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Encyclopedia > German East Africa

German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germany's colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. It came into existence during the 1880s and ended during World War I, when the area was taken over by the British and Belgium. It measured 384,170 mi² (994,996 km²) in size or about ten times the size of Taiwan. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Flag of Tanganyika Tanganyika was an East African republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, named after Lake Tanganyika, which formed its western border. ... // Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Kingdom of Italy Russian Empire Kingdom of Serbia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria German Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Nikolay II Nikolay Yudenich Radomir Putnik Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Oskar...

Location of German East Africa.
Location of German East Africa.

Contents

Image File history File links German_East_Africa. ... Image File history File links German_East_Africa. ...


Foundation

The colony's story begins with Karl Peters, an adventurer who founded the "Society for German Colonization" and had signed some treaties with native chiefs of the mainland across from Zanzibar. On March 3, 1885, the German government announced that it had granted an imperial charter (secretly, on February 17) to Peters' company, and intended to establish a protectorate in East Africa. Peters then recruited a variety of specialists who fanned out across the country, south to the Rufiji River, and north to Witu, near Lamu on the coast. Karl Peters (September 27, 1856 - September 10, 1918), German traveller in Africa, one of the founders of German East Africa (East Africa, todays Tanzania), was born at Neuhaus on the Elbe, the son of a Lutheran clergyman. ... The Society for German Colonization (Gesellschaft für Deutsche Kolonisation) was founded on March 28, 1884 by Dr. Karl Peters. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar (IPA pronunciation: ), as used today, is the collective name for two East African islands off mainland Tanzania: Unguja (also called Zanzibar) and Pemba. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Rufiji River lies entirely within the African nation of Tanzania. ... Wituland (also Witu or Swahililand) was an approximately 3000 km² territory in East Africa centered on the town of Witu just inland from Indian Ocean port of Lamu north of the mouth of the Tana River in what is now Kenya. ... Lamu town is the largest town on Lamu Island, which in turn is a part of the Lamu Archipelago in Kenya, (coordinates ). Lamu town is also the headquarters of Lamu District. ...

Historic map of German East Africa - 1888

When the Sultan of Zanzibar protested (as he considered himself the ruler of the mainland), Bismarck sent five warships (including Stosch, Gneisenau and Prinz Adalbert), which arrived August 7 and trained their guns on the Sultan's palace. The net result was that the British and Germans agreed to divide the mainland into spheres of influence, and without British support the Sultan had to go along. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x1280, 375 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): German East Africa Maps of Tanzania ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x1280, 375 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): German East Africa Maps of Tanzania ... The Sultan in Disneys Aladdin A Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Bismarck redirects here. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ...


The Germans quickly established their rule over Bagamoyo, Dar es Salaam and Kilwa. The Abushiri Revolt revolt that started in 1888 was put down (with British help) in the following year. In 1890, London and Berlin made a deal that gave Heligoland to Germany, and defined the limits of German East Africa (the exact borders remained ill-defined until 1910). The town of Bagamoyo is the oldest town in Tanzania, founded by the end of the 18th century. ... Dar es Salaam (دار السلام), formerly Mzizima, is the largest city (pop. ... Kilwa Kisiwani is an Islamic community on an island off the coast of East Africa, in present day Tanzania. ... The Abushiri Revolt was an insurrection in 1888-9 by the Arab population of the areas of the East African coast which were granted to Germany by the Sultan of Zanzibar in 1888. ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Heligoland (in German, Helgoland and in North Frisian, Lun, Hålilönj) is a small German archipelago in the North Sea. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Between 1891 and 1894, the Hehe — led by Chief Mkwawa — resisted German expansion, but were eventually defeated because other tribes were in favour of the newcomers. After a period of guerrilla warfare, Mkwawa himself was cornered and committed suicide in 1898. 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Hehe (also Wahehe) began as a number of independent chiefdoms made up of mixed people who were in some instances related to one another and are a Bantu tribe who live primarily in the Iringa region of Tanzania, numbering around 192,000, with no chiefdom over 5,000 people... Paramount Chief Mkwavinyika Munyigumba Mwamuyinga (1855 – 19 June or 19 July 18981), more commonly known as Chief Mkwawa, was a Hehe tribal leader in German East Africa (now Tanzania) who opposed the German colonisation. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The Germans were always few in number in the colony, relying on native chiefs to keep order, collect the taxes and start commercial farms for cash crops, such as cotton, coffee and sesame. In 1899 German Protection Troops (Schutztruppen) consisted of 2,212 local soldiers and 195 officers.[1] Cotton ready for harvest. ... Coffee Coffee is a beverage, served hot or with ice, prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum L. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. ...


