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Encyclopedia > German Democratic Republic
Deutsche Demokratische Republik
German Democratic Republic

1949 – 1990 Flag
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Auferstanden aus Ruinen
Capital East Berlin
52°31′N, 13°24′E
Language(s) German
Government Socialist republic
Head of State
 - 19491960 Wilhelm Pieck
 - 1990 Sabine Bergmann-Pohl
Head of Government
 - 19491964 Otto Grotewohl
 - 1990 Lothar de Maizière
Legislature Volkskammer
Historical era Cold War
 - Established October 71949
 - Final Settlement September 25, 1990
 - German reunification October 31990
Area
 - 1990 108,333 km2
41,828 sq mi
Population
 - 1990 est. 16,111,000 
     Density 148.7 /km²  (385.2 /sq mi)
Currency East German mark

The German Democratic Republic (GDR; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, or DDR; known in English as East Germany) was a socialist country which existed from 1949 to 1990. The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet occupation zone of Germany on October 7, 1949, following the creation in May 1949 of the Federal Republic of Germany ("West Germany") in the zones occupied by France, the United States and United Kingdom. East Berlin was the capital of the German Democratic Republic. Former eastern territories of Germany (German: ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) describes collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder-Neisse line which were internationally recognised as part of the territory of Germany after the formation of the German Empire in 1871. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(1946-1949). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Anthem (third stanza) also called Germany() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Berlin Official languages German1 Government Parliamentary Federal Republic  -  President Horst Köhler  -  Chancellor Angela Merkel (CDU) Formation  -  Eastern Francia 843   -  Holy Roman Empire 962   -  German Confederation 8 June 1815   -  German Empire 18... Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Germany. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_East_Germany. ... Flag ratio: 3:5 From the establishment of East Germany in 1949 to 1959, the flag of East Germany was the same as the Flag of West Germany, and the current Flag of Germany. ... The coat of arms The Coat of Arms of the German Democratic Republic featured a hammer, a pair of compasses, surrounded by a ring of rye. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Auferstanden aus Ruinen (Risen from the Ruins) was the national anthem of East Germany (German Democratic Republic, German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR). ... File links The following pages link to this file: East Germany Categories: GFDL images ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Socialist state is the term used in official documents of some countries to describe their political system. ... // Leaders of the Socialist Unity Party Chairmen Wilhelm Pieck (formerly KPD) and Otto Grotewohl (formerly SPD) (1946–1954) First Secretaries / General Secretaries of the Central Committee German: Erster Sekretär des Zentralkomitees der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Generalsekretär des ZK der SED. Walter Ulbricht (1950–1971) Erich Honecker (1971–1989... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Wilhelm Pieck (January 3, 1876 - September 7, 1960) was a German communist, politician and president of East Germany. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Sabine Bergmann-Pohl (born 20 April 1946) is a German conservative politician who served as the last Head of State of East Germany (the German Democratic Republic) from April 5 to October 2, 1990 - on October 3rd East and West Germany were reunited. ... // Leaders of the Socialist Unity Party Chairmen Wilhelm Pieck (formerly KPD) and Otto Grotewohl (formerly SPD) (1946–1954) First Secretaries / General Secretaries of the Central Committee German: Erster Sekretär des Zentralkomitees der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Generalsekretär des ZK der SED. Walter Ulbricht (1950–1971) Erich Honecker (1971–1989... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Otto Grotewohl (March 11, 1894 - September 21, 1964) was an East German politician. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Lothar de Maizière [] (born 2 March 1940) is a German conservative politician who served as the last and only democratically elected Prime Minister of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1990. ... A legislature is a type of deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Volkskammer (Peoples Chamber) was the de jure Legislature of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that West Germany be merged into this article or section. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (-_-)East Germany(-_-) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... ISO 4217 Code DDM User(s) German Democratic Republic Pegged with Deutsche Mark = M11 Subunit 1/100 pfennig Symbol M Plural Mark pfennig Pfennig Coins Freq. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The Soviet Occupation Zone (German: Sowjetische Besatzungszone (SBZ) or Ostzone) was the area of eastern Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II. It became East Germany. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ...


It consisted of the current German states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, Saxony and the eastern part of Berlin. Germany is a federation of 16 states called Länder (singular Land, which may be translated as country) or unofficially Bundesländer (singular Bundesland, German federal state). ... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a Bundesland (federal state) in northern Germany. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ...


In 1955 the Republic was declared by the Soviet Union to be fully sovereign; however, Soviet troops remained, based on the four-power Potsdam agreement. As NATO troops remained in West Berlin and West Germany, the GDR and Berlin in particular became focal points of Cold War tensions. The GDR was a member of the Warsaw Pact and a close ally of the Soviet Union. Following the initial opening of sections of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, new elections were held on March 18, 1990, and the governing party, the SED, lost its majority in the Volkskammer (the GDR parliament) soon after. On August 23, the Volkskammer decided that the territory of the Republic would accede to the ambit of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany on October 3, 1990. As a result of the formal annexation on that date, the German Democratic Republic officially ceased to exist. 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... The logo of the SED The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... The Volkskammer (Peoples Chamber) was the de jure Legislature of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... In negotiation, an ambit claim is an extravagant initial demand made in expectation of an eventual counter-offer and compromise. ... The Basic Law (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution[1] of Germany. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ...

Contents

History

Main articles: History of the German Democratic Republic and History of Germany
History of Germany
Ancient times
Germanic peoples
Migration Period
Frankish Empire
Medieval times
Holy Roman Empire
East Colonisation
Building a nation
Confederation of the Rhine
German Confederation
North German Confederation
Imperial Germany
German Empire
Germany during World War I
Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
World War II
Post-war Germany
Since 1945
Occupation and Division
Expulsion
East Germany
West Germany
German reunification
Present day Germany
Modern Germany
Topical
Military history of Germany
Territorial changes of Germany
Timeline of German history
History of the German language
This box: view  talk  edit

During the post-Roman migration period, many of these populations left for other lands, and Slavic Wends settled in their wake. German imperial rulers conquered the area during the Middle Ages. The newly acquired land was organised in margravates, German feudal states on the land of Slavs. Consequent waves of German settlements, which in subsequent centuries later included French Hugenots and Jews, gradually modified the originally Slavic composition of the land, except for the small community of Sorbs in Lusatia, and eventually most of what is now East Germany formed a large part of the historical Kingdom of Prussia. The flag of the German Democratic Republic, 1959–90 The German Democratic Republic (GDR), German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), often known in English as East Germany, existed from 1949 to 1990. ... This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Thor, Germanic thunder god. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Evolution of German linguistic area from 700 to 1950 Settlement in the East (German: ), also known as German eastward expansion, refers to the eastward migration and settlement of Germans into regions inhabited since the Great Migrations by the Balts, Romanians, Hungarians and, since about the 8th century, the Slavs. ... The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (Rheinbund in German; in French officially États confédérés du Rhin but in practice Confédération du Rhin) lasted from 1806 to 1813 and was formed from sixteen German states by Napoleon after he defeated Habsburgs Francis II... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... The German Empire was one of the defeated Central Powers during World War I. It entered the conflict following the declaration of war against Serbia by its ally, Austria-Hungary. ... It has been suggested that List of Weimar states be merged into this article or section. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... When in 1933 Hitler gained power, the world was little, if at all, aware of the intensity and duration of the armed conflict that would follow in just a few short years. ... It has been suggested that West Germany be merged into this article or section. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (-_-)East Germany(-_-) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG... Anthem (third stanza) also called Germany() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Berlin Official languages German1 Government Parliamentary Federal Republic  -  President Horst Köhler  -  Chancellor Angela Merkel (CDU) Formation  -  Eastern Francia 843   -  Holy Roman Empire 962   -  German Confederation 8 June 1815   -  German Empire 18... While German-speaking peoples have a long history, Germany as a nation-state dates only from 1871. ... // Part of the motivation behind the territorial changes are based on events in the history of Germany and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. ... 50 BC (approximately) Ingvaeones become Frisians, Saxons, Jutes and Angles by about now 8 BC Marcomanni and Quadi drive the Boii out of Bohemia 10 BC (approximately) differentiation of localized Teutonic tribes (Alamanni, Hermunduri, Marcomanni, Quadi, Suebi) in area formerly occupied by Irminones 8 BC Confederation of Marcomanni, Lugier, Semnones... The history of the German language as separate from common West Germanic begins in the Early Middle Ages with the High German consonant shift. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Wends (German: Wenden, Latin: Venedi) is the English name for some Slavic people from north-central Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Graf is a German noble title equal in rank to a count or an earl. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ...


In Imperial Germany and later during the time of the Weimar Republic, territory that would become East Germany was situated in the center of the state. This territory was known as "Mitteldeutschland" (Middle Germany), while the designation "East" was reserved for provinces such as eastern Pomerania, eastern Brandenburg, Silesia and East and West Prussia. During WWII, Allied leaders decided at the Yalta Conference that post-war borders of Poland would be moved westward to the Oder-Neisse line, just as Soviet borders were also moved westward into formerly Polish territory. This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... It has been suggested that List of Weimar states be merged into this article or section. ... Duchy of Pomerania, ruled by the slavic dynasty of Griffits (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greifen), was a semi-independent principality in the 17th century. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: , Polish: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ...


Discussions at Yalta and Potsdam also outlined the planned occupation and administration of post-war Germany under a four-power Allied Control Council, or ACC (composed of the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet Union). At the end of World War II, at the Potsdam Conference in 1945, France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union decided to divide Germany into four occupation zones. Each country would control a part of Germany until its sovereignty was restored. Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ...


The Länder (states) of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Thüringen, and the eastern sector of Greater Berlin fell in the Soviet Sector of Germany, or SBZ. Soviet objections to economic and political changes in western (US, UK, and French) occupation zones led to Soviet withdrawal from the ACC in 1948 and subsequent evolution of the SBZ into East Germany. Concurrently, the Western occupation zones consolidated to form West Germany (or the Federal Republic of Germany, FRG). Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a state in northern Germany. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ...


Officially, both the western Allies and the Communists committed to maintaining a unified Germany after the war in the Potsdam Agreement, at least on paper. The 1952 Stalin Note proposed German unification and superpower disengagement from Central Europe but the United States and its allies rejected the offer. Stalin died in early 1953. Though powerful Soviet politician Lavrenty Beria briefly pursued the idea of German unification once more following Stalin's death, he was arrested and removed from office in a coup d'etat in mid-1953. His successor, Nikita Khrushchev, firmly rejected the idea of handing eastern Germany over to be annexed, marking the end of any serious consideration of the unification idea until the resignation of the East German government in 1989. The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ... The four occupation zones in post-war Germany The 1952 Stalin Note, a. ... The unification of Germany can refer to: the 1871 formation of the German Empire under Otto von Bismarck. ... Superpower Disengagement refers to the German reunification plan proposed by Stalin in 1952. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Lavrenty Beria Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; (29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953), was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[1]–September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Just as Germany was divided after the war, Berlin, the former capital of Germany, was divided into four sectors. East Berlin was the de facto capital of East Germany, although the legality of this was disputed by the western Allies, as the entire city was formally considered an occupied territory governed by martial law through the Allied Control Council. In practice, the Allied Control Council quickly became moot as the Cold War intensified, and the eastern government ignored the technical legal restrictions on how eastern Berlin could be used. Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the Commonwealth of Nations (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States, (from 1941), Italy... An occupied territory is a region that has been taken over by a sovereign power after a military intervention, see belligerent occupation. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Conflict over the status of West Berlin led to the Berlin Blockade, when the GDR government briefly prohibited overland transit between West Germany and West Berlin, prompting the massive Berlin Airlift. Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... The Soviet Union blocked Western rail and road access to West Berlin from June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949. ...


The first leader of East Germany was Wilhelm Pieck. He was the first (and last) President of the Republic. The 1974 East German Constitution defined the country as a "republic of workers and peasants." Wilhelm Pieck (January 3, 1876 - September 7, 1960) was a German communist, politician and president of East Germany. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The German Democratic Republic (GDR), often known in English as East Germany, was founded in 1949 and was absorbed into the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990. ...


On June 17, 1953, following a production quota increase of 10 percent for workers building East Berlin's new boulevard, the Karl-Marx-Allee, demonstrations broke out in East Berlin and other industrial centers. The demonstrations became violent, and troops were dispatched to control the demonstrations, resulting in some deaths. Transit between West and East Berlin was relatively free at the time, meaning that the violent protests unfolded in full view of many western observers. See Uprising of 1953 in East Germany. June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Karl-Marx-Allee, towards Strausberger Platz. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and November 1953. ...


During the early stages of the occupation, the Soviet army seized a great deal of industrial equipment from eastern Germany to be shipped back to the Soviet Union as war reparations, crippling the East German economy for years. The increasing economic prosperity of West Germany led large numbers of East Germans to flee to the West. Since the 1940s, East Germans had been leaving the Soviet zone of Germany to emigrate to the west. The ongoing emigration of East Germans further strained the East German economy. Although the German border between the two Germanies was largely closed by the mid-1950s (see Inner German border), the sector borders in Berlin were relatively easy to cross. Due to the lure of higher salaries in the West, many skilled workers (such as doctors) crossed into the West, causing a 'brain drain' in the East. However, on the night of August 13, 1961, East German troops sealed the border between West and East Berlin and started to build the Berlin Wall, literally and physically enclosing West Berlin. Travel was greatly restricted into, and out of, East Germany. A highly effective security force called the Stasi monitored the lives of East German citizens to suppress dissenters through its network of informants and agents. Soviet redirects here. ... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... Republikflucht is the German term given to the process by which people left the German Democratic Republic (GDR) for a life in West Germany or indeed any other Western country. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A post marking the former border at Mödlareuth, Germany The GDR border system (also called the inner German border; in German, Innerdeusche Grenze or Deutsch-Deutsche Grenze) was an extensive system of fortifications that ran the entire 1381 km (858 mile) length of the border between East Germany (the... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ...


In 1971, Erich Honecker replaced Walter Ulbricht as head of state. East Germany was generally regarded as the most economically advanced member of the Warsaw Pact. Before the 1970s, the official position of West Germany was that of the Hallstein Doctrine which involved non-recognition of East Germany. In the early 1970s, Ostpolitik led by Willy Brandt led to a form of mutual recognition between East and West Germany. The Treaty of Moscow (August 1970), the Treaty of Warsaw (December 1970), the Four Power Agreement on Berlin (September 1971), the Transit Agreement (May 1972), and the Basic Treaty (December 1972) helped to normalise relations between East and West Germany and led to both Germanies joining the United Nations. Erich Honecker (25 August 1912 – 29 May 1994) was a German Communist politician who led German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until 1989. ... Walter Ulbricht (June 30, 1893 – August 1, 1973) was a German communist statesman. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... The Hallstein Doctrine, named after Walter Hallstein, was a key doctrine in the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) between 1955 and 1969. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992) was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... The Treaty of Moscow, was signed on August 12, 1970 between the USSR and West Germany. ... The Treaty of Warsaw is a treaty between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... The Transit Agreement of May 1972 arranged access to and from West Berlin from West Germany (the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG)) and secured the right of West Berliners to visit East Berlin and East Germany (the German Democratic Republic (GDR)) and also secured the rights of GDR citizens to... The Basic Treaty in common usage stands for the Treaty concerning the basis of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. The Basic Treaty of 1972 was part of the Ostpolitik under Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Competition with the West was carried on also on an athletic level. East German athletes dominated several Olympic disciplines. Of special interest was the only football match ever to occur between West and East Germany, a first round match during the 1974 World Cup. Though West Germany was the host and the eventual champion, East beat West 1-0. The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Qualifying countries The 1974 FIFA World Cup, the tenth staging of the World Cup, was held in West Germany from June 13 to July 7. ...


In September 1989 Hungary removed its border restrictions and unsealed its border and more than 13,000 people left East Germany by crossing the "green" border via Czechoslovakia into Hungary and then on to Austria and West Germany.[1] Many others demonstrated against the ruling party, especially in the city of Leipzig.Kurt Masur, the conductor of the Leipzig Gewandhaus orchestra led local negotiations with the government, and held town meetings in the concert hall.[2]The demonstrations eventually led Erich Honecker to resign and in October he was replaced by Egon Krenz. Kurt Masur Conducting Mendelssohns Scottish Symphony Kurt Masur (born July 18, 1927) is a German conductor. ... Egon Krenz (born 19 March 1937) is a former German Communist politician, who briefly served as leader of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1989 before the end of Communist rule. ...


On November 9, 1989 a few sections of the Berlin Wall were opened, resulting in thousands of East Germans crossing into West Berlin and West Germany for the first time. Soon, the governing party of East Germany resigned. Although there were some small attempts to create a permanent, democratic East Germany, these were soon overwhelmed by calls for unification with - and eventual annexation by - West Germany. After some negotiations (2+4 Talks, involving the two Germanies and the former Allied Powers United States, France, United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union), conditions for German unification were agreed upon. Thus, on October 3, 1990 the East German state was annexed by the Federal Republic of Germany. The East German territory was reorganized into what is now the city-state of Berlin and five federal states. The name of Mecklenburg state was altered to include the phrase "Vorpommern" or Western Pomerania and is now officially known as Mecklenburg-Vorpommern or Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ...


To this day, there remain vast differences between the former East Germany and West Germany (for example, in lifestyle, wealth, political beliefs and other matters) and thus it is still common to speak of eastern and western Germany distinctly. The Eastern German economy has struggled since annexation, and large subsidies are still transferred from west to east.


Politics

The SED emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946
The SED emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946
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East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was created as a socialist republic in 1949 and began to institute a government based on that of the Soviet Union. ... Download high resolution version (786x949, 50 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (786x949, 50 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wilhelm Pieck (January 3, 1876 - September 7, 1960) was a German communist, politician and president of East Germany. ... Otto Grotewohl (March 11, 1894 - September 21, 1964) was an East German politician. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle. ... Marxismtakes its name from the praxis — the synthesis of philosophy and political action — of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Religious communism is a term used by some Communists that claim that before communism became associated with atheism, the word communism was mainly used by religious groups. ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Manse Manse! Kim Jong Il! The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Eurocommunism was an attempt in the 1970s by various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant in a Western European democracy. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term. ... See also Marxian economics Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory designs work in philosophy which is strongly influenced by Karl Marxs materialist approach to theory or which is written by Marxists. ... International Socialism redirects here. ... Socialist economics is a broad, and sometimes controversial, term. ... See Communist League (disambiguation) for other groups of the same name. ... The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820, Wuppertal – August 5, 1895, London), a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ... “Stalin” redirects here. ...   (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... Anarchism is a form of social criticism, a political movement as well as a political philosophy. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is on criticisms of communism, a branch of socialism. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... In Western thought, the history of communism, an idea of a society based on common ownership of property, can be traced back to ancient times. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... The new class is a term to describe the privileged ruling class of bureaucrats and Communist party functionaries which typically arises in a Stalinist communist state. ... The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Post-Communism is a name sometimes given to the period of political and economic transition in former communist states located in parts of Europe and Asia, usually transforming into a free market capitalist and globalized economy. ... Primitive communism, according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is the original society of humanity. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...

Political organization

The ruling political party in East Germany was the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (Socialist Unity Party of Germany, SED). It was created in 1946 through the Soviet-directed merger of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) in the Soviet controlled zone. As the Potsdam Agreement had committed the Soviets to supporting a democratic form of government in Germany, other political parties were technically permitted, although in practice they had no political power and were not allowed to meaningfully question or oppose government policy. Along with other parties, the SED was part of the "National Front of Democratic Germany", ostensibly a united coalition of anti-fascist political parties. The logo of the SED The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Potsdam Agreement, or the Potsdam Proclamation, was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ... The National Front was a united front of political parties and mass organisations in East Germany. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


The other political parties ran under the joint slate of the National Front, controlled by the SED, for elections to the Volkskammer, the East German Parliament. Elections took place, but were effectively controlled by the SED/state hierarchy, as Hans Modrow has noted. The Volkskammer (Peoples Chamber) was the de jure Legislature of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... Hans Modrow (born January 27, 1928) served as one of the last leaders of East Germany and as of 2003 functions as honorary Chairman of the Party of Democratic Socialism. ...

The Volkskammer also included representatives from the mass organisations like the Free German Youth (Freie Deutsche Jugend or FDJ), or the Free German Trade Union Federation. In an attempt to include women in the political life of East Germany, there was a Democratic Women's Federation of Germany, with seats in the Volkskammer. The Christian Democratic Union of Germany was an East German political party founded in 1945. ... The Christian Democratic Union (CDU - Christlich-Demokratische Union) is a political party in Germany. ... The Democratic Farmers Party of Germany (German: Demokratische Bauernpartei Deutschlands (DBD)) was an East German political party. ... The Christian Democratic Union (CDU - Christlich-Demokratische Union) is a political party in Germany. ... The Liberal Democratic Party of Germany (German: Liberal-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands (LDPD)) was a political party in East Germany. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | German political parties | Liberal parties ... The National Democratic Party (German: Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, or NDPD) was an East German political party that acted as an organisation for former members of the NSDAP and the Wehrmacht. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | German political parties | Liberal parties ... The Free German Youth (Freie Deutsche Jugend or FDJ) was the official youth movement of the government of the German Democratic Republic. ... Register of members of the FDGB. Daten zur Ausstellung des Mitgliedsbuches. ... Democratic Womens Federation of Germany (in German, Demokratischer Frauenbund Deutschlands/DFD) was a mass organisation with representation in the Volkskammer which primarily fought for womens issues in East Germany. ...


Important non-parliamentary mass organisations in East German society included the German Gymnastics and Sports Association (Deutscher Turn- und Sportbund or DTSB), and People's Solidarity (Volkssolidarität, an organisation for the elderly). Another society of note (and very popular during the late 1980s) was the Society for German-Soviet Friendship. The 1980s refers to the years of and between 1980 and 1989. ... Categories: Organization stubs ...


A highly effective secret police force called the Stasi infiltrated and reported on most private activity in East Germany, limiting opportunity for non-sanctioned political organization. All formal organizations except for churches were directly controlled by the East German government. Churches were permitted to operate more or less free from government control, so long as they abstained from political activity. This article is about secret police as organizations. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... St. ...


Following German reunification, the SED was renamed the "Party of Democratic Socialism" (PDS) and then the Left Party (die Linke), which continues to be a political force in Berlin and other areas of the former East Germany, albeit drastically less powerful than the SED. The Left Party (In German: , officially with a period at the end), formerly Party of Democratic Socialism (Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus, PDS) is a left-wing socialist political party in Germany. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


Persons of note in East Germany

Erich Honecker

Official GDR portrait of Erich Honecker Source: http://de. ... Official GDR portrait of Erich Honecker Source: http://de. ...

Political representatives

  • Hermann Axen, editor-in-chief of the SED paper "Neues Deutschland" 1956-1978, SED secretary for international relations 1966-1989
  • Johannes R. Becher, first minister for culture 1954-1958, wrote the lyrics of the national anthem
  • Hilde Benjamin, vice president of the supreme court 1949-1953, minister for justice 1953-1967, dubbed "red guillotine" for her relentless persecution of political opponents
  • Otto Grotewohl, Chairman of the East German SPD 1945-1946; joint chairman of the SED 1946-54; Chairman of the Council of Ministers 1949-64
  • Erich Honecker, General Secretary of the SED 1971-89; Chairman of the Council of State 1976-89
  • Margot Honecker née Feist, minister for education 1963-1989
  • Heinz Keßler, minister for defence 1985-1989 (deputy minister since 1957)
  • Egon Krenz, General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party and chairman of Council of State October - December 1989, he had been Honnecker's deputy and "crown prince" since 1983
  • Erich Mielke, Stasi Minister 1957-1989
  • Günter Mittag, SED secretary for economics 1962-1973 1976-1989
  • Hans Modrow, SED district secretary for Dresden 1973-1989, last SED prime minister November 1989 - March 1990
  • Wilhelm Pieck, Chairman of the East German KPD 1945-1946; joint chairman of the SED 1946-54; State President 1949-60
  • Günter Schabowski, SED district secretary for Berlin 1985-1989; as party spokesperson he caused the fall of the Berlin wall
  • Alexander Schalck-Golodkowski, head of the department of "commercial coordination" in the ministry of foreign trade.
  • Karl Schirdewan, SED secretary 1953-1958, dismissed for "faction building"
  • Horst Sindermann, Chairman of the Council of Ministers 1973-1976; president of parliament 1976-1989
  • Karl-Eduard von Schnitzler, telecaster on East German television, "famous" for his propaganda programme "Der schwarze Kanal"
  • Willi Stoph, Chairman of the Council of Ministers 1964-73 1976-89; Chairman of the Council of State 1973-76
  • Harry Tisch, head of the Free German Trade Union Federation 1975-1989
  • Walter Ulbricht, General Secretary of the SED 1950-71; Chairman of the Council of State]] 1960-73)
  • Markus "Mischa" Wolf, head of the GDR's foreign intelligence department 1952-1986

// Leaders of the Socialist Unity Party Chairmen Wilhelm Pieck (formerly KPD) and Otto Grotewohl (formerly SPD) (1946–1954) First Secretaries / General Secretaries of the Central Committee German: Erster Sekretär des Zentralkomitees der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Generalsekretär des ZK der SED. Walter Ulbricht (1950–1971) Erich Honecker (1971–1989... Neues Deutschland is a German newspaper. ... Johannes Robert Becher (* May 22, 1891 in Munich; † October 11, 1958 in Berlin) was a German poet. ... Hilde Benjamin (February 5, 1902 in Bernburg – April 18, 1989 in Berlin; née Hilde Lange) was an East German judge and minister of justice. ... Otto Grotewohl (March 11, 1894 - September 21, 1964) was an East German politician. ... SPD redirects here. ... Erich Honecker (25 August 1912 – 29 May 1994) was a German Communist politician who led German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until 1989. ... Margot Honecker née Feist (born April 17, 1927 in Halle/Saale, Germany) is a German Communist politician who served as Minister for National Education in East Germany (1963-1989). ... Egon Krenz (born 19 March 1937) is a former German Communist politician, who briefly served as leader of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1989 before the end of Communist rule. ... Erich Fritz Emil Mielke (December 28, 1907 - May 21, 2000 in Berlin), was a German Communist. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... Hans Modrow (born January 27, 1928) served as one of the last leaders of East Germany and as of 2003 functions as honorary Chairman of the Party of Democratic Socialism. ... Wilhelm Pieck (January 3, 1876 - September 7, 1960) was a German communist, politician and president of East Germany. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... Günter Schabowski (born January 4, 1929) was an official of the SED party in East Germany, famous for accidentally beginning the destruction of the GDR border system. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961. ... Alexander Schalck-Golodkowski (3 July 1932 _) was an East German politician and trader. ... Horst Sindermann (September 5, 1915 - April 20, 1990) was Chairman of the Council of Ministers of East Germany (GDR) from 1973 to 1976. ... Karl-Eduard von Schnitzler (April 28, 1918 - September 20, 2001) was an East German journalist, propagandist, and host of the television show Der Schwarze Kanal (German: The Black Channel) from March 21, 1960 to October 30, 1989. ... Der schwarze Kanal (English: The Black Channel) was an East German television service made up of bowdlerized programmes from the FRG with pro-Communist commentary. ... Willi Stoph (9 July 1914 - 13 April 1999) was Prime Minister of East Germany from 1973 to 1989. ... Harry Tisch was the head of the Free German Trade Union Federation between 1975 and 1989. ... Register of members of the FDGB. Daten zur Ausstellung des Mitgliedsbuches. ... Walter Ulbricht (June 30, 1893 – August 1, 1973) was a German communist statesman. ... Markus Wolf. ...

Other notable East Germans

  • John Heartfield, photographer
  • Bernhard Heisig, painter ("Leipziger Schule")
  • Uli Herzner, Fashion designer, Project Runway contestant
  • Henry Hübchen, actor
  • Sigmund Jähn, cosmonaut, first German in space
  • Walter Janka, publisher, sentenced to prison in 1957 for "counterrevolutionary activities", communistic resistance fighter in World War 2
  • Gustav Just, journalist
  • Walter Kaaden, engineer
  • Uwe Kraab, racing cyclist
  • Manfred Krug, actor and jazz singer
  • Olaf Ludwig, racing cyclist
  • Lothar de Maizière, first (and only) freely elected prime minister April - October 1990
  • Kurt Masur, conductor and political activist
  • Wolfgang Mattheuer, painter ("Leipziger Schule")
  • Markus Meckel, Protestant pastor, deputy chairman of the East German Social Democrats 1989-1990, GDR foreign minister April - August 1990
  • Armin Mueller-Stahl, actor
  • Heiner Müller, writer and dramatist, worked with the director Benno Besson at Volksbühne
  • All 6 members of the industrial metal band Rammstein.
  • Wolfgang Schnur, lawyer to dissidents, opposition politician (Democratic Awakening in 1990 but resigned after being detected as a former Stasi informer
  • Erwin Strittmatter, writer ("Der Laden")
  • Werner Tübke, painter ("Leipziger Schule")
  • Katarina Witt, figure skater
  • Christa Wolf, writer ("Kassandra")
  • Fritz Geißler, composer

Manfred von Ardenne (January 20, 1907 - May 26, 1997) was a German inventor. ... Rudolf Bahro (18 November 1935 – 5 December 1997) was born in 1935 in Bad Flinsberg (now in Poland). ... Michael Ballack (born September 26, 1976 in Görlitz, Bezirk Dresden, East Germany) is a German football player. ... First international Switzerland 5 - 3 Germany (Basel, Switzerland; 5 April 1908) Biggest win Germany 16 - 0 Russia (Stockholm, Sweden; 1 July 1912) Biggest defeat England 9 - 0 Germany (Oxford, England; 16 March 1909) World Cup Appearances 16 (First in 1934) Best result Winners, 1954, 1974, 1990 (all as West Germany... Jurek Becker (* September 30, 1937, Lodz (Poland), † March 14, 1997, