandslied, the Muspilli and the Merseburg Incantations) to the 9th century. Old Saxon at this time belongs to the North Sea Germanic cultural sphere, and Low Saxon should fall under German rather than Anglo-Frisian influence during the Holy Roman Empire. The history of German as separate from common West Germanic begins in the Early Middle Ages with the High German consonant shift. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1114x1585, 1997 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): German language History of German ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1114x1585, 1997 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): German language History of German ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... High German subdivides into Upper German (green) and Central German (blue), and is distinguished from Low German (yellow). ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Subdivisions Central German Upper German High German (in German, Hochdeutsch) is any of several German dialects spoken in Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg (as well as in neighbouring portions of Belgium, France (Alsace), Italy, Poland, and Romania (Transylvania) and in some areas of former colonial settlement, for example in... West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The term Alemannic can have several meanings. ... First page of Codex Abrogans The Abrogans, or Codex Abrogans, is probably the oldest book in the German language. ... The Lay of Hildebrand (Das Hildebrandslied), is a unique example of Old German alliterative poetry, written about the year 800 on the first and last pages of a theological manuscript by two monks of the monastery of Fulda. ... The Muspilli is one of the sole two substantial surviving fragments of Old High German epic poetry (the other being the Hildebrandslied), dating to ca. ... The Merseburg Incantations The Merseburg Incantations (German: die Merseburger Zaubersprüche) are two medieval magic spells, charms or incantations, written in Old High German. ... Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, is a Germanic language. ... Also referred to as Ingaevones, North Sea Germans (Ingwäonen, Nordsee-Germanen in German). ... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... The Anglo-Frisian languages (also known as Ingvaeonic languages or North Sea Germanic languages) are a group of West Germanic languages consisting of Old English, Old Frisian, and their descendants. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


As Germany was divided into many different states, the only force working for a unification or standardization of German during a period of several hundred years was the general preference of writers trying to write in a way that could be understood in the largest possible area. For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ...


When Martin Luther translated the Bible (the New Testament in 1522 and the Old Testament, published in parts and completed in 1534) he based his translation mainly on the bureaucratic standard language used in Saxony (sächsische Kanzleisprache) also known as Meißner-Deutsch (Meißner-German), which was the most widely understood language at this time, because the region it was spoken in was quite influential amongst the German states.[citation needed] This language was based on Eastern Upper and Eastern Central German dialects and preserved much of the grammatical system of Middle High German (unlike the spoken German dialects in Central and Upper Germany that already at that time began to lose the genitive case and the preterite tense). In the beginning, copies of the Bible had a long list for each region, which translated words unknown in the region into the regional dialect. Roman Catholics rejected Luther's translation in the beginning and tried to create their own Catholic standard (gemeines Deutsch) — which, however, only differed from 'Protestant German' in some minor details. It took until the middle of the 18th century to create a standard that was widely accepted, thus ending the period of Early New High German. In 1901 the 2nd Orthographical Conference ended with a complete standardization of German language in written form while the Deutsche Bühnensprache (literally: German stage-language) had already established spelling-rules for German three years earlier which were later to become obligatory for general German pronunciation. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Early New High German, or Early Modern German, is the direct ancestor of the modern German language, and was used from 1350 to 1750. ...

Animation of the changing geography of the German Sprachraum in Europe.

German used to be the language of commerce and government in the Habsburg Empire, which encompassed a large area of Central and Eastern Europe. Until the mid-19th century it was essentially the language of townspeople throughout most of the Empire. It indicated that the speaker was a merchant, an urbanite, not their nationality. Some cities, such as Prague (German: Prag) and Budapest (Buda, German: Ofen), were gradually Germanized in the years after their incorporation into the Habsburg domain. Others, such as Bratislava(German: Pressburg), were originally settled during the Habsburg period and were primarily German at that time. A few cities such as Milan (German: Mailand) remained primarily non-German. However, most cities were primarily German during this time, such as Prague, Budapest, Bratislava (German: Pressburg), Zagreb (German: Agram), and Ljubljana (German: Laibach), though they were surrounded by territory that spoke other languages. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1248x1472, 2115 KB) The map shows the emergence of the German linguistic area in the course of the so-called German settlement of the east in the period of time from the 7th until the 19th centuries. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1248x1472, 2115 KB) The map shows the emergence of the German linguistic area in the course of the so-called German settlement of the east in the period of time from the 7th until the 19th centuries. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... A merchant making up the account by Shiatsus Hokusai Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... Germanization (also spelled Germanisation) is either the spread of the German language and culture either by force or assimilation, or the adaptation of a foreign word to the German language in linguistics, much like the Romanization of many languages which do not use the Latin alphabet. ... , Nickname: Beauty on the Danube, City of peace Country  Slovakia Region Districts 5  - Bratislava I  - Bratislava II  - Bratislava III  - Bratislava IV  - Bratislava V Rivers Elevation 134 m (440 ft) Coordinates , Highest point Devínska Kobyla  - elevation 514 m (1,686 ft) Lowest point Danube River  - elevation 126 m (413 ft... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ...


Until about 1800, standard German was almost only a written language. At this time, people in urban northern Germany, who spoke dialects very different from Standard German, learned it almost like a foreign language and tried to pronounce it as close to the spelling as possible. Prescriptive pronunciation guides used to consider northern German pronunciation to be the standard. However, the actual pronunciation of standard German varies from region to region. Northern Germany is the the geographic area of the five German states Bremen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen and Schleswig-Holstein in the German Lowlands known as the Northern German Plain with Low German as the historic language (see: Benrath line). ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Media and written works are almost all produced in standard German (often called Hochdeutsch in German) which is understood in all areas where German is spoken, except by pre-school children in areas which speak only dialect, for example Switzerland and Austria. However, in this age of television, even they now usually learn to understand Standard German before school age. Child picking up book. ...


The first dictionary of the Brothers Grimm, the 16 parts of which were issued between 1852 and 1860, remains the most comprehensive guide to the words of the German language. In 1860, grammatical and orthographic rules first appeared in the Duden Handbook. In 1901, this was declared the standard definition of the German language. Official revisions of some of these rules were not issued until 1998, when the German spelling reform of 1996 was officially promulgated by governmental representatives of all German-speaking countries. Since the reform, German spelling has been in an eight-year transitional period where the reformed spelling is taught in most schools, while traditional and reformed spellings co-exist in the media. See German spelling reform of 1996 for an overview of the public debate concerning the reform with some major newspapers and magazines and several known writers refusing to adopt it. For other uses, see Brothers Grimm (disambiguation). ... Duden is a German dictionary, first published by Konrad Duden in 1880, currently in its 23rd edition. ... The German spelling reform of 1996 (Rechtschreibreform) is based on an international agreement signed in Vienna in July 1996 by the governments of the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein and Switzerland, a quadrilingual country. ... The German spelling reform of 1996 (Rechtschreibreform) is based on an international agreement signed in Vienna in July 1996 by the governments of the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein and Switzerland, a quadrilingual country. ...

The spread of the German language until around 1945 in Central Europe. Orange marks Lower German, blue Middle German and green Upper German dialects.
The spread of the German language until around 1945 in Central Europe. Orange marks Lower German, blue Middle German and green Upper German dialects.

The German spelling reform of 1996 led to public controversy indeed to considerable dispute. Some state parliaments (Bundesländer) would not accept it (North Rhine Westphalia and Bavaria). The dispute landed at one point in the highest court which made a short issue of it, claiming that the states had to decide for themselves and that only in schools could the reform be made the official rule - everybody else could continue writing as they had learned it. After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major yet incomplete revision was installed in 2006, just in time for the new school year of 2006. In 2007, some venerable spellings will be finally invalidated even though they caused little or no trouble. The only sure and easily recognizable symptom of a text's being in compliance with the reform is the -ss at the end of words, like in dass and muss. Classic spelling forbade this ending, instead using daß and muß. The cause of the controversy evolved around the question whether a language is part of the culture which must be preserved or a means of communicating information which has to allow for growth. (The reformers seemed to be unimpressed by the fact that a considerable part of that culture - namely the entire German literature of the 20th century - is in the old spelling.) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1031x651, 81 KB) new version File links The following pages link to this file: German language ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1031x651, 81 KB) new version File links The following pages link to this file: German language ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000...


The increasing use of English in Germany's higher education system, as well as in business and in popular culture, has led various German academics to state, not necessarily from an entirely negative perspective, that German is a language in decline in its native country. For example, Ursula Kimpel, of the University of Tübingen, said in 2005 that “German universities are offering more courses in English because of the large number of students coming from abroad. German is unfortunately a language in decline. We need and want our professors to be able to teach effectively in English.”[17] Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (German: Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen) is a state-supported university located on the Neckar river, in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ...


Standard German

Main article: Standard German

Standard German originated not as a traditional dialect of a specific region, but as a written language. However, there are places where the traditional regional dialects have been replaced by standard German; this is the case in vast stretches of Northern Germany, but also in major cities in other parts of the country. Standard German is the prescriptive norm variant of the German language used as a written language, in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...


Standard German differs regionally, especially between German-speaking countries, especially in vocabulary, but also in some instances of pronunciation and even grammar and orthography. This variation must not be confused with the variation of local dialects. Even though the regional varieties of standard German are only to a certain degree influenced by the local dialects, they are very distinct. German is thus considered a pluricentric language. A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ...