The Maji Maji Rebellion occurred in 1905, and was put down by the governor, Count Gustav Adolf von Götzen. But scandal soon followed, with stories of corruption and brutality, and in 1907 Bülow appointed Bernard Dernburg to reform the colonial administration, which became a model of colonial efficiency and commanded extraordinary loyalty among the natives during the First World War. The Maji Maji Rebellion, sometimes called the Maji Maji War, was an uprising by several African tribes in German East Africa against the German colonial rulers, lasting from 1905 to 1907. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Count Gustav Adolf Graf von Götzen (12 May 1866 — 2 December 1910) was a German explorer and Governor of German East Africa. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Von Bülow was a German noble family, with titles Baron (Freiherr) or Prince (Fürst). ...


First World War


The story of German East Africa in the First World War is essentially the history of the colony's military commander, General Paul Erich von Lettow-Vorbeck. A vibrant and young officer, he spent the war harrying the forces of the British Empire, tying down with his band of 3,000 Europeans & 11,000 native levies, called Askaris, a British/Imperial army 300,000 strong, which was at times commanded by the former Second Boer War commander Jan Smuts. One of his greatest victories was at the Battle of Tanga (3–5 November, 1914), where he beat a British force more than eight times the size of his own. Combatants Great Britian, South Africa, France, Belgium, Portugal Germany Commanders Jan Smuts Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck Strength 40,000 15,500 // Introduction German East Africa (modern-day Tanzania, Burundi, and Rwanda) was a large territory with complex geography (including the massive Rift Valley and Lake Victoria). ... General Paul Erich von Lettow-Vorbeck (March 20, 1870 - March 9, 1964) was the commander of the German East Africa campaign in World War I, the only colonial campaign of that war where Germany remained undefeated. ... A drawing of an Askari by Wilhelm Kuhnert Askari is an Arabic, Persian and Swahili word meaning soldier (Arabic: ‎ ‘askarÄ«). It was frequently used to describe indigenous troops in East Africa and the Middle East serving European colonial powers but also describes policemen and security guards. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State, South African Republic Commanders Frederick Roberts later Lord Kitchener Christiaan Rudolf de Wet and Paul Kruger Casualties Military dead:22,000 Civilian dead:N/A Total dead:22,000 Military dead:6,500 Civilian dead:24,000 Total dead:30,500 The Second Boer... Jan Smuts Jan Christian Smuts, OM, CH (May 24, 1870 – September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African and Commonwealth statesman and military leader. ... The Battle of Tanga (sometimes nicknamed the Battle of the Bees) was the blundered attempt by the United Kingdom to capture Tanzania) during World War I. It was the first major event in the war in Africa. ...

5 Rupee Banknote from 1905 - issued by German East Africa (http://www.germannotes.com)
5 Rupee Banknote from 1905 - issued by German East Africa (http://www.germannotes.com)

Lettow-Vorbeck's masterful mix of guerrilla warfare and daring raids ended up costing the British war effort massive resources and upwards of 60,000 casualties. Nonetheless, weight of numbers, especially after forces coming from Belgian Congo had attacked from the West, and dwindling supplies, forced Lettow-Vorbeck into a grudging withdrawal. Ultimately, Lettow-Vorbeck fought his tiny force out of German East Africa and into Mozambique, where he surrendered a few weeks after the end of the war. Image File history File links 1905-ostafrika-5rupien. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Capital Léopoldville Government Royal Protectorate Created 1908 Dissolved 1960 Official languages French, Dutch The Belgian Congo was the formal title of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) between King Léopold IIs formal relinquishment of personal control over the state to Belgium on 15 November 1908...


