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Encyclopedia > German Empire
Deutsches Reich
German Reich
1871 – 1918
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Gott mit Uns
(German: "God with us”)
Anthem
No official anthem
Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I
Capital Berlin
Language(s) Official: German
Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian
Government Constitutional monarchy
Emperor
 - 1871–1888 William I
 - 1888 Frederick III
 - 1888–1918 William II
Chancellor
 - 1871–1890 Otto von Bismarck (first)
 - 8–9 Nov 1918 Friedrich Ebert (last)
Historical era New Imperialism
 - Unification January 18, 1871
 - Republic declared November 9, 1918
 - Formal abdication November 28, 1918
Area
 - 1910 540,857.54 km² (208,826 sq mi)
Population
 - 1871 est. 41,058,792 
 - 1890 est. 49,428,470 
 - 1910 est. 64,925,993 
     Density 120 /km²  (310.9 /sq mi)
Currency Goldmark (until 1914)
Papiermark (after 1914)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
North German Confederation
Kingdom of Bavaria
Kingdom of Württemberg
Grand Duchy of Baden
Grand Duchy of Hesse
Weimar Republic
Republic of Alsace-Lorraine
Free City of Danzig
Poland
Lithuania
Saar
Area and population not including colonial possessions
Area source:[1] Population source:[2]

The German Empire is the name used in English to describe the first 47 years of the German Reich when it was a semi-constitutional monarchy: beginning with the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I of Prussia as German Emperor (January 18, 1871), effectively ending with the proclamation of the German republic by Philipp Scheidemann (November 9, 1918) and formally ending with the abdication of Wilhelm II (November 28, 1918). The most important bordering states were the Russian Empire in the east, the French Third Republic in the west, and Austria-Hungary in the south. This article is about former colonies of Germany. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (615x707, 424 KB) Other versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): German Empire Hamburg Mecklenburg-Strelitz Württemberg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Schaumburg Bremen (state) Reuss Duchy of Anhalt... The flag of Germany was adopted in its present form in 1919. ... The Eagle has been the coat of arms of Germany in this form since the later days of the Weimar Republic The coat of arms of Germany is a symbol of Germany; the coat of arms feature an eagle. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (805x553, 40 KB) Summary Edited from previous version to remove the annoying light grey of Austria-Hungary! Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Categories: Language stubs | Frisian language ... The Sorbian languages are classified under the West Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... William II or Wilhelm II (born Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor von Preußen; English: Prince Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... The term New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europes powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Karl Liebknecht on 9 November 1918 in the Berliner Tiergarten Statue of a revolutionary soldier, memorial to the German Revolution of 1918-1919 in East Berlin. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... German 20 Mark banknote from 1914 (www. ... The name Papiermark (German: Paper mark) can be applied to the German currency from the point in 1914 when the link between the mark and gold was abandoned, due to the outbreak of the First World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(lozengy). ... The Free State of Bavaria (German: Bayern or Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Königreich_Württemberg. ... History of Württemberg // The origin of the name Württemberg remains obscure: scholars having universally rejected the once popular derivation from Wirth am Berg. Some authorities derive it from a proper name: Wiruto or Wirtino; others from a Celtic place-name, Virolunum or Verdunum. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Baden was a territory in the southwest of what later became unified Germany. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_Alsace-Lorraine. ... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as GdaÅ„sk (German: Danzig). ... Image File history File links Gdansk_flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_corrected_(bordered). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Saar, corresponding to the current German state of the Saarland, was from governed by the League of Nations under the Treaty of Versailles from 1920 until a plebicite in 1935, when it was returned to Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The history of Germany is, in places, extremely complicated and depends much on how one defines Germany. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Kaiser is a German title meaning emperor, derived from the Roman title of Caesar, as is the Slavic title of Czar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Philipp Scheidemann (26 July 1865 – 29 November 1939) was a German Social Democratic politician, who proclaimed the Republic on 9 November 1918, and who became the first Chancellor of the Weimar Republic. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... William II or Wilhelm II (born Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor von Preußen; English: Prince Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...

Contents

Name

Main article: German Reich

The official name used to describe Germany from 1871 to 1943 in German was the Deutsches Reich,[3][4] while the German term Deutsches Kaiserreich was used unofficially to describe Germany specifically during the 1871-1918 period. The direct translation of Deutsches Reich into English is "German Empire", although the German word "Reich" can have non-imperial connotations similar to the English "commonwealth", "realm" or "domain". The full English translation to "German Empire" and the part-translation German Reich was officially used to describe Germany during the 47 years of Hohenzollern rule, [5] while only "German Reich" was used in English from 1918 to 1943. During the whole 1871-1943 period, the German Reich was also known as simply Germany. The history of Germany is, in places, extremely complicated and depends much on how one defines Germany. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...   (IPA: ; German IPA: ), is the German word used most for empire, realm, or nation cognate with Scandinavian rike/rige, Dutch: , Sanskrit: and English: as found in bishopric. ... The English noun commonwealth dates originally from the fifteenth century. ... A Realm is a primary synonym for a world usually other than our own. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The term Second Reich (Zweites Reich) is sometimes applied retrospectively to this period. The term was popularised by German nationalist historian Arthur Moeller van den Bruck in the 1920s, and drew an explicit link with the earlier Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (the "First Reich"), as well as underlining his desire for the establishment of a "Third Reich".[6] This term was subsequently adopted during the time of Nazi rule for propaganda purposes - and therefore its use among historians after World War II has generally been discouraged, as many consider it to give legitimacy to Nazi historiography. Arthur Moeller van den Bruck (April 23, 1876 – May 30, 1925) was a German cultural historian and writer. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ...


Bismarck's founding of the Empire

Under the guise of idealism giving way to realism, German nationalism rapidly shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848 to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck's authoritarian realpolitik. Bismarck wanted to unify the rival German states to achieve his aim of a conservative, Prussian-dominated Germany. Three wars which were declared to Germany and led to military successes, helped to convince German people to do this: the Second war of Schleswig against Denmark in 1864, the Austro-Prussian War against Austria in 1866, and the Franco-Prussian War against the Second French Empire in 1870–71. During the Siege of Paris in 1871, the North German Federation, supported by its allies from southern Germany, formed the German Empire with the proclamation of the Prussian king Wilhelm I as German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles, to the humiliation of the French, who ceased to resist only days later. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics)) is a term that is synonomous to Machiavellianism and is used to describe politics based on strictly practical rather than ideological notions, and practiced without any sentimental illusions. Realpolitik is usually used pejoratively as a term to imply politics imposed... Combatants Prussia Austria German Confederation Denmark Commanders Friedrich Graf von Wrangel Christian Julius De Meza replaced by George Daniel Gerlach on February 29 Strength At the outbreak of war: 61,000 158 guns Later reinforcements: 20,000 64 guns[1] 38,000 100+ guns[2] Casualties 1,700+ killed, wounded... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... Combatants Prussia, Baden Bavaria, Württemberg (later German Empire) France Commanders Wilhelm I of Germany Helmuth von Moltke Louis Jules Trochu Joseph Vinoy Strength 240,000 regulars 200,000 regulars 200,000 militia and sailors Casualties 12,000 dead or wounded 24,000 dead or wounded 146,000 captured 47... Wilhelm I of Germany (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871 – 9 March 1888 and King of Prussia, ruled 2 January 1861 – 9 March 1888. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Bismarck himself prepared a broad outline—the 1866 North German Constitution, which became the 1871 Constitution of the German Empire with some adjustments. Germany acquired some democratic features: notably the Reichstag, that in contrast to the parliament of Prussia was elected by direct and equal manhood suffrage. However, legislation also required the consent of the Bundesrat, the federal council of deputies from the states, in which Prussia had a large influence. Behind a constitutional façade, Prussia thus exercised predominant influence in both bodies with executive power vested in the Kaiser, who appointed the federal chancellor—Otto von Bismarck. The chancellor was accountable solely to and served entirely at the discretion of the Emperor. Officially, the chancellor was a one-man cabinet and was responsible for the conduct of all state affairs; in practice, the State Secretaries (bureaucratic top officials in charge of such fields as finance, war, foreign affairs, etc.) acted as unofficial portfolio ministers. With the exception of the years 1872–1873 and 1892–1894, the chancellor was always simultaneously the prime minister of the imperial dynasty's hegemonic home-kingdom, Prussia. The Reichstag had the power to pass, amend or reject bills, but could not initiate legislation. The power of initiating legislation rested with the chancellor. The North German Constitution was the constitution of the North German Confederation, which existed from 1867 to 1871. ... The Constitution of the German Empire was the basic law of the German Empire of 1871-1919. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Reichstag may refer to: Reichstag (institution), the Diets or parliaments of the Holy Roman Empire, of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy and of Germany from 1871 to 1945 Reichstag building, Berlin location where the German legislature met from 1894 to 1933 and again since 1999 The Reichstag fire in 1933, which...