In most regions, the speakers use a continuum of mixtures from more dialectal varieties to more standard varieties according to situation.


In the German-speaking parts of Switzerland, mixtures of dialect and standard are very seldom used, and the use of standard German is largely restricted to the written language. Therefore, this situation has been called a medial diglossia. Standard Swiss German is used in the Swiss education system. Look up Diglossia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Official status

D-A-CH-flag, an unofficial flag comprising flags of the three dominant states in the German Sprachraum.
D-A-CH-flag, an unofficial flag comprising flags of the three dominant states in the German Sprachraum.

Standard German is the only official language in Liechtenstein and Austria; it shares official status in Germany (with Danish, Frisian and Sorbian as minority languages), Switzerland (with French, Italian and Romansch), Belgium (with Dutch and French) and Luxembourg (with French and Luxembourgish). It is used as a local official language in Italy (Province of Bolzano-Bozen), as well as in the cities of Sopron (Hungary), Krahule (Slovakia) and several cities in Romania. It is the official language (with Italian) of the Vatican Swiss Guard. Image File history File links D-A-CH_Flag. ... Image File history File links D-A-CH_Flag. ... German language skills of European Union citizens. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... This article is about the Frisian languages, as spoken in the north of the Netherlands and Germany. ... The Sorbian languages are classified under the West Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is any of the various Rhaetian languages spoken in Switzerland. ... The Province of Bolzano-Bozen[1][2][3] (Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: Provinzia autonoma de Bulsan), also referred to in English as Alto Adige (from the Italian name) or South Tyrol (from the German name Südtirol) is an autonomous province of Italy. ... For the historical county in the Kingdom of Hungary named Sopron / Ödenburg, Sopron (county). ... Papal Swiss Guards in traditional uniforms Swiss Guards are Swiss mercenary soldiers who have served as bodyguards, ceremonial guards, and palace guards at foreign European courts from the late 15th century until the present day (in the form of the Papal Swiss Guard). ...


German has an officially recognized status as regional or auxiliary language in Denmark (South Jutland region), France (Alsace and Moselle regions), Italy (Gressoney valley), Namibia, Poland (Opole region), and Russia (Asowo and Halbstadt). Map over South Jutland (1918) South Jutland (Danish: Sønderjylland) is the name for the region south of the Kongeå in Jutland. ... Moselle is a département in the northeast of France named after the Moselle River. ... According to Act of 6 January 2005 on National and Ethnic Minorities and on the Regional Languages there are 16 bilingual communes in Poland: Official/auxiliary German language in commutes in Silesia German in part of Silesia - Opole Voivodeship: Gmina Biała (Gemeinde Zülz; since 06. ...


German is one of the 23 official languages of the European Union. It is the language with the largest number of native speakers in the European Union, and, shortly after English and long before French, the second-most spoken language in Europe. Chameleon, a symbol of the multilingualism of the European Union. ...


German as a foreign language

Main article: German as a foreign language
Knowledge of German in the European Union, Switzerland, Croatia and Turkey
Knowledge of German in the European Union, Switzerland, Croatia and Turkey

German is the third most taught foreign language worldwide.[citation needed] [18] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1218x1245, 84 KB) Knowledge of German in the European Union, according to: Special Eurobarometer 243 of the European Commission with the title Europeans and their Languages Made by myself File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1218x1245, 84 KB) Knowledge of German in the European Union, according to: Special Eurobarometer 243 of the European Commission with the title Europeans and their Languages Made by myself File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... A foreign language is a language not spoken by the indigenous people of a certain place: for example, English is a foreign language in Japan. ...


German is the main language of about 90–95 million people in Europe (as of 2004), or 13.3% of all Europeans, being the second most spoken native language in Europe after Russian, above French (66.5 million speakers in 2004) and English (64.2 million speakers in 2004). It is therefore the most spoken first language in the EU. It is the second most known foreign language in the EU.[19] It is one of the official languages of the European Union, and one of the three working languages of the European Commission, along with English and French. 32% of citizens of the EU-15 countries say they can converse in German (either as a mother tongue or as a second or foreign language).[20] This is assisted by the widespread availability of German TV by cable or satellite. A working language (also procedural language) is a language that is given a unique legal status in a supra-national company, society, state or other body or organization as its primal mean of communication. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ...


German was once a lingua franca in Central, Eastern and Northern Europe. Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ...


Dialects

Main article: German dialects
By the High German consonant shift, the map of German dialects is divided into Upper German (green), Central German (blue), and the Low German (yellow). The main isoglosses and the Benrath and Speyer lines are marked black.
By the High German consonant shift, the map of German dialects is divided into Upper German (green), Central German (blue), and the Low German (yellow). The main isoglosses and the Benrath and Speyer lines are marked black.

German is a member of the western branch of the Germanic family of languages, which in turn is part of the Indo-European language family. The German dialect continuum is traditionally divided most broadly into High German and Low German. By the High German consonant shift, the former Dutch-German dialect continuum. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (629x651, 28 KB) Summary Rex Germanus Tesi samanunga is edele unde scona 18:12, 14 May 2006 (UTC) Legend By the High German consonant shift, the map of German dialects is divided into Upper German (green) and Central German (blue), and... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (629x651, 28 KB) Summary Rex Germanus Tesi samanunga is edele unde scona 18:12, 14 May 2006 (UTC) Legend By the High German consonant shift, the map of German dialects is divided into Upper German (green) and Central German (blue), and... High German subdivides into Upper German (green) and Central German (blue), and is distinguished from Low German (yellow). ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... Some basics of Germanic linguistics : in linguistics, German and Germanic do not have the same meaning: see Germanic. ... Central German (in German: Mitteldeutsch) is a group of German dialects spread from the Rhineland to Thuringia, south of Low German and north of Upper German. ... Low German (also called Niederdeutsch, Plattdeutsch or Plattdüütsch) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers to... In German linguistics, the Benrath line (German: Benrather Linie), jokingly also called the Weißwurstäquator, is an isogloss, or bundle of isoglosses, marking the border between the Northern Low German dialects and the High and Central German dialects in the south. ... In German linguistics, the Speyer line is an isogloss separating the dialects to the north, which have a geminated stop in words like Appel apple, from the dialects to the south (including standard German), which have an affricate: Apfel. ... West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Distribution of the native speakers of major continental West-Germanic dialectal varieties
Distribution of the native speakers of major continental West-Germanic dialectal varieties

The variation among the German dialects is considerable, with only the neighbouring dialects being mutually intelligible. Some dialects are not intelligible to people who only know standard German. However, all German dialects belong to the dialect continuum of High German and Low Saxon languages. Until roughly the end of the Second World War, there was a dialect continuum of all the continental West Germanic languages because nearly any pair of neighbouring dialects were perfectly mutually intelligible[citation needed]. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1028x1196, 130 KB) The dialectal ranges (not those of standard languages!) of the Continental West Germanic languages (Dutch/Frisian/German) Rex 12:31, 23 September 2006 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1028x1196, 130 KB) The dialectal ranges (not those of standard languages!) of the Continental West Germanic languages (Dutch/Frisian/German) Rex 12:31, 23 September 2006 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


Low German

Main article: Low German

Low Saxon varieties (spoken on German territory) are considered linguistically a language separate from the German language by some, but just a dialect by others. Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift. However, the part of the population capable to speak and resp. or to understand decreases since WWII continuously. Currently the effort to maintain a residual presence in cultural life is negligible. Low German (also called Niederdeutsch, Plattdeutsch or Plattdüütsch) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers to... Low Franconian is any of several West Germanic languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium, and South Africa. ...


Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League. It was the predominant language in Northern Germany. This changed in the 16th century. In 1534, the Luther Bible, by Martin Luther was printed. This translation is considered to be an important step towards the evolution of the Early New High German. It aimed to be understandable to an ample audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties. The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low Saxon and became the language of science and literature. Other factors were that around the same time, the Hanseatic league lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and that the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany. The Middle Low German language is an ancestor of the modern Low German language, and was spoken from about 1100 to 1500. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Luthers 1534 bible The Luther Bible is a German Bible translation by Martin Luther, first printed with both testaments in 1534. ... Some basics of Germanic linguistics : in linguistics, German and Germanic do not have the same meaning: see Germanic. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education, the language of the schools being standard German. Slowly Low Saxon was pushed back and back until it was nothing but a language spoken by the uneducated and at home. Today, Low Saxon could be divided in two groups: Low Saxon varieties with a (reasonable/large/huge) standard German influx, and varieties of standard German with a Low Saxon influence (Missingsch). Missingsch is a Low German-colored regiolect of German, retaining Low German sentence construction and calques of Low German idioms into Hochdeutsch. ...


High German

Main article: High German languages

High German is divided into Central German and Upper German. Central German dialects include Ripuarian, Moselle Franconian, Hessian, Thuringian, South Franconian, Lorraine Franconian and Upper Saxon. It is spoken in the southeastern Netherlands, eastern Belgium, Luxembourg, parts of France, and in Germany approximately between the River Main and the southern edge of the Lowlands. Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German, but it should be noted that the common (but not linguistically correct) German term for modern Standard German is Hochdeutsch, that is, High German. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Central German (in German: Mitteldeutsch) is a group of German dialects spread from the Rhineland to Thuringia, south of Low German and north of Upper German. ... Subdivisions Alemannic language Austro-Bavarian language Upper German is a family of High German languages spoken primarily in southern Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Northern Italy. ... Ripuarian, Rhinish, or Middle Franconian is a western Germanic dialect group in Rhineland, eastern Belgium and southern Dutch Limburg from northwest of Düsseldorf and Cologne to Aachen in the west, and Siegen in the east. ... Moselle Franconian is a dialect of the High German language, which is spoken in the German states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate as well as Romania and the département de Moselle of France. ... Hessian (German: Hessisch) is a dialect of German. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German Freistaat Thüringen) lies in central Germany and is among the smaller of the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 sq. ... South Franconian (Südfränkisch) is a dialect which is spoken in Baden in Germany around Karlsruhe, Pforzheim and Rastatt. ... Lorraine Franconian is a Germanic dialect spoken in parts of the French region of Lorraine. ... Upper Saxon (German: Obersächsisch or colloquially, Sächsisch) is a dialect of German spoken in much of the modern German Free States of Saxony and Thuringia. ... For other uses, see Main (disambiguation). ...


The Moselle Franconian varieties spoken in Luxembourg have been officially standardised and institutionalised and are therefore usually considered a separate language known as Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish (Luxembourgish: , French: , German: , Walloon: ), also spelled Luxemburgish, is a West Germanic language spoken in Luxembourg. ...


Upper German dialects include Alemannic (for instance Swiss German), Swabian, East Franconian, Alsatian and Austro-Bavarian. They are spoken in parts of the Alsace, southern Germany, Liechtenstein, Austria, and in the German-speaking parts of Switzerland and Italy. Alemannic German (Alemannisch) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. ... Swiss German (Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in Switzerland. ... Swabian (Schwäbisch) is one of the Alemannic dialects of High German, spoken in the region of Swabia. ... East Franconian (Ostfränkisch) is a dialect which is spoken in Bavaria and other areas in Germany around Bamberg, Würzburg and Bayreuth. ... Alsatian can refer to: A person from Alsace, France The Alsatian language A German Shepherd Dog This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Subdivisions Northern Austro-Bavarian Central Austro-Bavarian Southern Austro-Bavarian Austro-Bavarian or Bavarian is an Upper Germanic language. ...


Wymysorys, Sathmarisch and Siebenbürgisch are High German dialects of Poland and Romania respectively. The High German varieties spoken by Ashkenazi Jews (mostly in the former Soviet Union) have several unique features, and are usually considered as a separate language, Yiddish. It is the only Germanic language that does not use the Latin alphabet as its standard script. Wymysorys or Wilamowicean (WymysiöeryÅ›) is a Central German language spoken in the small town of Wilamowice (Wymysoj in Wymysorys), on the border between Silesia and Lesser Poland. ... Sathmarisch is a dialect of High German. ... Siebenbürgisch is a dialect of High German. ... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, Standard Hebrew Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzîm), are Jews who are descendants of Jews from Germany, Poland, Austria and Eastern Europe. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


High German in the Americas

The dialects of German which are or were primarily spoken in colonies or communities founded by German speaking people resemble the dialects of the regions the founders came from. For example, Pennsylvania German resembles dialects of the Palatinate, and Hutterite German resembles dialects of Carinthia, while Venezuelan Alemán Coloniero is a Low Alemannic variant. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Palatinate (German: Pfalz), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (German: Rheinpfalz), is a region in south-western Germany. ... Carinthia (German: Kärnten, Slovenian: KoroÅ¡ka) is the southernmost Austrian state or Land; it is chiefly famous for its mountains and lakes. ... The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela)1 is a country in northern South America. ... Low Alemannic is a branch of Alemannic dialects and belongs to the German language, even though they are only partly intelligible to German speakers. ...


In Brazil the largest concentrations of German speakers (German Brazilians) are in Rio Grande do Sul, where Riograndenser Hunsrückisch was developed, especially in the areas of Santa Catarina, Paraná, and Espírito Santo. ... Riograndenser Hunsrückisch (hunsriqueano riograndense) is a Brazilian variation of the German dialect Hunsrückisch, which is originally from the Hunsrück region of Germany (Rheinland-Pfalz). ...


In the United States, the teaching of the German language to older students has given rise to a pidgin variant[citation needed] which combines the German language with the grammar and spelling rules of the English language. It is often understandable by either party. The speakers of this language often refer to it as Amerikanisch or Amerikanischdeutsch, although it is known in English as American German. However, this is a pidgin, not a dialect. This article is about simplified languages. ...


In the USA, in the Amana Colonies in the state of Iowa Amana German is spoken. The Powder House at the Amana Colonies The Amana Colonies are a group of settlements of German Pietists in Iowa comprising seven villages. ... Amana German is a dialect of West Central German. ...


Hutterite German is an Upper German dialect of the Austro-Bavarian variety of the German language, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States. Hutterite German (Hutterisch) is an Upper German dialect of the Austro-Bavarian variety of the German language, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States. ... Austro-Bavarian or Bavarian is a major group of Upper German varieties. ...


Hutterite is spoken in the US states of Washington, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota, and Minnesota; and in the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Its speakers belong to some Schmiedleit, Lehrerleit, and Dariusleit Hutterite groups, but there are also speakers among the older generations of Prairieleit (the descendants of those Hutterites who chose not to settle in colonies). Hutterite children who grow up in the colonies learn and speak first Hutterite German before learning English in the public school, the standard language of the surrounding areas. Many colonies though continue with German Grammar School, separate from the public school, throughout a student's elementary education. For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Saskatchewan (disambiguation). ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797...


German dialects versus varieties of standard German

In German linguistics, German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German. For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ... Standard German is the prescriptive norm variant of the German language used as a written language, in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas. ...

  • The German dialects are the traditional local varieties. They are traditionally traced back to the different German tribes. Many of them are hardly understandable to someone who knows only standard German, since they often differ from standard German in lexicon, phonology and syntax. If a narrow definition of language based on mutual intelligibility is used, many German dialects are considered to be separate languages (for instance in the Ethnologue). However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics.
  • The varieties of standard German refer to the different local varieties of the pluricentric standard German. They only differ slightly in lexicon and phonology. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany.

Look up lexicon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a property exhibited by a set of languages when speakers of any one of them can readily understand all the others without intentional study or extraordinary effort. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... A pluricentric language is a language with several standard versions. ...

Grammar

Main article: German grammar
German grammar
Nouns
Verbs
Articles
Adjectives
Pronouns
Adverbial phrases
Conjugation
Sentence structure
Declension
Modal Particle

German is an inflected language. This page outlines the grammar of the German language. ... This page outlines the grammar of the German language. ... A German noun has one of three specific grammatical genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) and belongs to one of three declensions. ... German verbs may be classified as either weak, with a dental consonant inflection, or strong, showing a vowel gradation (ablaut). ... German articles have a feature called strength, which influences the declension of the adjectives. ... To correctly agree German adjectives, the case, number and gender of the nominal phrase must be considered along with the article of the noun. ... German Pronouns of the first person refer to the speaker; those of the second person refer to an addressed person. ... There are several different kinds of adverbial phrases in German. ... This is a paradigm of German verbs, that is, a set of conjugation tables, for the model regular verbs and for some of the most common irregular verbs. ... German sentence structure is somewhat more complex than in other languages, with phrases regularly inverted for both questions and subordinate phrases. ... German declension is the declensional system of the German language. ... German modal particles (Modalpartikel) are modal particles in German. ... A fusional language (also called inflecting language) is a type of synthetic language, distinguished from agglutinative languages by its tendency to squish together many morphemes in a way which can be difficult to segment. ...


Noun inflection

German nouns inflect into: A German noun has one of three specific grammatical genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) and belongs to one of three declensions. ...

  • one of four cases: nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative.
  • one of three genders: masculine, feminine, or neuter. Word endings sometimes reveal grammatical gender; for instance, nouns ending in ...ung(-ing), ...schaft(-ship), ...keit or ...heit(-hood) are feminine, while nouns ending in ...chen or ...lein (diminutive forms) are neuter and nouns ending in ...ismus (-ism) are masculine. Others are controversial, sometimes depending on the region in which it is spoken. Additionally, ambiguous endings exist, such as ...er (-er), e.g. Feier (feminine), engl. celebration, party, and Arbeiter (masculine), engl. labourer. Sentences can usually be reorganized to avoid a misunderstanding.
  • two numbers: singular and plural

Although German is usually cited as an outstanding example of a highly inflected language (with about 100 million native speakers German is by far the most spoken strongly inflecting Germanic language in the world), the degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old German, or in other old Indo-European languages such as Latin, Ancient Greek, or Sanskrit. The three genders have collapsed in the plural, which now behaves, grammatically, somewhat as a fourth gender. With four cases and three genders plus plural there are 16 distinct possible combinations of case and gender/number, but presently there are only six forms of the definite article used for the 16 possibilities. Inflection for case on the noun itself is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns in the genitive and sometimes in the dative. Both of these cases are losing way to substitutes in informal speech. The dative ending is considered somewhat old-fashioned in many contexts and often dropped, but it is still used in sayings and in formal speech or in written language. Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative and accusative in the singular. Feminines are not declined in the singular. The plural does have an inflection for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings (not counting plural markers) exist in German: -s, -es, -n, -ns, -en, -ens, -e. In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, “gerund” is a term used to refer to various non-finite verb forms in various languages: As applied to English, it refers to what might be called a verbs action noun, which is one of the uses of the -ing form. ... The English suffix -ship referrs to a quality, status, skill or group. ... -hood is an English suffix that means a state or condition of or a group sharing a certain characteristic. ... A diminutive is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment. ... The English suffix -ism was first used to form a noun of action from a verb. ... The three degrees of comparison refers to the absolute, comparative, and superlative. ... Old German could refer to: Old High German Old Low German (also Old Saxon) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The redirects here. ... In the philosophy of language, a natural language (or ordinary language) is a language that is spoken, written, or signed by humans for general-purpose communication, as distinguished from formal languages (such as computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic) and...


In the German orthography, nouns and most words with the syntactical function of nouns are capitalised, which is supposed to make it easier for readers to find out what function a word has within the sentence (Am Freitag bin ich einkaufen gegangen. — "On Friday I went shopping."; Eines Tages war er endlich da. — "One day he finally showed up".) This spelling convention is almost unique to German today (shared perhaps only by the closely related Luxemburgish language), although it was historically common in other languages (e.g., Danish and English), too. Luxembourgish or Luxembourgian (in French, Luxembourgeois; in German, Luxemburgisch; in Luxembourgish Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language spoken in Luxembourg. ...


Like most Germanic languages, German forms left-branching noun compounds, where the first noun modifies the category given by the second, for example: Hundehütte (eng. dog hut; specifically: doghouse). Unlike English, where newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written in open form with separating spaces, German (like the other German languages) nearly always uses the closed form without spaces, for example: Baumhaus (eng. tree house). Like English, German allows arbitrarily long compounds, but these are rare. (See also English compounds.) In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (a word) that consists of more than one other lexeme. ... A compound is a word composed of more than one free morphemes. ...


The longest German word verified to be actually in (albeit very limited) use is Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz. [which, literally translated, breaks up into: Rind (cattle) - Fleisch (meat) - Etikettierung(s) (labelling) - Überwachung(s) (supervision) - Aufgaben (duties) - Übertragung(s) (assignment) - Gesetz (law), so "Beef labelling supervision duty assignment law".] The Rinderkennzeichnungs- und Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz (RkReÃœAÃœG) (Law on delegation of supervision duties for marking of cattle and labeling of beef) was a law of the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern of 2000, dealing with the supervision of the labeling of beef. ...


Verb inflection

Standard German verbs inflect into:

  • one of two conjugation classes, weak and strong (like English).

(There is actually a third class, known as mixed verbs, which exhibit inflections combining features of both the strong and weak patterns.) In Germanic languages, weak verbs are those verbs that have a regular inflection, in which the stem of a word is not changed by ablaut. ... A strong inflection is an irregular inflection, in which the stem of a word changes. ...

  • three persons: 1st, 2nd, 3rd.
  • two numbers: singular and plural
  • three moods: Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative
  • two genera verbi: active and passive; the passive being composed and dividable into static and dynamic.
  • two non-composed tenses (present, preterite) and four composed tenses (perfect, pluperfect, future and future perfect)
  • distinction between grammatical aspects is rendered by combined use of subjunctive and/or preterite marking; thus: neither of both is plain indicative voice, sole subjunctive conveys second-hand information, subjunctive plus Preterite marking forms the conditional state, and sole preterite is either plain indicative (in the past), or functions as a (literal) alternative for either second-hand-information or for the conditional state of the verb, when one of them may seem indistinguishable otherwise.
  • distinction between perfect and progressive aspect is and has at every stage of development been at hand as a productive category of the older language and in nearly all documented dialects, but, strangely enough, is nowadays rigorously excluded from written usage in its present normalised form.
  • disambiguation of completed vs. uncompleted forms is widely observed and regularly generated by common prefixes (blicken - to look, erblicken - to see [unrelated form: sehen - to see]).

In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The preterite (also praeterite, in American English also preterit, or past historic) is the grammatical tense expressing actions which took place in the past. ... The perfect tenses are verb tenses showing actions completed at or before a specific time. ... The pluperfect tense exists in most Indo-European languages, including English. ... It has been suggested that Future perfect tense be merged into this article or section. ... The future perfect tense is used to describe an event that has not yet happened but is expected or planned to happen before another stated occurrence. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... The continuous and progressive aspects are grammatical aspects that express incomplete action in progress at a specific time: they are non-habitual, imperfective aspects. ...

Verb prefixes

There are also many ways to expand, and sometimes radically change, the meaning of a base verb through a relatively small number of prefixes. Some of those prefixes have a meaning themselves (Example: zer- refers to the destruction of things, as in zerreißen = to tear apart, zerbrechen = to break apart, zerschneiden = to cut apart), others do not have more than the vaguest meaning in and of themselves (Example: ver- , as in versuchen = to try, vernehmen = to interrogate, verteilen = to distribute, verstehen = to understand). More examples: haften = to stick, verhaften = to imprison; kaufen = to buy, verkaufen = to sell; hören = to hear, aufhören = to cease; fahren = to drive, erfahren = to get to know, to hear about something.


Separable prefixes

Many German verbs have a separable prefix, often with an adverbial function. In finite verb forms this is split off and moved to the end of the clause, and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle". For example, mitgehen meaning "to go with" would be split giving Gehen Sie mit? (Literal: "Go you with?" ; Formal: "Are you going along"?). German verbs may be classified as either weak, with a dental consonant inflection, or strong, showing a vowel gradation (ablaut). ... A finite verb is a verb that is inflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages it occurs in. ...


Indeed, several parenthetical clauses may occur between the prefix of a finite verb and its complement; e.g.

Er kam am Freitagabend nach einem harten Arbeitstag und dem üblichen Ärger, der ihn schon seit Jahren immer wieder an seinem Arbeitsplatz plagt, mit fraglicher Freude auf ein Mahl, das seine Frau ihm, wie er hoffte, bereits aufgetischt hatte, endlich zu Hause an .

A literal translation of this example might look like this:

He arr- on a Friday evening after a hard day at work and the usual disagreements that had been troubling him repeatedly, looking forward to a questionable meal which, as he hoped, his wife had already fixed for him, -ived at home.

Word order

German requires that a verbal element (main verb or auxilliary verb) appear second in the sentence, preceded by the most important topical phrase. The second most important phrase appears at the end of the sentence. For a sentence without an auxiliary, this gives several options: In linguistics, an auxiliary verb is a verb whose function it is to give further semantic information about the main verb which follows it. ...

Der alte Mann gibt mir das Buch heute. (The old man gives me the book today)
Der alte Mann gibt mir heute das Buch.
Das Buch gibt mir der alte Mann heute.
Das Buch gibt der alte Mann heute mir. (stress on mir)
Heute gibt mir der alte Mann das Buch.
Mir gibt der alte Mann das Buch heute.

The position of a noun as a subject or object in a German sentence doesn't affect the meaning of the sentence as it would in English. In a declarative sentence in English if the subject does not occur before the predicate the sentence could well be misunderstood. In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... In linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ...


For example, in the sentence "Man bites dog" it is clear who did what to whom. To exchange the place of the subject with that of the object - "Dog bites man" - changes the meaning completely. In other words the word order in a sentence conveys significant information. In German, nouns and articles are declined as in Latin thus indicating whether it is the subject or object of the verb's action. The above example in German would be Ein Mann beißt den Hund or Den Hund beißt ein Mann with both having exactly the same meaning. If the articles are omitted, which is sometimes done in headlines (Mann beißt Hund), the syntax applies as in English - the first noun is the subject and the noun following the predicate is the object. In linguistics, a theta role or θ-role is the semantic role a noun phrase plays in a sentence. ... In linguistics, a theta role or θ-role is the semantic role a noun phrase plays in a sentence. ...


Except for emphasis, adverbs of time have to appear in the third place in the sentence, just after the predicate. Otherwise the speaker would be recognised as non-German. For instance the German word order (in Modern English) is: We're going tomorrow to town. (Wir gehen morgen in die Stadt.)


Auxilliary verbs

When an auxilliary verb is present, the auxilliary appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end. This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense. Many word orders are still possible, e.g.: In linguistics, an auxiliary verb is a verb whose function it is to give further semantic information about the main verb which follows it. ... The perfect tenses are verb tenses showing actions completed at or before a specific time. ...

Der alte Mann hat mir das Buch gestern gegeben. (The old man gave me the book yesterday.)
Das Buch hat mir der alte Mann gestern gegeben.

The word order is generally less rigid than in Modern English except for nouns (see below). There are two common word orders; one is for main clauses and another for subordinate clauses. In normal positive sentences the inflected verb always has position 2; in questions, exclamations and wishes it always has position 1. In subordinate clauses the verb is supposed to occur at the very end, but in speech this rule is often disregarded. For example in a subordinate clause introduced by "weil" ("because") the verb quite often occupies the same order as in a main clause. The correct way of saying "because I'm broke" is "... weil ich pleite bin.". In the vernacular you may hear instead "...weil ich bin pleite." This phenomenon may be caused by mixing the word-order pattern used for the word weil with the pattern used for an alternative word for "because", denn, which is used with the main clause order ("...denn ich bin pleite."). In linguistic typology, word order, or more precisely constituent order refers to the permitted combinations of words or larger constituents. ... In grammar, a clause is a word or group of words ordinarily consisting of a subject and a predicate, although in some languages and some types of clauses, the subject may not appear explicitly. ... A clause is a group of words consisting of a subject (often just a single noun) and a predicate (sometimes just a single verb). ... A dependent clause (or subordinate clause) cannot stand alone as a sentence. ... In grammar, an independent clause (or main clause) is a clause that can stand by itself as a grammatically viable simple sentence. ...


Modal verbs

Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end. For example, the sentence in Modern English "Should he go home?" would be rearranged in German to say "Should he (to) home go?" (Soll er nach Hause gehen?). Thus in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses the infinitives are clustered at the end. Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following English sentence: "What did you bring that book that I don't like to be read to out of up for?"


Multiple infinitives

The number of infinitives at the end is usually restricted to two, causing the third infinitive or auxiliary verb that would have gone at the very end to be placed instead at the beginning of the chain of verbs. For example in the sentence "Should he move into the house that he just has had renovated?" would be rearranged to "Should he into the house move, that he just renovated had?". (Soll er in das Haus einziehen, das er gerade hat renovieren lassen?). The older form would have been (Soll er in das Haus, das er gerade hat renovieren lassen, einziehen?).


If there are more than three infinitives, all except the first two are relocated to the beginning of the chain. Needless to say the rule is not rigorously applied.


Vocabulary

Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family, although there are significant minorities of words derived from Latin, and Greek, and a smaller amount from French [21] and most recently English [22]. At the same time, the effectiveness of the German language in forming equivalents for foreign words from its inherited Germanic stem repertory is great. Thus, Notker Labeo was able to translate Aristotelian treatises in pure (Old High) German in the decades after the year 1000. Notker Labeo, also known as Notker Teutonicus i. ...


The coining of new, autochthonous words gave German a vocabulary of an estimated 40,000 words as early as the ninth century. In comparison, Latin, with a written tradition of nearly 2,500 years in an empire which ruled the Mediterranean, has grown to no more than 45,000 words today.


Even today, many low-key scholarly movements try to promote the Ersatz (substitution) of virtually all foreign words with ancient, dialectal, or neologous German alternatives[citation needed]. It is claimed that this would also help in spreading modern or scientific notions among the less educated, and thus democratise public life, too. Jurisprudence in Germany, for example, uses perhaps the "purest" tongue in terms of "Germanness", but also the most cumbersome, to be found today. "Amtssprache"[citation needed]. Ersatz is a German word literally meaning substitute or replacement. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ...


In the modern scientific German vocabulary data base in Leipzig (as of July 2003) [1] there are nine million words and word groups in 35 million sentences (out of a corpus of 500 million words).


Writing system

Main article: German alphabet

The German alphabet consists of the same 26 letters as the modern Roman alphabet: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J...

Present

German is written using the Latin alphabet. In addition to the 26 standard letters, German has three vowels with Umlaut, namely ä, ö and ü, as well as the Eszett or scharfes S (sharp s) ß. The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... redirect ß ... ß as the combination of Å¿s on a Pirna street sign (Waldstraße) This article is about the letter ß in the German alphabet. ...


Before the German spelling reform of 1996, ß replaced ss after long vowels and diphthongs and before consonants, word-, or partial-word-endings. In reformed spelling, ß replaces ss only after long vowels and diphthongs. Since there is no capital ß, it is always written as SS when capitalization is required. For example, Maßband (tape measure) is capitalized MASSBAND. A capital ß has been proposed and included in Unicode, but it is not recognized as standard German. In Switzerland, ß is not used at all. In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... upper case ß in the 1957 Duden of Leipzig ß is nearly unique among the letters of the Latin alphabet in that it has no traditional upper case form (one of the few other examples is kra, which was used in Greenlandic). ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...


Umlaut vowels (ä, ö, ü) are commonly circumscribed with ae, oe, and ue if the umlauts are not available on the keyboard used. In the same manner ß can be circumscribed as ss. German readers understand those circumscriptions (although they look unusual), but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available because they are considered a makeshift, not proper spelling. (In Westphalia, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e.g. Raesfeld [ˈraːsfɛlt] and Coesfeld [ˈkoːsfɛlt], but this use of the letter e after a/o/u does not occur in the present-day spelling of words other than proper nouns.) A proper noun is a noun that picks out a unique entity. ...


Unfortunately there is still no general agreement exactly where these Umlauts occur in the sorting sequence. Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e, whereas dictionaries use just the base vowel. As an example in a telephone book Ärzte occurs after Adressenverlage but before Anlagenbauer (because Ä is replaced by Ae). In a dictionary Ärzte occurs after Arzt but before Asbest (because Ä is treated as A). Moscow phone book, 1930. ...


Past

Until the early 20th century, German was mostly printed in blackletter typefaces (mostly in Fraktur, but also in Schwabacher) and written in corresponding handwriting (for example Kurrent and Sütterlin). These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and particularly the handwritten forms are difficult for the untrained to read. The printed forms however are claimed by some to be actually more readable when used for printing Germanic languages[citation needed]. The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher since they were considered Aryan, although they later abolished them in 1941 by claiming that these letters were Jewish. The latter fact is not widely known anymore; today the letters are often associated with the Nazis[citation needed] and are no longer commonly used[citation needed]. As a typographical element, they are used to remind of old German traditions (e.g. in pub signs, in the marketing of arts and crafts or tourism), but the peculiar long s letter of the Fraktur tradition is often dropped even in these uses. “Black letter” redirects here. ... In typography, a typeface is a co-ordinated set of character designs, which usually comprises an alphabet of letters, a set of numerals and a set of punctuation marks. ... The German word Fraktur (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ... The German word Schwabacher (pronounced in IPA) refers to a specific blackletter typeface. ... Penmanship is the art of writing clearly and quickly. ... Sample of German kurrent handwriting Was iÅ¿t Aufklärung? Aufklärung iÅ¿t der Ausgang des MenÅ¿chen aus Å¿einer Å¿elbÅ¿t verÅ¿chuldeten Unmündigkeit. ... Sütterlin example in German The Sütterlinschrift, or Sütterlin for short, is a form of the old German blackletter handwriting (Spitzschrift) that was designed by and named after Ludwig Sütterlin, a German graphical designer and teacher who was commissioned to do so by the Prussian ministry for... In typography, serifs are the small features at the end of strokes within letters. ... A facsimile of Nicholas Jensons roman type used in Venice circa 1470. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Small wooden sculpture depicting a Native American mother holding her child. ... Tourist redirects here. ... An italicized long s used in the word Congress in the United States Bill of Rights. ...


Phonology

Main article: German phonology

Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

Vowels

German vowels (excluding diphthongs; see below) come in short and long varieties, as detailed in the following table:

A Ä E I O Ö U Ü
short /a/ /ɛ/ /ɛ/, /ǝ/ /ɪ/ /ɔ/ /œ/ /ʊ/ /ʏ/
long /aː/ /ɛː/ /eː/ /iː/ /oː/ /øː/ /uː/ /yː/

Short /ɛ/ is realised as [ɛ] in stressed syllables (including secondary stress), but as [ǝ] in unstressed syllables. Note that stressed short /ɛ/ can be spelled either with e or with ä (hätte 'would have' and Kette 'chain', for instance, rhyme). In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are closed. The one exception is the open /ɛː/ sound of long Ä; in some varieties of standard German, /ɛː/ and /eː/ have merged into [eː], removing this anomaly. In that case, pairs like Bären/Beeren 'bears/berries' or Ähre/Ehre 'spike/honour' become homophonous). The secondary stress is the degree of stress weaker than a primary accent placed on a syllable in the pronunciation of a word. ...


In many varieties of standard German, an unstressed /ɛr/ is not pronounced as [ər], but vocalised to [ɐ].


Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:

  • If a vowel (other than i) is at the end of a syllable or followed by a single consonant, it is usually pronounced long (e.g. Hof [hoːf]).
  • If the vowel is followed by a double consonant (e.g. ff, ss or tt), ck, tz or a consonant cluster (e.g. st or nd), it is nearly always short (e.g. hoffen [ˈhɔfǝn]). Double consonants are used only for this function of marking preciding vowels as short; the consonant itself is never pronounced lengthened or doubled.

Both of these rules have exceptions (e.g. hat [hat] 'has' is short despite the first rule; Kloster [kloːstər], 'cloister'; Mond [moːnt], 'moon' are long despite the second rule). For an i that is neither in the combination ie (making it long) nor followed by a double consonant or cluster (making it short), there is no general rule. In some cases, there are regional differences: In central Germany (Hessen), the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long while most other Germans would pronounce it short; the same applies to the e in the geographical name "Mecklenburg" for people in that region. The word Städte 'cities', is pronounced with a short vowel [ˈʃtɛtə] by some (Jan Hofer, ARD Television) and with a long vowel [ˈʃtɛːtə] by others (Marietta Slomka, ZDF Television). Finally, a vowel followed by ch can be short (Fach [fax] 'compartment', Küche [ˈkʏçe] 'kitchen') or long (Suche [ˈzuːxǝ] 'search', Bücher [ˈbyːçər] 'books') almost at random. Thus, Lache is homographous: [la:xe] 'puddle' and [laxe] 'manner of laughing' (coll.), 'laugh!' (Imp.). In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. ... For the Princeton University eating club, see Cloister Inn. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ...