Heralded after the war as one of their few heroes, the Germans celebrated Lettow-Vorbeck's Schutztruppe as the only German force in the First World War not to have been defeated in open combat. Incredibly, not a single one of his Askari colonial troops deserted over the entire length of the war, and they were later given pensions by the Weimar Republic. One can read about this in Von Lettow-Vorbeck's book My Reminiscences of East Africa, alternately titled in German HEIA SAFARI! Deutschlands Kampf in Ostafrika. More accessibly, one can read Byron Farwell's The Great War in Africa, 1914–1918 and Battle for the Bundu, The First World War in East Africa (1974) by Charles Miller. The Schutztruppe was the colonial armed force of Imperial Germany from the late 1800s to 1918 when Germany lost its colonies. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Kingdom of Italy Russian Empire Kingdom of Serbia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria German Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Nikolay II Nikolay Yudenich Radomir Putnik Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Oskar... A drawing of an Askari by Wilhelm Kuhnert Askari is an Arabic, Persian and Swahili word meaning soldier (Arabic: ‎ ‘askarÄ«). It was frequently used to describe indigenous troops in East Africa and the Middle East serving European colonial powers but also describes policemen and security guards. ... The Weimar Republic (German Weimarer Republik, IPA: []) is the common name for the republic that governed Germany from 1919 to 1933. ... Charles Miller was an American author of popular history books on East Africa such as The Lunatic Express, An Entertainment in Imperialism (1971) and Battle for the Bundu, The First World War in East Africa (1974). ...


The German raider SMS Königsberg also fought off the coast of East Africa. She was eventually scuttled in the Rufiji delta in July 1915. SMS Königsberg was a Kaiserliche Marine light cruiser, which was in German East Africa at the start of World War I. She operated in her design role as a raider of merchant shipping. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The Treaty of Versailles broke up the colony, giving the western area to Belgium as Ruanda-Urundi, the small Kionga Triangle south of the Rovuma River to Portugal to become part of Mozambique, and the remainder to Britain, who named it Tanganyika. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Ruanda-Urundi was a Belgian League of Nations Mandate and then UN trust territory from 1924 to 1962 when it became the independent states of Rwanda and Burundi. ... The Kionga Triangle was a tiny territory on the border between German East Africa (present-day Tanzania) and Mozambique, totalling just 1000 km² (400 mi²). ... The Ruvuma River (formerly also known as the Rovuma River) forms the greater part of the boundary between the countries of Tanzania and Mozambique. ... Flag of Tanganyika Tanganyika was an East African republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, named after Lake Tanganyika, which formed its western border. ...


Postage stamps

5-pesa "Yacht", postmarked Lindi, 27 July 1901
5-pesa "Yacht", postmarked Lindi, 27 July 1901
10 pesa on 20 pfennig overprint of 1893, used 5 July 1894 at Tanga
10 pesa on 20 pfennig overprint of 1893, used 5 July 1894 at Tanga

The first postage stamps issued for German East Africa came in 1893, as surcharges in pesa values on regular German stamps, along with the inscription "Deutsch-Ostafrika." In 1900, Germany issued the "Yachts," a common design used for all of Germany's colonies, featuring the Kaiser's yacht Hohenzollern. In German East Africa they were denominated in pesas and rupees (64 pesas to a rupee), and inscribed "DEUTSCH-OSTAFRIKA". In 1905 new stamps were printed in "hellers," 100 hellers to a rupee. Germany continued to print stamps even as things went badly in the war, issuing a 1-rupee watermarked Yacht in 1916 (genuine uses of this stamp are extremely rare, worth US$20,000 or more). Most types of German East Africa stamp sell for under US$10, but the high denominations and early overprints up to US$100. Image File history File linksMetadata Stamp_German_East_Africa_1900_5p. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Stamp_German_East_Africa_1900_5p. ... Lindi is both a seaside town (2003 pop. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Scan of German East Africa 10-para overprint stamp of 1893, made by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Overprint German East Africa User:Stan Shebs/Gallery/Philately ... ImageMetadata File history File links Scan of German East Africa 10-para overprint stamp of 1893, made by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Overprint German East Africa User:Stan Shebs/Gallery/Philately ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Map of the Tanga Region Tanga is both the name of the most northerly seaport city of Tanzania, and the surrounding Tanga Region. ... A selection of Hong Kong postal stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... An overprint is the addition of text (and sometimes graphics) to the face of a postage stamp after it has been printed. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


After the colony was occupied by Belgian and British troops, each issued its own provisional stamps. In 1916, the Belgians overprinted stamps of Belgian Congo in several ways, first with "RUANDA" and "URUNDI," although these were never actually used. A second series was overprinted with the dual-language "EST AFRICAIN ALLEMAND / OCCUPATION BELGE / DUITSCH OOST AFRIKA / BELGISCHE BEZETTUNG." In 1922 these stamps received surcharges ranging from 5c to 50c. 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... An overprint is the addition of text (and sometimes graphics) to the face of a postage stamp after it has been printed. ... Capital Léopoldville Government Royal Protectorate Created 1908 Dissolved 1960 Official languages French, Dutch The Belgian Congo was the formal title of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) between King Léopold IIs formal relinquishment of personal control over the state to Belgium on 15 November 1908... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Initially, in 1916, the British overprinted stamps of the Nyasaland Protectorate with "N.F.", for "Nyasaland Force," then in 1917 switched to the overprint "G.E.A." on stamps of East Africa and Uganda. The same overprint appeared on stamps inscribed "East Africa and Uganda Protectorates," but these were issued after the establishment of Tanganyika, and are considered part of Tanganyika's postal history. The Republic of Malawi is a land-locked nation in east Africa. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


German place-names

Kasanga (named Bismarckburg during the German East Africa era) is a town in southwestern Tanzania. ... Kilimanjaro is a mountain in northeastern Tanzania. ... Tabora is the capital city of Tanzanias Tabora Region with a population of 127,880 (2002 census). ...

See also

German colonial empire This is a list of former German Empire colonies and protectorates (German: Schutzgebiete), the German colonial empire. ... The flag of the German East Africa Company The German East Africa Company (German: Deutsch-Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft) was an organisation founded by Karl Peters (with imperial backing from Otto von Bismarck) on April 2, 1885 to govern German East Africa (modern Tanzania). ... Germans of Namibia are a community of people descended from German colonists who settled in Namibia. ...

References and external links

  1. ^ Sievers Hahn: Afrika. 2nd Edition, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig, 1903. Page 324.
Former German Schutzgebiete (colonies and protectorates)

Colonies Africa German East Africa (Tanganyika, Rwanda, Burundi)
Witu   (sultan under protectorate)
German South-West Africa     (Namibia)
German West Africa (Kamerun, Togoland)

Pacific German New Guinea and   (German Solomon Islands, German Marshall Islands
associated Pacific islands  Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, Nauru, Palau)
German Samoa

Concessions China Kiaochow / Kiautschou
Tsingtao (leased)

Unrecognized New Swabia

  Results from FactBites:
 
German East Africa - LoveToKnow 1911 (4795 words)
The coast of German East Africa (often spoken of as the Swahili coast, after the inhabitants of the seaboard) is chiefly composed of coral, is little indented, and is generally low, partly sandy, partly rich alluvial soil covered with dense bush or mangroves.
East Africa is rich in all kinds of antelope, and the elephant, rhinoceros and hippopotamus are still plentiful in parts.
By the agreement of the 1st of July 1890, between the British and German governments, and by agreements concluded between Germany and Portugal in 1886 and 1894, and Germany and the Congo Free State in 1884 and later dates, the German sphere of influence attained its present area.
German East Africa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1186 words)
On March 3, 1885, the German government announced that it had granted an imperial charter (secretly, on February 17) to Peters' company, and intended to establish a protectorate in East Africa.
The Germans were always few in number in the colony, relying on native chiefs to keep order, collect the taxes and start commercial farms for cash crops, such as cotton, coffee and sesame.
The story of German East Africa in the First World War is essentially the history of the colony's military commander, General Paul Erich von Lettow-Vorbeck.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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