While the other states retained their own governments, the military forces of the smaller states were put under Prussian control, while those of the larger states such as the Kingdoms of Bavaria and Saxony were coordinated along Prussian principles and would in wartime be controlled by the federal government. Although authoritarian in many respects, the empire permitted the development of political parties. The Free State of Bavaria (German: Bayern or Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ...

Die Proklamation des Deutschen Kaiserreiches by Anton von Werner (1877), depicting the proclamation of the foundation of the German Reich (18 January 1871, Palace of Versailles). Left, on the podium (in black): crown-prince Frederick (later Friedrich III), his father Kaiser Wilhelm I, and Frederick I of Baden, proposing a toast to the new emperor. Centre (in white): Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany
Die Proklamation des Deutschen Kaiserreiches by Anton von Werner (1877), depicting the proclamation of the foundation of the German Reich (18 January 1871, Palace of Versailles).
Left, on the podium (in black): crown-prince Frederick (later Friedrich III), his father Kaiser Wilhelm I, and Frederick I of Baden, proposing a toast to the new emperor.
Centre (in white): Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany

The evolution of the German Empire is somewhat in line with parallel developments in Italy which became a united nation state shortly before the German Empire. Some key elements of the German Empire's authoritarian political structure were also the basis for conservative modernization in Imperial Japan under Tokugawa and the preservation of an authoritarian political structure under the Tsars in the Russian Empire. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Anton Alexander von Werner (1843 – 1915), German painter, was born at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, in May 1843. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Grand Duke Friedrich I of Baden, painting by Hans Thoma Grand Duke Friedrich I of Baden (Frederick Wilhelm Ludwig) (September 9, 1826 – September 28, 1907) was the sixth Grand Duke of Baden from 1856 to 1907. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... Tokugawa (徳川) is a surname in Japan. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...


One factor in the social anatomy of these governments had been the retention of a very substantial share in political power by the landed elite, the Junkers, due to the absence of a revolutionary breakthrough by the peasants in combination with urban areas. Landed property or landed estates is a real estate term that usually refers to a property that generates income for the owner without himself having to do the actual work at the estate. ... Junkers (English pronunciation: ; German pronunciation: ) were the landed nobility of Prussia and Eastern Germany - lands which are often also called Eastelbia (Ostelbien in German - the land east of river Elbe). ...


Constituent states of the empire

Before the German Unification, Germany was divided up into 39 independent states. These states consisted of kingdoms, grand duchies, duchies, principalities, free Hanseatic cities and one imperial territory. The Kingdom of Prussia was the largest of the constituent states, covering some 60 percent of the territory of the German Empire. Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim...


Several of these states had gained sovereignty following the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. Others were created as sovereign states after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Territories were not necessarily contiguous - many existed in several parts, as a result of historical acquisition, or, in several cases, divisions of the ruling family trees. This article is about the medieval empire. ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from late September, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ...

Member states of the German Empire, with Prussia in blue
Member states of the German Empire, with Prussia in blue
State Capital
Kingdoms (Königreiche)
Prussia (Preußen) Berlin
Bavaria (Bayern) Munich
Saxony (Sachsen) Dresden
Württemberg Stuttgart
Grand duchies (Großherzogtümer)
Baden Karlsruhe
Hesse (Hessen) Darmstadt
Mecklenburg-Schwerin Schwerin
Mecklenburg-Strelitz Neustrelitz
Oldenburg Oldenburg
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) Weimar
Duchies (Herzogtümer)
Anhalt Dessau
Brunswick (Braunschweig) Braunschweig
Saxe-Altenburg (Sachsen-Altenburg) Altenburg
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) Coburg
Saxe-Meiningen (Sachsen-Meiningen) Meiningen
Principalities (Fürstentümer)
Lippe Detmold
Reuss, junior line Gera
Reuss, senior line Greiz
Schaumburg-Lippe Bückeburg
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Rudolstadt
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Sondershausen
Waldeck-Pyrmont Arolsen
Free Hanseatic cities (Freie Hansestädte)
Bremen
Hamburg
Lübeck
Imperial territory (Reichsland)
Alsace-Lorraine (Elsaß-Lothringen) Strasbourg


Each component of the German Empire sent representatives to the Imperial Council (Bundesrat) and the Imperial Diet (Reichstag). Relations between the Imperial centre and the Empire's components were somewhat fluid, and were developed on an ongoing basis. The extent to which the German Emperor could, for example, intervene on occasions of disputed or unclear succession was much debated on occasion - for example with the Lippe-Detmold inheritance crisis. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 609 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3239 × 3188 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 609 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3239 × 3188 pixel, file size: 3. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 344 pixelsFull resolution (1458 × 627 pixel, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/png) German empire and colonial possessions in 1914. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 344 pixelsFull resolution (1458 × 627 pixel, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/png) German empire and colonial possessions in 1914. ... This article is about former colonies of Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(striped). ... The Free State of Bavaria (German: Bayern or Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Czech: ) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Königreich_Württemberg. ... Coat of Arms of the (formerly royal) Württemberg family, on a gate of the familys current residence, Schloss Altshausen in Altshausen, Germany // Counts of Württemberg Conrad I 1089-1122 Conrad II 1100-1130 John d. ... , City Center seen from Weinsteige Road Castle Solitude The 1956 TV Tower The Weissenhof Estate in 1927 Stuttgart (IPA: []) is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Baden was a territory in the southwest of what later became unified Germany. ... Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... Darmstadt is a city in the Bundesland (federal state) of Hesse in Germany. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Großherzogtümer_Mecklenburg. ... Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a Duchy (from 1815 a Grand Duchy) in northeastern Germany, formed by a partition of the Duchy of Mecklenburg. ... Schwerin is a town in northern Germany. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Großherzogtümer_Mecklenburg. ... Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a duchy in northern Germany, roughly consisting of the present day district of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (the historical Stargarder Land), bordering areas of modern-day Brandenburg with the town of Fürstenberg and the area around Ratzeburg in modern Schleswig-Holstein. ... Neustrelitz is a town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Oldenburg is a historical state in todays Germany named for its capital, Oldenburg. ... Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) is an Independent City in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Großherzogtum_Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach_(1813-1897). ... The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Herzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741, when the Saxe-Eisenach line had died out. ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Dessau is a town in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Herzogtum_Braunschweig. ... Location of the Duchy of Brunswick within the German Empire Capital Braunschweig Government Monarchy Duke  - 1813-1815 Frederick William  - 1913-1918 Ernest Augustus History  - Restoration 1815  - Abdication 1918 Area  - 1910 3,672 km² Population  - 1910 est. ... Coordinates: Time zone: CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country: Germany State: Lower Saxony District: Urban district City subdivisions: 20 Boroughs Lord Mayor: Gert Hoffmann (CDU) Governing parties: CDU / FDP Basic Statistics Area: 192. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Altenburg is a town in the German Bundesland of Thuringia. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Herzogtum_Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha_(1911-1920). ... Capitals Coburg and Gotha Head of State Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) served as the name of the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present-day states of Bavaria... Coburg is a city located on the Itz River in Bavaria, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Herzogtum_Sachsen-Meiningen. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Meiningen is a town in Germany - located in the Southern part of the state Thuringia in the district of Schmalkalden-Meiningen. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Fürstentum_Lippe. ... Lippe within the German Empire Capital Detmold Government Principality History  - Established 1123  - Raised to County 1528  - Raised to Principality 1789  - German Revolution 1918 Lippe was a historical state in Germany. ... Detmold is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, with a population of about 80,000. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Fürstentum_Reuß_jüngere_Linie. ... Reuss (German: Reuß) is the name of several historical states in todays Thuringia, Germany. ... Gera is the largest Town in the east of Thuringia, Germany. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Reuss Elder Line within the German Empire Capital Greiz Government Principality History  - Established 1778  - German Revolution 1918  - Merged into Thuringia 1919 The Principality of Reuss Elder Line (German: ) was a state in Germany. ... Greiz is a town in Thuringia, the capital of the district Greiz. ... Image File history File links Flagge_Fürstentum_Schaumburg-Lippe. ... Schaumburg is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Bückeburg Bückeburg is a small town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small state in Germany, in the present-day state of Thuringia, with capital at Rudolstadt. ... Rudolstadt is a city in Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small state in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with capital at Sondershausen. ... Sondershausen, a town of Germany, capital of the principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, situated in a plain 37 miles by rail North of Erfurt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Waldeck (or later Waldeck-Pyrmont) was a sovereign principality in what is now Lower Saxony and Hesse (Germany). ... Arolsen is a small town in northern Hesse and the baroque 18th century residence of the Princes of Waldeck_Pyrmont, a former principality in Hesse, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bremen. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hamburg. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location of the Free City of Lübeck with the German Empire   Capital Lübeck Government Republic History  - Formation 1226  - Abolition April 1, 1937 The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Kaiser is a German title meaning emperor, derived from the Roman title of Caesar, as is the Slavic title of Czar. ... Lippe within the German Empire Capital Detmold Government Principality History  - Established 1123  - Raised to County 1528  - Raised to Principality 1789  - German Revolution 1918 Lippe was a historical state in Germany. ...


The Bismarck era

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Bismarck's domestic policies played a great role in forging the authoritarian political culture of the Kaiserreich. Less preoccupied by continental power politics following unification in 1871, Germany's semi-parliamentary government carried out a relatively smooth economic and political revolution from above that pushed them along the way towards becoming the world's leading industrial power of the time. This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Evolution of German linguistic area from 700 to 1950 Settlement in the East (German: ), also known as German eastward expansion, refers to the eastward migration and settlement of Germans into regions inhabited since the Great Migrations by the Balts, Romanians, Hungarians and, since about the 8th century, the Slavs. ... Kleinstaaterei, a German word for the occurence of (many) petty states is a polyvalent term, mainly used for the internal state of Germany (and neighbouring regions) during the Holy Roman Empire, especially in its late phase, when it was officially known as Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... Image File history File links Wappen_Deutscher_Bund. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... The history of Germany is, in places, extremely complicated and depends much on how one defines Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... The German Empire was one of the defeated Central Powers during World War I. It entered the conflict following the declaration of war against Serbia by its ally, Austria-Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... When in 1933 German dictator Adolf Hitler gained power, the world was little (if at all), aware of the intensity and duration of the armed conflict that would follow in just a few short years. ... Following Germanys defeat in World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, Germany was split, representing the focus of the two global blocs in the east and west. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(1946-1949). ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Germany. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... “Deutschland” redirects here. ... While German-speaking peoples have a long history, Germany as a nation-state dates only from 1871. ... // Part of the motivation behind the territorial changes are based on events in the history of Germany and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. ... 50 BC (approximately) Ingvaeones become Frisians, Saxons, Jutes and Angles by about now 8 BC Marcomanni and Quadi drive the Boii out of Bohemia 10 BC (approximately) differentiation of localized Teutonic tribes (Alamanni, Hermunduri, Marcomanni, Quadi, Suebi) in area formerly occupied by Irminones 8 BC Confederation of Marcomanni, Lugier, Semnones... The history of the German language as separate from common West Germanic begins in the Early Middle Ages with the High German consonant shift. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Economy

Industrialization progressed dynamically in Germany and German manufacturers began to capture domestic markets from British imports, and also to compete with British industry abroad, particularly in the United States. The German textiles and metal industries had by the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War surpassed those of Britain in organization and technical efficiency and usurped British manufacturers in the domestic market. Germany became the dominant economic power on the continent and was the second largest exporting nation after the US. By the turn of the century, the German metals and engineering industries would be producing heavily for the free trade market of Britain. By the time of World War I (1914-1918) the German economy had switched to supplying its military with the proper equipment needed to fight the war. This included the production of rifles (Gewehr 98), pistols (P08 Luger), and heavy weaponry (Maxim machine gun, Minenwerfer mortar, and several other heavy and light artillery pieces). Additionally, Imperial Germany was leading in the sectors of Physics and Chemistry so that one third of all Nobel Prizes went to German inventors and researchers. Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The Parabellum-Pistole (Pistol Parabellum), popularly known as the Luger pistol is a semi-automatic self-loading pistol patented by Georg Luger in 1898 and manufactured by Deutsche Waffen- und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) starting in 1900. ... An early Maxim gun in operation with the Royal Navy The Maxim gun was the first self-acting machine gun. ... Minenwerfer (mine launcher) is the German name for a class of short range mortars used extensively during the First World War by the German Army. ...


Ideology

After achieving formal unification in 1871, Bismarck devoted much of his attention to the cause of national unity under the ideology of Prussianism. Conservative Catholic activism and emancipation, conceptualized by the conservative turn of the Vatican under Pope Pius IX and its dogma of Papal Infallibility, and working class radicalism, represented by the emerging Social Democratic Party, in many ways both reacted to concerns of dislocation by very different segments of German society, brought by a rapid shift from an agrarian-based economy to modern industrial capitalism under nationalist tutelage. While out-and-out suppression failed to contain either socialists or Catholics, Bismarck's "carrot and stick" approach significantly mollified opposition from both groups. 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at... SPD redirects here. ...


One can summarize Bismarck's ideology under four objectives: Kulturkampf, social reform, national unification, and Kleindeutschland. The German term Kulturkampf (literally, culture struggle) refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck. ... For the German Neighbourhood Kleindeutschland in New York see Little Germany, New York Kleindeutschland (literally Small Germany) was a 19th century political idea postulating the idea of a unified Germany led by Hohenzollern Prussia, with Berlin as capital, and excluding the Austrian Empire. ...


Kulturkampf

Following the incorporation of the Catholic German states in the south and some areas in the east, Catholicism, represented by the Catholic Centre Party, was seemingly the principal threat to unification process. Southern Catholics, hailing from a much more agrarian base and falling under the ranks of the peasantry, artisans, guildsmen, clergy, and princely aristocracies of the small states more often than their Protestant counterparts in the North, initially had trouble competing with industrial efficiency and the opening of outside trade by the Zollverein. Roman Catholic institutions were obstructed and Catholic influence on society was fought by the Bismarck government. After 1878 however, the struggle against socialism would unite Bismarck with the Catholic Centre Party, bringing an end to the Kulturkampf, which had led to far greater Catholic unrest than existed beforehand and had strengthened rather than weakened Catholicism in Germany. “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... The factual accuracy of this article is Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Zollverein (German for customs union) or German Customs Union was formed between the 39 states of the German Confederation in 1834 during the Industrial Revolution to remove internal custom barriers, although upholding a protectionist tariff system with foreign trade partners. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Social reform

To contain the working class and to weaken the influence of socialist groups, Bismarck reluctantly implemented a remarkably advanced welfare state. The social security systems installed by Bismarck (health care in 1883, accidents insurance in 1884, invalidity and old-age insurance in 1889) at the time were the most advanced in the world and, to a degree, still exist in Germany today. Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


National unification

Bismarck's efforts also initiated the leveling of the enormous differences between the German states, which had been independent in their evolution for centuries, especially with legislation. Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ...


Kleindeutschland

Two visions of what the German Empire should territorially compromise were debated during Bismarck's reign. One vision was of a Großdeutschland (Greater or Large Germany) the other which was preferred by Bismarck was a Kleindeutschland (Lesser or Small Germany). Großdeutschland then especially espoused by German liberals and Pan-German nationalists was that Germany should be an all-encompassing state for all Germans including Austrian territory (some wanting all of Austro-Hungarian territory, some only wanting German Austrian lands). Kleindeutschland was an idea espoused by Bismarck and Prussian conservatives. The Kleindeutschland concept believed that incorporating all of Austria-Hungary into Germany would result in the destabilization of the German state due to the number of ethnic minorities in Austria-Hungary. Also, the largely Prussian supporters of Kleindeutschland feared that even the incorporation of German Austria alone excluding non-German territory, would weaken Prussia's control over the direction of Germany and substantially increase the number of Roman Catholics in a state which already had tensions with the Protestant north establishment and Catholic south which the state wanted to assimilate. Kleindeutschland was an important element of the German Empire's political affairs and stands in stark contrast to Nazi Germany which claimed itself to be a successor to the German Empire, even though Nazi Germany followed a Pan-German, Großdeutschland approach which dismantled Prussian hegemony in Germany in favour of a centralized and totalitarian state. National assembly meeting in St. ... For the German Neighbourhood Kleindeutschland in New York see Little Germany, New York Kleindeutschland (literally Small Germany) was a 19th century political idea postulating the idea of a unified Germany led by Hohenzollern Prussia, with Berlin as capital, and excluding the Austrian Empire. ... Pan-Germanism, one of the ethnically-charged political movements of the 19th century for unity of the German-speaking peoples of Europe. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Pan-Germanism, one of the ethnically-charged political movements of the 19th century for unity of the German-speaking peoples of Europe. ...


Germanization

One of the effects of the unification policies was the elimination of the use of non-German languages from public life, schools and academic settings with the intent of pressuring the non-German population to abandon their national identity or leave the country in what was called "Germanization". The strict Germanization policies had often the reverse effect of stimulating resistance, usually in the form of home schooling and tighter unity in the minority groups.


The Germanization policies were targeted particularly against the significant Polish minority of the Empire, gained by Prussia in Partitions of Poland]. Laws were made that denied Poles the right to build a home in territories taken in Partitions of Poland, restricted right to speak Polish in public, in 1908 a law was made allowing for explusion of Poles from their homes. A Settlement Commission was set up and funded by the government in 1885, with a mission to distribute Polish owned land among German colonists. However, Poles founded a similar organization that successfully competed with the German settlement commission. In the 1880s mass expulsion of Poles that weren't granted German citizenship were organized by German authorities. Numerous Polish associations fought for their rights and about 20 Polish deputies were elected to the Reichstag legislative where they tried unsuccesfully to fight minority rights. With time German policy towards Poles grew in its racists aspects and massive plans of ethnic cleansing were made towards Poles by German officials[7]. The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Building of Settlement Commission in Poznań, today Collegium Maius The Settlement Commission (German: Ansiedlungskommission) was a department that operated between 1886 and 1918, set up by Otto von Bismarck to increase land ownership of Germans at the expense of Poles in the eastern provinces of the German Empire, through the... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Expulsion is one of words used to describe expulsions after World War II, indicating condemnation of the events. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ...


Law

The completely different legal histories and judicial systems posed enormous complications, especially for national trade. While a common trade code had already been introduced by the Confederation in 1861 (which was adapted for the Empire and, with great modifications, is still in effect today), there was little similarity in laws otherwise. Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1871, a common Criminal Code (Reichsstrafgesetzbuch) was introduced; in 1877, common court procedures were established in the court system (Gerichtsverfassungsgesetz), civil procedures (Zivilprozessordnung) and criminal procedures (Strafprozessordnung). In 1873 the constitution was amended to allow the Empire to replace the various and greatly differing Civil Codes of the states (if they existed at all; for example, parts of Germany formerly occupied by Napoleon's France had adopted the French Civil Code, while in Prussia the Allgemeines Preußisches Landrecht of 1794 was still in effect). In 1881, a first commission was established to produce a common Civil Code for all of the Empire, an enormous effort that would produce the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (BGB), possibly one of the most impressive legal works of the world; it was eventually put into effect on 1 January 1900. It speaks volumes for the conceptual quality of these codifications that they all, albeit with many amendments, are still in effect today. 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (or BGB) was the civil code of the German Empire and continues to act as the central law for german civil law. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming the legal code. ...


Year of three emperors

Frederick III, Kaiser for only 99 days (9 March - 15 June 1888)
Frederick III, Kaiser for only 99 days (9 March - 15 June 1888)

On 9 March 1888, William I died shortly before his 91st birthday, leaving his son Frederick III as the new emperor. Frederick was a liberal and an admirer of the British constitution,[8] his links with the United Kingdom strengthened further with his marriage to Princess Victoria, eldest child of Queen Victoria. With his ascent to the throne, many hoped that Frederick's reign would lead to a liberalisation of the Reich and an increase of parliament's influence on the political process. The dismissal of Robert von Puttkamer, the highly-conservative Prussian interior minister, on 8 June was a sign in the expected direction and a blow to Bismarck's administration. Image File history File links FriedIII.jpg‎ Summary Federick III emperor of Germany Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Frederick III, German Emperor Portal:Germany/Anniversaries/June Portal:Germany/Anniversaries/June/June 15 ... Image File history File links FriedIII.jpg‎ Summary Federick III emperor of Germany Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Frederick III, German Emperor Portal:Germany/Anniversaries/June Portal:Germany/Anniversaries/June/June 15 ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... Victoria of the United Kingdom (born Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise) 21 November 1840 – 5 August 1901) was the eldest child and daughter of Queen Victoria and her consort Albert. ... “Queen Victoria” redirects here. ... In general, liberalization refers to a relaxation of previous government restrictions, usually in areas of social or economic policy. ... Robert von Puttkamer (5 May 1828 – 15 March 1900) was a Prussian statesman. ... This page lists Prussian Ministers of the Interior. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


However, by the time of his coronation, Frederick had developed incurable laryngeal cancer, which had been diagnosed the previous year on 12 November 1887 by British doctor Morell Mackenzie.[9]. Frederick died on the 99th day of his rule, on 15 June 1888. The death of Frederick III led to the crowning of his son William II as emperor. Due to the rapid succession of these three monarchs, 1888 is known as the Year of Three Emperors (German: Dreikaiserjahr). Cancer of the larynx also may be called laryngeal cancer. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Sir Morell Mackenzie (1837-1892), was a British physician, one of the pioneers of laryngology in the United Kingdom. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... William II or Wilhelm II (born Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor von Preußen; English: Prince Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German... The year 1888 is commonly called Year of Three Emperors (Dreikaiserjahr) in Germany. ...


The Wilhelminian era

Relegitimizing the throne and Bismarck's resignation

Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor Hohenzollern of Prussia, more commonly known as Kaiser Wilhelm II.Oil painting by Max Kohner, 1890
Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor Hohenzollern of Prussia, more commonly known as Kaiser Wilhelm II.
Oil painting by Max Kohner, 1890

Wilhelm II intended to relegitimize the importance of the Imperial throne at a time when other monarchies in Europe were being subordinated into figurehead positions. This decision led the ambitious Kaiser into conflict with Bismarck who was confident in his leadership and had no intent to relinquish any powers to the young Kaiser and instead wanted Wilhelm II to be dependent on him.[10] A major difference between Wilhelm II and Bismarck was their approaches to handling political crises, especially in 1889, when German coal miners went on strike in Upper Silesia. Bismarck demanded that the army be sent in to crush the strike, but Wilhelm II rejected this authoritarian measure, responding "I do not wish to stain my reign with the blood of my subjects."[11] Instead of repression being used, Wilhelm had the government proceed with negotiations with a delegation sent from the coal miners which resulted in the strike coming to an end without violence.[11] This was the beginning of a rift between Wilhelm II and Bismarck. Bismarck defied Wilhelm's demands for greater power by forming political coalitions with political parties which Wilhelm did not praise.[10] The fractious relationship ended after Wilhelm II and Bismarck had a dispute, days later Bismarck turned in his resignation in March 1890.[10] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny Śląsk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ...


With the departure of Bismarck as Chancellor, Wilhelm II became the dominant leader of Germany. Unlike his father who was satisfied with leaving government affairs to the Chancellor, Wilhelm wanted to be active in the affairs of Germany and wanted to be a knowledgeable leader, not an ornamental figurehead.[12] Wilhelm voluntarily received economics tutoring from Walther Rathenau, a controversial figure in German affairs at the time in Germany because he was liberal, Jewish, a freemason and a homosexual (who would later be assassinated in 1922 by far-right nationalists because of his unconventional background of the time). From Rathenau, Wilhelm learned about European economics and industrial and financial realities in Europe.[12]. Walter Rathenau Walther Rathenau (September 29, 1867–June 24, 1922) was a German industrialist and politician who served as Foreign Minister of Germany. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ...


In official appearances and photographs, Wilhelm II took great care in hiding his deformed and withered left-hand which he had since birth. Wilhelm would become internationally known for his aggressive foreign policy positions and strategic blunders which pushed the German Empire into political isolation and later into World War I. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Domestic affairs

Under Wilhelm II, Germany no longer had long-ruling strong chancellors like Bismarck. The new chancellors had difficulty in performing their roles, especially their additional role as Prime Minister of Prussia that was assigned to them in the German Constitution. Reforms made by Chancellor Caprivi involving trade liberalization which brought about a reduction in unemployment were supported by the Kaiser and many Germans, except for Prussian landowners, who feared loss of land and power and set up a number of anti-Caprivi campaigns against the reforms.[13]. The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ...


While Prussian aristocrats challenged the demands of a united German state, in the 1890s a number of rebellious organizations were set up to challenge the authoritarian conservative Prussian militarism which was instilled on the country. Some educators acted in opposition the German state-run schools which taught military education and set up their own independent liberal-minded schools which encouraged individuality and freedom.[14] Nevertheless, the schools in Imperial Germany had a very high standard and dealt with modern developments [15] Artists began experimental art in opposition to Kaiser Wilhelm's demands for traditional art in which Wilhelm responded "art which transgresses the laws and limits laid down by me can no longer be called art […]."[16] At the same time, a new generation of cultural producers emerges [17]The most dangerous opposition to the monarchy came from the newly formed Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) in the 1890s which advocated Marxism. The threat of the SPD towards the German monarchy and industrialists caused the state to both crackdown on socialist supporters as well as initiating social reform to sooth tensions. Germany's large industries provided significant social welfare programs and good care to their employees as long as they were not identified as socialists or members of a trade union. Pensions, sickness benefits and even housing were provided to employees by the big industries to reduce social unease.[14] SPD redirects here. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...


Wilhelm II, unlike Bismarck, set aside differences with the Roman Catholic Church and put the government's energy into opposing socialism at all cost.[18] This policy failed when the Social Democrats won a third of the votes in the 1912 elections to the Reichstag (reich parliament), and became the largest political party in Germany. The government remained in the hands of a succession of conservative coalitions supported by right-wing liberals or Catholic clerics and heavily dependent on the Kaiser's favour. The rising militarism that was implemented by Wilhelm II caused many to flee Germany in order to avoid military service. Most fled to the United States. The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ...   (IPA: ; German IPA: ), is the German word used most for empire, realm, or nation cognate with Scandinavian rike/rige, Dutch: , Sanskrit: and English: as found in bishopric. ...


During World War I, the Kaiser's powers were devolved to a two-man dictatorship in 1916 led by the German High command leaders, future President of Germany, General Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff. The Kaiser was no longer seen as a hero figure to Germans, while Hindenburg and Ludendorff were seen as the nation's true heroic leaders by Germans. The Kaiser remained a figurehead for the remaining two years of the war until his abdication in 1918. The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Quartermaster General during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ...


Foreign affairs

Wilhelm II wanted Germany to have its "place in the sun" like the British Empire and set Germany to begin colonial efforts in Africa and the Pacific. With much territory in Africa already colonized, Germany took the remaining territories, which formed German Southwest Africa (Namibia), German Kamerun (Cameroon), and German East Africa (Tanzania). Germany gained some islands in the Pacific the Chinese port of Qingdao, to compete with the British holding of Hong Kong and Portuguese holding of Macau. The African colonies had some economic return, but the Pacific colonies had little to no economic use, and only served to spread Germany's official presence. Germany, with the finance of Deutsche Bank, worked to create the Baghdad Railway with the cooperation of the Ottoman Empire with the intention to create a German port in the Middle East.[19] The creation of the Baghdad Railway from 1900-1911 was initially supported by the United Kingdom which believed that this would increase trade between their country and Germany, however as time passed, the British increasingly saw the efforts as Germany attempting to expand its influence in the Middle East and demanded a block to the expansion of the railway in 1911, this demand was accepted by Germany and the Ottoman Empire. The colonial efforts were opposed by Bismarck and his supporters who favoured Germany gaining international power through dominating Europe and creating a German "Mitteleuropa" (Middle Europe) through taking land from the Russian Empire which would provide Germany with sufficient economic resources and land to exploit at the cost of non-German population. Wilhelm's efforts to colonize the few remaining territories in Africa and the Pacific would come under criticism by German nationalists and later future Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler, for having missed the opportunity to create a fully European-based German empire. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Deutsche Bank AG (ISIN: DE0005140008, NYSE: DB) (English: ) is a bank operating worldwide and employing more than 75,000 people (June, 2007). ... In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire planned to construct a Baghdad Railway under German control. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The approximate area of Mitteleuropa Mitteleuropa (Central/Middle Europe) is a German term approximately equal to Central Europe. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


German colonialism under Wilhelm II put Germany in conflict and risk of conflict on a number of occasions, the first during the Boxer Rebellion in Qingdao, Chinese civilians protested against the German presence in which Wilhelm demanded a swift response saying that the Chinese must be forced to remember German brute power in the same way as others remembered the Huns, a statement which would later be used by war opponents to mock Germany during World War I and World War II. On two occasions, Germany nearly went to war with France over the fate of Morroco. Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire France United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Surviving, severely malnourished Herero after the escape through the arid desert of Omaheke.
Surviving, severely malnourished Herero after the escape through the arid desert of Omaheke.

German colonialism also resulted in the infamous Herero and Namaqua Genocide in German Southwest Africa (modern day Namibia). Upon taking Southwest Africa, German white settlers were encouraged to settle on land held by Herero and Nama tribes, in order to displace them. The Herero and the Nama people were then being used as slave labour, while their land was pillaged for resources, particularly for diamonds, by the German colonists. In 1903 and 1904, the Herero and the Nama revolted against the German colonists in Southwest Africa. In response to the attacks, the German Empire dispatched General Lothar von Trotha to Southwest Africa with orders to expel all the Herero from Southwest Africa immediately. Von Trotha gave the following ultimatum to the Herero people: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (933x612, 159 KB) Summary Surviving Herero after the escape through the arid desert of Omaheke. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (933x612, 159 KB) Summary Surviving Herero after the escape through the arid desert of Omaheke. ... Area: 84,732 km² (32,715 mi²) Population: 67,496 (2001), 52,735 (1991) Population density 0. ... Surviving Herero after the escape through the arid desert of Omaheke. ... Flag of German South West Africa German South-West Africa (German: Deutsch-Südwestafrika or DSWA) was a colony of Germany from 1884 to 1915, when it was taken over by South Africa and administered as South-West Africa, later becoming Namibia. ... Lothar von Trotha Adrian Dietrich Lothar von Trotha (July 3, 1848 – 1920) was a German military commander most famous for his method of waging war during the Herero Wars in South-West Africa, which the German government has since admitted was a form of genocide. ...

I, the great general of the German troops, send this letter to the Herero people... All Hereros must leave this land... Any Herero found within the German borders with or without a gun, with or without cattle, will be shot. I shall no longer receive any women or children; I will drive them back to their people. I will shoot them. This is my decision for the Herero people. [20]

In total, some 65,000 Herero (80 percent of the total Herero population), and 10,000 Nama (50 percent of the total Nama population) perished. The German Empire defended its actions on the world stage by saying that the Herero could not be protected under the Geneva Conventions defining human rights because Germany claimed the Herero were not true humans, but "subhumans". This method of dehumanization to defend genocide would be a model utilized by Germany's Nazi regime years later. However, unlike the Third Reich, Imperial Germany's racist atrocities did not expand to all non-whites within its boundaries, for a number of native Africans had became German colonial soldiers, called Askaris. The genocide was directed specifically at eliminating Herero and Nama from German Southwest Africa out of fear of more revolts destabilizing Germany's East African colony and endangering its colonists. The United Nations officially condemned the genocide in 1985, followed in 2004 by the acceptance and condemnation by the German government of the actions of the German Empire which caused the genocide. Original document. ... Flag of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, refers to the German Empire in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the control of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP), or Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as chancellor and head of state. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Categories: Military stubs ...


Germany's belligerance towards France, and Germany's support of its ally Austria-Hungary's occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, caused Germany to lose previously good relations with Russia, and the potential for an alliance with Britain evaporated, as Britain followed the Russian monarchy's opposition to Germany's aggression and set aside differences with France. By 1914, Wilhelm's foreign policy left Germany isolated with one loyal ally, Austria-Hungary, largely dependent on German support to protect its declining power due to ethnic nationalism across its heterogeneous empire. Germany's other official ally, the Kingdom of Italy had grown increasingly lukewarm and indifferent to Germany, remained an ally only on paper, and saw more benefit in entering into an alliance which could take back Italian-populated territories from Austria-Hungary. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ...


World War I and the end of the Empire

Following the assassination of the Austrian Habsburg Archduke of Austria-Este, Francis Ferdinand by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip, Kaiser Wilhelm II offered Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph full support of Austrian plans to invade Serbia, which they blamed for supporting the assassination. This unconditional support for Austria was called a "blank cheque" by historians in that the German government did not expect a serious war to take place as Serbia initially met many of the demands of Austria, and if a war were to take place, the German government expected the war would remain regional and Russia, which was long angered over Austria's occupation of Bosnia in 1908, would not risk entering a war with Austria if Germany demanded a halt to Russian aggression. These assumptions backfired when Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary, in which Germany backed Austria-Hungary. France and Britain went to the side of Russia, as the Triple Entente and the German Empire and Europe faced a massive war. The German Empire was one of the defeated Central Powers during World War I. It entered the conflict following the declaration of war against Serbia by its ally, Austria-Hungary. ... Franz Ferdinand links to here. ... Gavrilo Princip (Serbian Cyrillic: Гаврило Принцип, IPA: ) (July 25, 1894) – April 28, 1918) was an ethnic Serb, but later proclaimed to be a Yugoslav Nationalist[1], with links to a group known as the Black Hand (Црна Рука or Crna Ruka) and Mlada Bosna, who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife... Franz Joseph I Franz Joseph (in English also Francis Joseph) (August 18, 1830 - November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and King of Hungary from 1867 until 1916. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

The First World War saw the introduction of modern weaponry and technology. Here a German naval zeppelin flies over the battleship SMS Großer Kurfürst in 1917.

Germany began the war by targeting its major rival, France. Germany saw France as its principal danger on the European continent as it could mobilize much faster than Russia and bordered Germany's industrial core in the Rhineland. Unlike Britain and Russia, the French were principally involved in the war for revenge against Germany, in particular, for France's loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany in 1871. The German high command knew that France would muster its forces to go into Alsace-Lorraine. Germany did not want to risk lengthy battles along the French-German border and instead adopted the Schlieffen Plan, a military strategy designed to cripple France, through invading Belgium and then sweeping down towards Paris and then encircling and crushing the French forces along the French-German border in a quick victory. After defeating France, Germany could turn to attack Russia. This strategy resulted in the violation of recognizing Belgium's official neutrality. The strategy initially was successful, the German army swept down from Belgium and was nearly at Paris, at the nearby Marne river. However the French army put up a strong resistance to defend their capital at the First Battle of the Marne resulting in the German army retreating. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is an article about Zeppelin airships. ... SMS Grosser Kurfürst was a German Koenig Class battleship of the Kaiserliche Marine during the First World War. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... Alfred Graf von Schlieffen For the French counter-plan, see Plan XVII The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staffs overall strategic plan for victory on the Western Front against France, and was executed to near victory in the first month of World War I; however, a French counterattack... It has been suggested that List of visitor attractions in Paris be merged into this article or section. ... Marne is a department in north-eastern France named after the Marne River which flows through the department. ... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre John French Helmuth von Moltke Karl von Bülow Alexander von Kluck Strength 1,071,000 1,485,000 Casualties Approximately 263,000: 250,000 French casualties (80,000 dead) 13,000 British casualties (1,700 dead) Approximately 250,000 total...

German dead at Verdun. One of many repeated sights seen in the gruesome trench warfare of World War I.

The aftermath of the First Battle of the Marne was a long-held stalemate between the German army and the allies with the use of dug-in trench warfare. Further attempts to breakthrough deeper into France failed at the two battles of Ypres with huge casualties. German Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn decided to break away from the Schlieffen Plan and instead focus on a war of attrition against France. Falkenhayn targeted the ancient city of Verdun because Verdun had been one of the last cities to hold out against the Prussian army in 1870, and Falkenhayn knew that as a matter of national pride, the French would to anything to ensure that Verdun would not be taken. Falkenhayn anticipated that with correct tactics, French losses would be more than the Germans and that continued French recruits being sent to Verdun would cause the French army to "bleed white" and then allow the German army to take France easily. In 1916, the Battle of Verdun began, with the French positions in Verdun under constant shelling and poison gas attack and taking large casualties under the attack of an overwhelmingly large German forces. However Falkenhayn's prediction of a greater ratio of French killed proved to be wrong. With Falkenhayn's replacement by Erich Ludendorff and no success in sight at Verdun, the German army retreated in December 1916. Image File history File links German dead at the battle of Verdun Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links German dead at the battle of Verdun Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ypres municipality and district in the province West Flanders Ypres (French, pronounced generally used in English1) or Ieper (official name in Dutch, pronounced ) is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. ... Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ... Verdun (German: Wirten, official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région, northeast France, in the Meuse département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Combatants  France  German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties 378,000; of whom 120,000 died. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Quartermaster General during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ...

Borders drawn up in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
Borders drawn up in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.

While the western front was a stalemate for the German army, the eastern front proved to be a great success. The badly organized and supplied Russian army faltered and the German army steadily advanced eastward. The Germans benefited from political instability in Russia and a desire to end the war. In 1916, the German government allowed Russia's communist Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin to travel through Germany from Switzerland into Russia. Germany believed that if Lenin could create further political unrest, Russia would no longer be able to continue its war with Germany, allowing the German army to focus on the western front. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 386 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (614 × 954 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken from the campaign series, made public by the US-Army under www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 386 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (614 × 954 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken from the campaign series, made public by the US-Army under www. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ...


In 1917, the Tsar was ousted from the Russian throne and later a Bolshevik government was created under the leadership of Lenin. With political opposition to the Bolsheviks, Lenin decided to end Russia's campaign against Germany and Austria-Hungary in order to redirect its energy to eliminating internal dissent. In 1918, at the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Bolshevik government gave Germany an enormous territorial settlement in exchange for an end to war on the eastern front. This settlement including all of modern-day Baltic nations (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) which were given to the German occupation authority Ober Ost, and Belarus and the Ukraine also were given to Germany. As a result, Germany had at last achieved the long-wanted land of "Mitteleuropa", and now could fully focus on destroying the allies on the western front. The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... Leopold von Bayern Ober Ost (short for Oberbefehlshabers der gesamten deutschen Streitkräfte im Osten) was a German WWI military administration governing a large part of the German-held areas of the Russian Empire. ...

A drawing of a native East African Askari in German service by Wilhelm Kuhnert.
A drawing of a native East African Askari in German service by Wilhelm Kuhnert.

On the colonial front, German results were mixed. Much of Germany's colonies fell to the British and French armies, however in German East Africa, an impressive campaign was waged by the colonial army leader there, General Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, who would remain long respected as a military commander then and after by the native Askaris whom he commanded. Lettow-Vorbeck used guerilla raids against British forces in Kenya and Rhodesia as well as invading Portuguese Mozambique to give his forces supplies and to pick up more Askari recruits. By the end of the war his army was the only one allowed a victory parade under the Brandenburg Gate. A sketch of an Askari by Wilhelm Kuhnert (1865-1926) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A sketch of an Askari by Wilhelm Kuhnert (1865-1926) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... General von Lettow-Vorbeck as a Colonel General Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck (March 20, 1870 - March 9, 1964) was the commander of the German East Africa campaign in World War I, the only colonial campaign of that war where Germany remained undefeated. ... A drawing of an East African Askari in German service by Wilhelm Kuhnert Askari is an Arabic, Turkish, Persian and Swahili word meaning soldier (Arabic: ‘askarī). It was normally used to describe indigenous troops in East Africa and the Middle East serving in the armies of European colonial powers. ... The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and one of the main symbols of Berlin, Germany. ...


Despite success on the Eastern Front in 1918, Germany was not making progress on the western front for three reasons. The first was war exhaustion, German soldiers had been on the battlefield constantly without relief and had lost hope in the chance of a victory. The second was civil unrest because of the war effort. The concept of "total war" in World War I, meant that supplies had to be redirected towards the armed forces and with German commerce being stopped by the British naval blockade. German civilians were forced to live in increasingly meagre conditions, food prices were first limited, then rationing was introduced. The winter of 1916-17 was called the "turnip winter". During the war, about 750,000 German civilians died from malnutrition.[21] Many Germans wanted an end to the war and more and more Germans associated with the left, such as the Social Democratic Party and the more radical Independent Social Democratic Party which demanded an end to the war. The third reason was the entry of the United States into the war. With a surprise attack by a German U-Boat (submarine) against the liner RMS Lusitania in 1915 which was carrying American civilians (though the Germans suspected it was bringing supplies to Britain) and Germany's subsequent declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare against Britain in 1917, American public sentiment moved from isolationism to interventionism. While U.S. involvement was smaller than that of World War II, the American entry was devastating to the Germans because unlike Britain, France or Germany itself, the United States forces were not worn down by the war attrition which had affected the other countries. Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... RMS Lusitania was a British luxury ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Line Shipping Company and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. ...


In November 1918, with internal revolution, a stalemated war, Austria-Hungary falling apart from multiple ethnic tensions, and pressure from the German high command, Kaiser Wilhelm II, who was by this time merely a figurehead, abdicated the throne along with the German high command, leaving the disastrous scenario to be blamed on the new government led by the German Social Democrats which called for and received an armistice on November 11, 1918 which marked the end of World War I and the end of the German Empire. Karl Liebknecht on 9 November 1918 in the Berliner Tiergarten Statue of a revolutionary soldier, memorial to the German Revolution of 1918-1919 in East Berlin. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... SPD redirects here. ...


Legacy

The German Empire left a legacy of mixed fortunes for Germany and Europe. Under Bismarck, a united German state had finally been achieved, however it remained a Prussian-dominated state and it did not have German Austria within it. The influence of Prussian militarism and its colonial efforts casted a negative view of the state, especially in regards to the Herero and Namaqua Genocide and the causes of World War I. While the German Empire enacted a number of progressive social reforms such as guaranteeing freedom of press, and established a system of public welfare, at the same it openly engaged in racist discrimination of non-Germans, leading some scholars to title it an "apartheid state"[22]. There was a modern election system to the federal Parliament, the Reichstag, which represented every adult man by one vote. This enabled the German Socialists and the Catholic Centre Party to play remarkable roles in the empire's political life, although both parties were officially regarded more or less as "foes of the empire". Surviving Herero after the escape through the arid desert of Omaheke. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


The history of the German Empire is well remembered in Germany as a period when academic research and university life flourished as well as arts and literature. Thomas Mann published his novel Buddenbrooks in 1901. Theodor Mommsen was awarded the Nobel prize for literature a year later for his Roman history. Painters like the groups Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke made a significant contribution to modern art. The AEG turbine building in Berlin by Peter Behrens from 1909 can be regarded as a milestone in classic modern architecture and an outstanding example of emerging functionalism. Paul Thomas Mann (June 6, 1875 – August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual. ... Buddenbrooks was Thomas Manns first novel, published in 1901 when he was twenty six years old. ... Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (November 30, 1817–November 1, 1903) was a German classical scholar, jurist and historian, generally regarded as the greatest classicist of the 19th century. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... Cover of Der Blaue Reiter almanac. ... Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905. ... AEG volt-meter designed by Peter Behrens AEG (Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft, General Electricity Company) was a German producer of electronics and electrical equipment. ... Peter Behrens (April 14, 1868–February 27, 1940) was a German architect and designer. ...


The empire's support of Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia against Russia's opposition has been seen by a number of historians as a major influence in what caused the clash of alliances in Europe which resulted in the massive war later known as World War I. In the defeat of the empire in World War I and the territorial and economic losses imposed by the Treaty of Versailles signed shortly after the empire's dissolution caused enormous ramifications for the new German republic, such as defining what the German state was and how it should operate, as conservatives, liberals, socialists, nationalists, Catholics and Protestants all had their own interpretations which led to a fractious political and social climate in Germany in the aftermath of the empire's collapse. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to...


There is a considerable historical debate over the Sonderweg question, concerning whatever the nature of German politics and society during the Second Reich made Nazi Germany inevitable. Some historians such as Fritz Fischer, Hans-Ulrich Wehler, and Wolfgang Mommsen have argued that during the Second Reich, a "pre-modern" aristocratic elite became entrenched in German society and thus doomed the Weimar Republic to failure before it was even born. Other historians such as Gerhard Ritter have argued that it was only World War One and its aftermath that opened the doors to Nazism. Sonderweg, (literally: sonder= special, weg= path) is a theory in historiography that considers the German-speaking lands, or the country Germany, to have followed its own, unique course through its evolution and history, separate from other European countries: therefore, a route of development which is special or an alternative. In... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article is about the German historian. ... Hans-Ulrich Wehler (September 11, 1931-) is a well-known left-wing German historian. ... Wolfgang Justin Mommsen (November 5, 1930-August 11, 2004) was an left-wing German historian and the twin brother of Hans Mommsen. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Gerhard Albert Ritter (April 6, 1888-July 1, 1967) was a well-known German conservative historian. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...


Territorial legacy

In addition to present-day Germany, large parts of what comprised the German Empire now belong to several other modern European countries:

German name Country Region
Elsass-Lothringen France the then-German-speaking départements of Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin (Alsace region) and Moselle (north-eastern part of the Lorraine region)
The Eupen und Malmédy area
(intentionally spelled with é only then)
Belgium Eupen and Malmedy, two towns and surrounding municipalities in the province of Liège, on the German border
Nordschleswig Denmark South Jutland County
Hultschiner Ländchen (the Sudetenland which was stretched along the border to Germany belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Empire) Czech Republic Hlučín Region, on the border to Poland in Silesia, from which Germans were deported following WWII (as from the whole Sudetenland)
Central and eastern Pommern, Schlesien, Ostbrandenburg, Ermland, Masuren, Westpreußen, Southern Ostpreußen
Also Posen (Wartheland).Several of those regions had Polish majority
Poland the northern and western parts of the country, including Pomerania, Silesia, Lubusz Land, Warmia and Masuria, from all of which Germans were deported following WWII.
Northern Ostpreußen with Königsberg Russia Kaliningrad Oblast exclave on the Baltic, from which Germans were deported following WWII.
Memelland with Memel (city) Lithuania Klaipėda Region, including the Baltic coastal city of Klaipėda, from which Germans were deported following WWII.

Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... History The département was created on March 4, 1790, during the French Revolution. ... Haut-Rhin is a French département, named after the Rhine river. ... (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Moselle is a département in the northeast of France named after the Moselle River. ... Location Administration Capital Metz Regional President Jean-Pierre Masseret (PS) (since 2004) Départements Meurthe-et-Moselle Meuse Moselle Vosges Arrondissements 19 Cantons 157 Communes 2,337 Statistics Land area1 23,547 km² Population (Ranked 11th)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... St Nikolaus church in Eupen Eupen is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège, 15 km from the German border (Aachen), from the Dutch border (Maastricht) and from the nature reservation Hohes Venn (Ardennes). ... Malmedy Cathedral, built in 1777 Malmedy is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... St Nikolaus church in Eupen Eupen is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège, 15 km from the German border (Aachen), from the Dutch border (Maastricht) and from the nature reservation Hohes Venn (Ardennes). ... Malmedy Cathedral, built in 1777 Malmedy is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Liège is the easternmost province of Wallonia and of Belgium. ... Sønderjyllands Amt (English: South Jutland County) is a county (Danish, amt) on the Jutland peninsula in southern Denmark. ... Sønderjyllands Amt (English: South Jutland County) is a county (Danish, amt) on the Jutland peninsula in southern Denmark. ... Moravian-Silesian Region within Czech Republic Hlučínsko within Moravian-Silesian Region Hlučín Area (Hlučínsko in Czech, Hultschiner Ländchen in German) is an area in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Moravian-Silesian Region within Czech Republic Hlučínsko within Moravian-Silesian Region Hlučín Area (Hlučínsko in Czech, Hultschiner Ländchen in German) is an area in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. ... Pomerania and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ... Neumark was a territorial unit created in the Middle Ages by Brandenburg on the border between Pomerania and Great Poland. ... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... Sailing on Lake MikoÅ‚ajki. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ... Pommern redirects here. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Lubus Land, Lebus Land ( pol: Ziemia Lubuska ger: Land Lebus, czech: Lubušsko) on the Oder river. ... Capital city Olsztyn Area 24,191. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... Historical map of Memelland and the northern part of East Prussia The KlaipÄ—da Region (Lithuanian: ) or Memel Territory (German: ; French: ) was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 when it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors. ... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality KlaipÄ—da city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (CheÅ‚mno... Historical map of Memelland and the northern part of East Prussia The KlaipÄ—da Region (Lithuanian: ) or Memel Territory (German: ; French: ) was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 when it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors. ... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality KlaipÄ—da city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (CheÅ‚mno...

See also

Germany Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... This article is about former colonies of Germany. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Gründerzeit (German, literally: the Founding Epoch) denotes the first decades after the foundation in 1871 of the Prussia-led German Empire. ... This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The term New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europes powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. ...   (IPA: ; German IPA: ), is the German word used most for empire, realm, or nation cognate with Scandinavian rike/rige, Dutch: , Sanskrit: and English: as found in bishopric. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Heil dir im Siegerkranz (Hail to the Crown) was from 1871 to 1918 the national anthem of the German Empire. ...

Further reading

  • Aronson, Theo. The Kaisers. London: Cassell, 1971.
  • Blackbourn, David and Eley, Geoff. The Peculiarities Of German History: Bourgeois Society and Politics In Nineteenth-Century Germany. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984 ISBN 0-19-873058-6.
  • Craig, Gordon. Germany: 1866-1945, Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1978 ISBN 0-19-822113-4.
  • Fischer, Fritz. From Kaiserreich to Third Reich: Elements of Continuity in German History, 1871-1945. (translated and with an introduction by Roger Fletcher) London: Allen & Unwin, 1986. ISBN 0-04-943043-2.
  • Fischer, Fritz. War of Illusions: German Policies from 1911 to 1914. (translated from the German by Marian Jackson) New York: Norton, 1975. ISBN 0-393-05480-2.
  • Jefferies, Mattew. Imperial Culture in Germany, 1871-1918. New York and London: Palgrave, 2003. 1-4039-0421-9.
  • Lüke, Martina G.: Zwischen Tradition und Aufbruch. Deutschunterricht und Lesebuch im Deutschen Kaiserreich. Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-631-56408-0.
  • Nipperdey, Thomas. Deutsche Geschichte 1800 - 1918. Arbeitswelt und Bürgergeist. Machtstaat vor der Demokratie. 3 vols. Beck: München, 1998, ISBN-13: 978-3-406-44038-0.
  • Retallack, James. Germany In The Age of Kaiser Wilhelm II, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire : Macmillan ; New York : St. Martin's Press, 1996 ISBN 0-312-16031-3.
  • Ritter, Gerhard. The Sword and the Scepter; the Problem of Militarism in Germany. (translated from the German by Heinz Norden) Coral Gables: University of Miami Press 1969-73.
  • Stürmer, Michael. The German Empire, 1870-1918. New York: Random House, 2000. ISBN 0-679-64090-8.
  • Mommsen, Wolfgang. Imperial Germany 1867-1918: Politics, Culture, and Society in an Authoritarian Sate. (translated by Richard Deveson from Der Autoritäre Nationalstaat) London: Arnold, 1995. ISBN 0-340-64534-2.
  • Wehler, Hans-Ulrich. The German Empire, 1871-1918. (translated from the German by Kim Traynor) Leamington Spa, Warwickshire: Berg Publishers, 1985. ISBN 0-907582-22-2.

Gordon Alexander Craig (November 13, 1913 - November 2, 2005) was a Scottish-born U.S historian of German, Swiss and of diplomatic history. ... This article is about the German historian. ... This article is about the German historian. ... Gerhard Albert Ritter (April 6, 1888-July 1, 1967) was a well-known German conservative historian. ... Michael Stürmer (September 29, 1938-) is a German historian. ... Wolfgang Justin Mommsen (November 5, 1930-August 11, 2004) was an left-wing German historian and the twin brother of Hans Mommsen. ... Hans-Ulrich Wehler (September 11, 1931-) is a well-known left-wing German historian. ...

References

  1. ^ German Empire: administrative subdivision and municipalities, 1900 to 1910 (German). Retrieved on 2007-04-25.
  2. ^ Population statistics of the German Empire, 1871 (German). Retrieved on 2007-04-25.
  3. ^ Constitution of the German Reich: Bismarck constitution (German) (1871-04-16).
  4. ^ Constitution of the German Reich: Weimar constitution (German) (1919-08-11).
  5. ^ Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law with respect to Collisions between Vessels (1910-09-23). - an example of a legal document where Germany is officially referred to as "the German Empire"
  6. ^ Moeller van den Bruck, Arthur (1923). Das Dritte Reich (in German). 
  7. ^ Imannuel Geiss, Der polnische Grenzstreifen 1914-1918. Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Kriegszielpolitik im Ersten Weltkrieg, Hamburg/Lübeck 1960
  8. ^ Kitchen, Martin (2000). Cambridge lllustrated History of Germany. Cambridge University Press, 214. ISBN 978-0521794329. 
  9. ^ Judd, Denis (1976). Eclipse of Kings. Stein & Day, 13. ISBN 978-0685701195. 
  10. ^ a b c Kurtz, Harold (1970). The Second Reich: Kaiser Wilhelm II and his Germany. McGraw-Hill, 60. ISBN 978-0070356535. 
  11. ^ a b Stürmer, Michael (2000). The German Empire: 1870-1918. New York: Random House, 63. ISBN 0679640908.. 
  12. ^ a b Kurtz, Harold (1970) 63
  13. ^ Kurtz, Harold (1970) 67
  14. ^ a b Kurtz, Harold (1970) 72
  15. ^ Lüke, Martina G.: Zwischen Tradition und Aufbruch. Deutschunterricht und Lesebuch im Deutschen Kaiserreich. Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-631-56408-0.
  16. ^ Kurtz, Harold (1970) 76
  17. ^ Jefferies, Matthew: Imperial Culture in Germany, 1871-1918.New York and London: Palgrave, 2003.
  18. ^ Kurtz, Harold (1970) 56
  19. ^ Stürmer, Michael (2000) 91
  20. ^ Germany regrets Namibia 'genocide', BBC News, January 12, 2004
  21. ^ German Historical Museum. 1914-18: Lebensmittelversorgung (German).
  22. ^ Martin Kitchen, A History of Modern Germany, 1800-2000 Blackwell Publishing 2006, page 130

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Constitution of the German Empire was the basic law of the German Empire of 1871-1919. ... The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ... Arthur Moeller van den Bruck (April 23, 1876 – May 30, 1925) was a German cultural historian and writer. ... Das Dritte Reich (The Third Reich) is a 1923 book by German author Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, the ideology of which the Nazi party heavily adopted. ... Michael Stürmer (September 29, 1938-) is a German historian. ... // Random House is a publishing house based in New York City. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Facade of the Zeughaus, the Museums main building The Deutsches Historisches Museum (DHM), German Historical Museum, was founded in 1987 on the occasion of the 750th anniversary of the founding of Berlin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... The Free State of Bavaria (German: Bayern or Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (615x707, 424 KB) Other versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): German Empire Hamburg Mecklenburg-Strelitz Württemberg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Schaumburg Bremen (state) Reuss Duchy of Anhalt... Baden was a territory in the southwest of what later became unified Germany. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a Duchy (from 1815 a Grand Duchy) in northeastern Germany, formed by a partition of the Duchy of Mecklenburg. ... Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a duchy in northern Germany, roughly consisting of the present day district of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (the historical Stargarder Land), bordering areas of modern-day Brandenburg with the town of Fürstenberg and the area around Ratzeburg in modern Schleswig-Holstein. ... Oldenburg is a historical state in todays Germany named for its capital, Oldenburg. ... The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Herzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741, when the Saxe-Eisenach line had died out. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Location of the Duchy of Brunswick within the German Empire Capital Braunschweig Government Monarchy Duke  - 1813-1815 Frederick William  - 1913-1918 Ernest Augustus History  - Restoration 1815  - Abdication 1918 Area  - 1910 3,672 km² Population  - 1910 est. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Capitals Coburg and Gotha Head of State Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) served as the name of the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present-day states of Bavaria... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Schaumburg is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small state in Germany, in the present-day state of Thuringia, with capital at Rudolstadt. ... Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small state in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with capital at Sondershausen. ... Lippe within the German Empire Capital Detmold Government Principality History  - Established 1123  - Raised to County 1528  - Raised to Principality 1789  - German Revolution 1918 Lippe was a historical state in Germany. ... Reuss Elder Line within the German Empire Capital Greiz Government Principality History  - Established 1778  - German Revolution 1918  - Merged into Thuringia 1919 The Principality of Reuss Elder Line (German: ) was a state in Germany. ... Reuss (German: Reuß) is the name of several historical states in todays Thuringia, Germany. ... Waldeck (or later Waldeck-Pyrmont) was a sovereign principality in what is now Lower Saxony and Hesse (Germany). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Location of the Free City of Lübeck with the German Empire   Capital Lübeck Government Republic History  - Formation 1226  - Abolition April 1, 1937 The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... This article is about former colonies of Germany. ...


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German history in the Middle Ages was strongly influenced by two opposing principles: universalism and individualism.
Charlemagne's German policy, therefore, was not a mere brute conquest, but a union which was to be strengthened by the ties of morality and culture to be created by the Christian religion.
On this day the Germanic idea of the Kingdom of God, of which Charlemagne was the representative, bowed to the Roman idea, which regards Rome as its centre, Rome the seat of the old empire and the most sacred place of the Christian world.
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