German vowels can form the following digraphs (in writing) and diphthongs (in pronunciation); note that the pronunciation of some of them (ei, äu, eu) is very different from what one would expect when considering the component letters:

spelling ai, ei, ay, ey au äu, eu
pronunciation /aɪ̯/ /aʊ̯/ /ɔʏ̯/

Additionally, the digraph ie generally represents the phoneme /iː/, which is not a diphthong. In many varieties, a /r/ at the end of a syllable is vocalised. However, a sequence of a vowel followed by such a vocalised /r/ is not considered a diphthong: Bär [bɛːɐ̯] 'bear', er [eːɐ̯] 'he', wir [viːɐ̯] 'we', Tor [toːɐ̯] 'gate', kurz [kʊɐ̯ts] 'short', Wörter [vœɐ̯tɐ] 'words'.


In most varieties of standard German, word stems that begin with a vowel are preceded by a glottal stop [ʔ]. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Consonants

  • c standing by itself is not a German letter. In borrowed words, it is usually pronounced [ʦ] (before ä, äu, e, i, ö, ü, y) or [k] (before a, o, u, or before consonants). The combination ck is, as in English, used to indicate that the preceding vowel is short.
  • ch occurs most often and is pronounced either [ç] (after ä, ai, äu, e, ei, eu, i, ö, ü and after consonants) or [x] (after a, au, o, u). Ch never occurs at the beginning of an originally German word. In borrowed words with initial Ch there is no single agreement on the pronunciation. For example, the word "Chemie" (chemistry) can be pronounced [keːˈmiː], [çeːˈmiː] or [ʃeːˈmiː] depending on dialect.
  • dsch is pronounced ʤ (like j in Jungle) but appears in a few loanwords only.
  • f is pronounced [f] as in "father".
  • h is pronounced [h] like in "home" at the beginning of a syllable. After a vowel it is silent and only lengthens the vowel (e.g. "Reh" = roe deer).
  • j is pronounced [j] in Germanic words ("Jahr" [jaːɐ]). In younger loanwords, it follows more or less the respective languages' pronunciations.
  • l is always pronounced [l], never [ɫ] (the English "Dark L").
  • q only exists in combination with u and appears both in Germanic and Latin words ("quer"; "Qualität"). It is pronounced [kv].
  • r is pronounced as a guttural sound (an uvular trill, [ʀ]) in front of a vowel or consonant ("Rasen" [ʀaːzən]; "Burg" like [buʀg]). In spoken German however, it is commonly vocalised after a vowel ("er" being pronounced rather like ['ɛɐ] - "Burg" [buɐg]). In some southern non-standard varieties, the r is pronounced as a tongue-tip r (the alveolar trill).
  • s is pronounced [z] (as in "Zebra") if it forms the syllable onset (e.g. Sohn [zoːn]), otherwise [s] (e.g. Bus [bʊs]). A ss [s] indicates that the preceding vowel is short. st and sp at the beginning of words of German origin are pronounced [ʃt] and [ʃp], respectively.
  • ß (a letter unique to German called "Esszet") is a ligature of a double s and is always pronounced [s]. Originating in Blackletter typeface, it traditionally replaced ss at the end of a syllable (e.g. "ich muss""ich muß"; "ich müsste""ich müßte"); but it contrasts with ss [s] in indicating that the preceding vowel is long (compare "in Maßen" [in 'maːsən] "with moderation" and "in Massen" [in 'masən] "in loads"). The use of ß has recently been limited by the latest German spelling reform; Switzerland and Liechtenstein already abolished it in 1934.[23]
  • sch is pronounced [ʃ] (like "sh" in "Shine").
  • v is pronounced [f] in words of Germanic origin (e.g. "Vater" [ˈfaːtɐ]) and [v] in other words (e.g. "Vase" [ˈvaːzǝ]).
  • w is pronounced [v] like in "vacation" (e.g. "was" [vas]).
  • y only appears in loanwords and is traditionally considered a vowel.
  • z is always pronounced [ʦ] (e.g. "zog" [ʦoːk]). A tz indicates that the preceding vowel is short.

A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions. ... A dark l is a common way of referring to a velarised alveolar lateral approximant. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... In phonetics and phonology, a syllable onset is the part of a syllable that precedes the syllable nucleus. ... “Black letter” redirects here. ...

Consonant shifts

For more details on this topic, see High German consonant shift.

German does not have any dental fricatives (as English th). The th sounds, which the English language has inherited from Anglo Saxon, survived on the continent up to Old High German and then disappeared in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and the 10th century. It is sometimes possible to find parallels between German by replacing the English th with d in German: "Thank" → in German "Dank", "this" and "that" → "dies" and "das", "thou" (old 2nd person singular pronoun) → "du", "think" → "denken", "thirsty" → "durstig" and many other examples. High German subdivides into Upper German (green) and Central German (blue), and is distinguished from Low German (yellow). ... Dental fricative can refer to: voiceless dental fricative voiced dental fricative Category: ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... For other uses, see Thou (disambiguation). ...


Likewise, the gh in Germanic English words, pronounced in several different ways in modern English (as an f, or not at all), can often be linked to German ch: "to laugh" → "lachen", "through" and "thorough" → "durch", "high" → "hoch", "naught" → "nichts", etc.


Cognates with English

There are many thousands of German words that are cognate to English words (in fact a sizeable fraction of native German and English vocabulary, although for various reasons much of it is not immediately obvious). Most of the words in the following table have almost the same meaning as in English. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

German Meaning of German word English cognate
Abend eve/evening eve from Old E.æfen
an on/above on
auf up / on up
aus out (of) out
beginnen, begann, begonnen to begin, began, begun to begin, began, begun
bester, beste, bestes best best
Bett bed bed
Bier beer beer
Blut blood blood
bringen, brachte, gebracht to bring, brought, brought bring, brought
Bruder brother brother
Butter butter butter
Erde Earth Earth
essen to eat to eat
fallen, fiel, gefallen to fall, fell, fallen to fall, fell, fallen
Faust fist fist
fechten, focht, gefochten to fence fight, fought, fought
Finger finger finger
Fisch fish fish
Freund friend friend
Fuß foot foot
Gott God God
haben to have to have
Hand hand hand
-heit (suffix) -ity, -ness, -hood -hood
Haus house house
Hilfe, helfen help (noun), to help help, to help
heißen to be called hight (archaic)
hören to hear hear
Hund dog hound
ist, war is, was is, was
kalt cold cold
Katze cat cat
Knie knee knee
kommen, kam, gekommen to come, came, come to come, came, come
König King King
Laus, Läuse louse, lice louse, lice
lachen to laugh to laugh
Mann man man
Maus, Mäuse mouse, mice mouse, mice
Milch milk milk
Mond moon moon
müssen to have to must
Mutter mother mother
Nacht night night
Nachbar neighbor neighbor
Regen rain rain
scheinen to shine to shine
Schiff ship ship
Schuh shoe shoe
Schnee snow snow
schwimmen to swim to swim
singen, sang, gesungen to sing, sang, sung to sing, sang, sung
sinken, sank, gesunken to sink, sank, sunk to sink, sank, sunk
Schwert sword sword
Sohn son son
Sommer summer summer
springen, sprang, gesprungen to jump, jumped, jumped to spring, sprang, sprung
stehlen to steal to steal
Tag day day
Tisch table dish (both eating surfaces)
Tochter daughter daughter
Vater father father
Wasser water water
Waffe weapon weapon
warm warm warm
Weib woman wife
Wetter weather weather
Wille will (noun) will
wir, uns we, us we, us
Winter winter winter

Compound word cognates

German Cognate word parts Meaning
Fingernagel finger + nail fingernail
Hochland high + land highland
Ringfinger ring + finger ring finger
Schneemann snow + man snowman
Schwertfisch sword + fish swordfish
Vollmond full + moon full moon
Vorsicht fore + sight foresight (/caution)
Wasserfall water + fall waterfall

When these cognates have slightly different consonants, this is often due to the High German consonant shift. Hence the affinity of English words with those of German dialects is more evidently:

German English German dialects
allein alone allon, alloan
blasen blow blosa
breit broad broad, brad
dünn thin dinn
ein grüner Apfel a green apple a griener Appl
eine Katze a cat a Katz
Freund friend Freind
fühlen to feel fihla
Füllung filling Fillung
geben to give geva
gehört heard ghärt
gesehen seen gsihn
grün green grien
haben to have hava
heben to heave heva
heim home hom, hoam
küssen to kiss kissa
Läuse lice Leis
leben to live leva
Leber liver Lever
Lunge lung Lung
Mäuse mice Meis
mein Kamm my comb mei Kambl
meine Mutter my mother mei Modder
nein no no, nee
neun nine nein
nicht not net
Silber silver Silver
Regen rain Reen
Stein stone Ston, Stoan
sie ist allein she is alone sie is allon
sieben seven siva
sieben to sieve sieva
streben to strive streva
Sommer summer Summer
Tage days Täg
treiben to drive treiva
Wasser water Water

There are cognates whose meanings in either language have changed through the centuries. It is sometimes difficult for both English and German speakers to discern the relationship. On the other hand, once the definitions are made clear, then the logical relation becomes obvious. Sometimes the generality or specificity of word pairs may be opposite in the two languages.

German Meaning of German word English cognate Comment
antworten to answer an-word the cognate prefix Ger.'ant' is equal to Old E.'and-'〈"against"〉(→an).'wort'=word,'swer'=swear, so the suffix isn't cognate.
Baum tree beam Both derive from West Germanic *baumoz meaning "tree". It is the English one which, in Anglo-Saxon and Old English, has radically changed its meaning several times. (The original meaning is retained in the English terms for some trees, such as hornbeam.)
bekommen to get to become
Dogge mastiff dog
drehen to turn to throw cf. to throw (make) a pot by turning it on a wheel
ernten to harvest to earn
fahren to drive to fare O.E. faran "to journey, to make one's way," from P.Gmc. *faranan (cf. Goth. faran, Ger. fahren), from PIE *por- "going, passage"
fechten to fence (sport) to fight
Gift poison gift the original meaning of Gift in German can still be seen in the German deflection Mitgift "dowry"
kaufen to buy cheap, chapman
Knabe (formal) boy knave
Knecht servant knight
nehmen to take numb sensation has been taken away; cf. German benommen, 'dazed'
raten to guess, to advise to read cf. riddle, akin to German Rätsel
ritzen to scratch to write
Schmerz pain smart The verb smart retains this meaning
schlecht bad slight Sense of Ger. cognate schlecht developed from "smooth, plain, simple" to "bad," and as it did it was replaced in the original senses by schlicht, a back-formation from schlichten "to smooth, to plane," a derivative of schlecht in the old sense.
sich rächen to take revenge to wreak (havoc)
Tisch table dish, desk Latin discus
Vieh cattle fee from O.E. 'feoh' money, property, cattle
Wald forest wold cf. English placename "Cotswold(s)"
werden to become weird see wyrd
wer who where see below
wo where who see above
Zeit time tide the root is re-used in German Gezeiten as Tiden ('tides')

German and English also share many borrowings from other languages, especially Latin, French and Greek. Most of these words have the same meaning, while a few have subtle differences in meaning. As many of these words have been borrowed by numerous languages, not only German and English, they are called internationalisms in German linguistics. For reference, a good number of these borrowed words are of the neuter gender. Species Carpinus betulus - European Hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana - American Hornbeam Carpinus cordata - Sawa Hornbeam Carpinus fargesii - Farges Hornbeam Carpinus laxiflora - Aka-shide Hornbeam Carpinus japonica - Japanese Hornbeam Carpinus orientalis - Oriental Hornbeam Carpinus tschonoskii - Chonowskis Hornbeam Carpinus turczaninowii - Turkzaninovs Hornbeam The hornbeams (Carpinus) are a genus of relatively small hardwood... The name Chapman has several meanings: A Chapman (plural chapmen) was an itinerant seller in Britain. ... A journeyman is a tradesman or craftsman who may well have completed an apprenticeship but is not yet able to set up their own workshop as a master. ... Wyrd is a concept in ancient Anglo-Saxon and Nordic cultures roughly corresponding to fate. ... In linguistics (especially in German linguistics), an internationalism is a loanword that occurs in several languages with the same or at least similar meaning and etymology. ...

German Meaning of German word language of origin
Armee army French
Arrangement arrangement French
Chance opportunity French
Courage courage French
Disposition disposition Latin
Feuilleton feuilleton French
Futur future tense Latin
Boje buoy Dutch
Genre genre French
Mikroskop microscope Greek
Partei political party French
Position position Latin
positiv positive Latin
Prestige prestige French
Psychologie psychology Greek
Religion religion Latin
Restaurant restaurant French
Tabu taboo Tongan
Zigarre cigar Spanish
Zucker sugar Sanskrit, via Arabic

Words borrowed by English

For a list of German loanwords in English, see Category:German loanwords

In the English language, there are also many words taken from German without any letter change, e.g.:

German word English cognate Meaning of German word
Abseilen abseiling to abseil
Angst angst fear / angst
Anschluss anschluss connection / access
Automat automat automation / machine / automat
Bildungsroman bildungsroman novel of personal development
Blitz blitz flash / lightning
Delikatessen delikatessen/delicatessen delicate, resp. delicious food items
Doppelgänger doppelgänger spectral look-alike of somebody
Edelweiß edelweiss edelweiss
Gedankenexperiment Gedankenexperiment Thought experiment
Gesundheit! Gesundheit! (Amer.) health / bless you!
Hinterland hinterland interior / backwoods
Kindergarten kindergarten playschool
Kraut kraut cabbage
Poltergeist poltergeist poltergeist
Realpolitik realpolitik diplomacy based on practical objectives rather than ideals
Rucksack rucksack backpack
Schadenfreude schadenfreude taking pleasure in someone else's misfortune
Waldsterben waldsterben floral dying environment
Wanderlust wanderlust desire, pleasure, or inclination to travel, or walk
Weltanschauung weltanschauung worldview
Zeitgeist zeitgeist the spirit of the age/decade; the trend at that time

Australian rappel demonstrated at a dam in Norway Abseiling (from the German: abseilen, to rope down) is the process of descending on a fixed rope. ... For other uses, see Angst (disambiguation). ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... For the Edward Hopper painting, see Automat (painting). ... A Bildungsroman (IPA: /, German: novel of self-cultivation) is a novelistic form that concentrates on the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the protagonist usually from childhood to maturity. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Doppelgänger (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Leontopodium alpinum Cass. ... In philosophy, physics, and other fields, a thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is an attempt to solve a problem using the power of human imagination. ... The meaning of hinterland and its history. ... For other uses, see Kindergarten (disambiguation). ... The German word Kraut is a generic term that is often used in compound nouns for cabbage, cabbage products and many herbs: Sauerkraut = pickled sour cabbage Weißkraut = green cabbage Blaukraut or Rotkraut = red cabbage (also called Rotkohl) Rübenkraut = thick sugar beet syrup Bohnenkraut = Savory Unkraut = Weed The word... For the 1982 film, see Poltergeist (film). ... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics) refers to politics or diplomacy based primarily on practical considerations, rather than ideological notions. ... The simplest form of backpack (also rucksack or knapsack) is a cloth sack carried on ones back and secured with two straps that go over the shoulders and below the armpits. ... Look up Schadenfreude in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forest land use such as arable land, urban use, logged area or wasteland. ... Look up Wanderlust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A world view, also spelled as worldview is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung (look onto the world). The German word is also in wide use in English, as well as the translated form world outlook. ... This article is about the German word. ...

Names for German in other languages

See also: Deutsch, Dutch, Deitsch, Dietsch, Teuton, Teutonic, Allemanic, Alleman, Theodisca

The names that countries have for the language differ from region to region. Deutsch is: the German word for german a misspelling of the word Dutch, see Dutch (disambiguation) one of the three cognates of medieval Dietsch // A German family name Diana Deutsch, British-born, American cognitive psychologist Felix Deutsch, Helene Deutsch, Austrian-born American psychologist, Morton Deutsch Alexander Nikolaevich Deutsch, Russian astronomer... The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch or Pennsylvanian German) are the descendants of German (not Dutch) immigrants who came to Pennsylvania prior to 1800. ... Dietsch (Diets in modern Dutch) is a colloquial word for the Middle Dutch language. ... The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire... The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire... The term Alemannic can have several meanings. ... Alleman is a city located in Polk County, Iowa. ... ...


In Italian the sole name for German is still tedesco, from the Latin theodiscus, meaning "vernacular". is a Middle Latin adjective referring to the Germanic vernaculars of the Early Middle Ages, first attested in 786 as both in Latin and in the vernacular. The Old High German language in Latin sources of the time is referred to as . ...


A possible explanation for the use of words meaning "mute" (e.g., nemoj in Russian, němý in Czech, nem in Serbian) to refer to German (and also to Germans) in Slavic languages is that Germans were the first people Slavic tribes encountered with whom they could not communicate. Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ...


Romanian used to use the Slavonic term "nemţeşte", but "germană" is now widely used. Hungarian "német" is also of Slavonic origin. The Arabic name for Austria, النمسا ("an-namsa"), is derived from the Slavonic term. Arabic redirects here. ...


Note also that though the Russian term for the language is немецкий (nemetskij), the country is Германия (Germania). However, in certain other Slavic languages, such as Czech, the country name (Německo) is similar to the name of the language, německý (jazyk).  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup...


Finns and Estonians use the term saksa, originally from the Saxon tribe. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Scandinavians use derivatives of the word Tyskland/Þýskaland (from Theodisca) for the country and tysk(a)/þýska for the language. Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. ...


Hebrew traditionally (nowadays this is not the case) used the Biblical term אַשְׁכֲּנָז (Ashkenaz) (Genesis 10:3) to refer to Germany, or to certain parts of it, and the Ashkenazi Jews are those who originate from Germany and Eastern Europe and formerly spoke Yiddish as their native language, derived from Middle High German. Modern Hebrew uses גֶּרְמָנִי germaní (Or גֶּרְמָנִית germanít for the language). Hebrew redirects here. ... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, Standard Hebrew Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzîm), are Jews who are descendants of Jews from Germany, Poland, Austria and Eastern Europe. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Middle High German (MHG, German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. ...


The French term is allemand, the Spanish term is alemán the Catalan term is alemany, and the Portuguese term is alemão; all derive from the ancient Alamanni tribal alliance, meaning literally "All Men". Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of west Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, a river that is one of the largest tributaries of the Rhine, on land that is today...


The Latvian term vācu means "tinny" and refers disparagingly to the iron-clad Teutonic Knights that colonized the Baltic in the Middle Ages. For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ...


The Scottish Gaelic term for the German language, Gearmailtis, is formed in the standard way of adding -(a)is to the end of the country name. Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...


See Names for Germany for further details on the origins of these and other terms. Because of Germanys geographic position in the centre of Europe and its long history as a disunited region of distinct tribes and states, there are many widely-varying names for Germany in different languages, perhaps more than for any other European nation: for example, in German the country is...


See also

Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... Ashkenazi Hebrew is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Ashkenazi Jewish practice. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... During the 16th and 18th century, often called Alamodezeit in German, French threatened to replace German as the language of culture and government in the German states of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Missingsch is a Low German-colored regiolect of German, retaining Low German sentence construction and calques of Low German idioms into Hochdeutsch. ... Deutsch is: the German word for german a misspelling of the word Dutch, see Dutch (disambiguation) one of the three cognates of medieval Dietsch // A German family name Diana Deutsch, British-born, American cognitive psychologist Felix Deutsch, Helene Deutsch, Austrian-born American psychologist, Morton Deutsch Alexander Nikolaevich Deutsch, Russian astronomer... The word Dutch is used as an adjective means of the Netherlands, its people, or its culture and can refer to more than one article: of the Netherlands, a country Dutch language, a Germanic language spoken primarily in the Netherlands and Belgium the Dutch people, usually defined as citizens of... Dietsch (Diets in modern Dutch) is a colloquial word for the Middle Dutch language. ... German (, ) is a West Germanic language and one of the worlds major languages. ... Diet can refer to several things: The nutritional diet of an organism or group. ... Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ... There are a number of German terms for which there are no useful English equivalents. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In etymology, German family names were introduced during the late Middle Ages in the German language area. ... Placenames in the German language area can be classified by the language from which they originate, and by their age. ... // Below is list of German language exonyms for former German places and places in non-German-speaking areas of the world : Belgium List of German exonyms for places in Belgium Czech Republic List of German exonyms for places in the Czech Republic Croatia List of German exonyms for places in... German-speaking minorities live in many countries and on all six inhabited continents: the countries of the former Soviet Union, Poland, Romania, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Belgium, Italy, the United States, Latin America, Namibia, Israel, and Australia. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the language known as German as it is spoken in the United States. ... The German spelling reform of 1996 (Rechtschreibreform) is based on an international agreement signed in Vienna in July 1996 by the governments of the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein and Switzerland, a quadrilingual country. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Armanenschaft jewellery and ritual items from England, including the Armanen runes, ring and stick; Fyrfos pin; Schwarze Sonne ear-rings and pin (and Zierscheiben necklace); Mjollnir ear-rings and necklace; Wolfsangel pin; Unicursal Hexagram necklace; and Sidereal Pendulum. ... Thor, god of thunder, one of the major figures in Germanic mythology. ... Theodism, or Þēodisc GelÄ“afa (Old English: tribal belief) is a North American variant of Germanic Neopaganism which seeks to reconstruct the beliefs and practices of several historic Northern European tribes. ... Germanish (in German Denglisch), a portmanteau of the words German and English, also referred to as Denglish, Engleutsch, Germlish, Genglish or Ginglish describes language based on the German grammar that includes a jumble of English and pseudo-English idioms, or vice versa. ... Germish (in German Denglisch) also referred to as Denglish, Engleutsch, Germlish, Genglish or Ginglish describes language based on the German grammar that includes a jumble of English and pseudo-English idioms, or vice versa. ... Pseudo-anglicisms are words in languages other than English which were borrowed from English but are used in a way native English speakers would not readily recognize or understand. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... Calque In linguistics, a calque ([kælk]) or loan translation (itself a calque of German Lehnübersetzung) consists of the borrowing of a phrase from one language into another, in the process of which individual words native to the borrowing language semantically match the individual words in the source language. ... Below is a list of German expressions used in English. ... This is a list of English language words of Yiddish language origin, many of which have entered the language by way of American English or Cockney. ... Because of Germanys geographic position in the centre of Europe and its long history as a disunited region of distinct tribes and states, there are many widely-varying names for Germany in different languages, perhaps more than for any other European nation: for example, in German the country is... For other uses, see Thou (disambiguation). ... The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... ß as the combination of Å¿s on a Pirna street sign (Waldstraße) This article is about the letter ß in the German alphabet. ... There are many alternative ways to describe the people of Germany, though the official designated nationality as well as the standard noun is German. ... Austro-Bavarian or Bavarian is a major group of Upper German varieties. ... Alemannic German (Alemannisch) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. ... Swiss German (Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in Switzerland. ... Luxembourgish (Luxembourgish: , French: , German: , Walloon: ), also spelled Luxemburgish, is a West Germanic language spoken in Luxembourg. ... The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch or Pennsylvanian German) are the descendants of German immigrants who came to Pennsylvania prior to 1800. ... Hutterite German (Hutterisch) is an Upper German dialect of the Austro-Bavarian variety of the German language, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d (2006) National Geographic Collegiate Atlas of the World. Willard, Ohio: R.R Donnelley & Sons Company, 257-270. ISBN Regular:0-7922-3662-9, 978-0-7922-3662-7. Deluxe:0-7922-7976-X, 978-0-7922-7976-1. 
  2. ^ SIL Ethnologue (2006). 95 million speakers of Standard German; 95 million including Middle and Upper German dialects; 120 million including Low Saxon and Yiddish.
  3. ^ a b EUROPA - Allgemeine & berufliche Bildung - Regional- und Minderheitensprachen der Europäischen Union - Euromosaik-Studie
  4. ^ http://www.az.com.na/fileadmin/pdf/2007/deutsch_in_namibia_2007_07_18.pdf
  5. ^ SCHLESISCHES WOCHENBLATT - Die größte deutsch-polnische Zeitung der deutschen Minderheit in Polen. Information, Kultur, Politik, Service
  6. ^ Verein Deutsche Sprache e.V. - Prominente Mitglieder und Ehrenmitglieder
  7. ^ EUROPA - Allgemeine & berufliche Bildung - Regional- und Minderheitensprachen der Europäischen Union - Euromosaik-Studie
  8. ^ EUROPA - Education and Training - Europa - Regional and minority languages - Euromosaïc study
  9. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/lang/languages/langmin/euromosaic/hu_de.pdf
  10. ^ SbZ - Deutsche Minderheit in Rumänien: „Zimmerpflanze oder Betreuungs-Objekt“ - Informationen zu Siebenbürgen und Rumänien
  11. ^ Global Statistics, Global Reach.
  12. ^ Internet Languages, NVTC.
  13. ^ a b "Distribution of languages on the Internet".
  14. ^ Palmares, Internet Society.
  15. ^ Funredes.
  16. ^ Vilaweb.
  17. ^ German Professors Visit Maryland English Institute to Refine Their English for the Classroom. University of Maryland, College Park (2005). Retrieved on 2008-01-29.
  18. ^ After Spanish and French
  19. ^ After English; Europeans and Language. European Commission (2005). Retrieved on 2007-12-08.
  20. ^ Languages in Europe. European Commission (2007). Retrieved on 2008-02-12.
  21. ^ some of which might be reborrowings from Germanic Frankish
  22. ^ a phenomenon known in German as Denglisch or in English as Germish or Denglisch
  23. ^ Mittelschulvorbereitung Deutsch

Standard German is the prescriptive norm variant of the German language used as a written language, in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas. ... By the High German consonant shift, the former Dutch-German dialect continuum. ... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... The University of Maryland, College Park (also known as UM, UMD, or UMCP) is a public university located in the city of College Park, in Prince Georges County, Maryland, just outside Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Denglisch, sometimes spelled Denglish, is a portmanteau of the words Deutsch and English. ... Germanish (in German Denglisch), a portmanteau of the words German and English, also referred to as Denglish, Engleutsch, Germlish, Genglish or Ginglish describes language based on the German grammar that includes a jumble of English and pseudo-English idioms, or vice versa. ...

General references

  • Michael Clyne, The German Language in a Changing Europe (1995) ISBN 0521499704
  • George O. Curme, A Grammar of the German Language (1904, 1922) — the most complete and authoritative work in English
  • Anthony Fox, The Structure of German (2005) ISBN 0199273995
  • W.B. Lockwood, German Today: The Advanced Learner's Guide (1987) ISBN 0198158505
  • Edmund Remys, Comprehensive Review of Modern German (2007).
  • (German) Dialect map of the German language areaPDF (36.8 KiB)

Michael George Clyne AM is an Australian linguist and academic. ... pfalmebog til airfe og huus undagt ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Verbix -- Germanic. Conjugate verbs in 50+ languages (113 words)
Germanic languages are spoken by more than 480 million people in northern and western Europe, North America, South Africa, and Australia.
North Germanic or Scandinavian: western group - the Icelandic language, the Norwegian language, and Faroese; eastern group - the Danish language and the Swedish language.
West Germanic: Anglo-Frisian group - the English language and the Frisian language; Netherlandic-German group - Netherlandic, or Dutch-Flemish and the Low German dialects, Afrikaans, the German language or High German, and the Yiddish language.
Teutonic (Germanic) Languages - LoveToKnow 1911 (4502 words)
languages seem originally to have had three numbers and eight cases, though it is by no means clear that each of the latter had a distinct form in every class of stems.
They are doubtless to be regarded as the representatives of the old language of the maritime districts, and it is probable that languages of this type were at one time spoken along the whole of the coast between the present frontiers of Belgium and Denmark.
The early divergence of the eastern languages in general from those of the north and west is perhaps to be ascribed in part to the great extension southwards of the territories of the eastern tribes in the 3rd and 4th centuries.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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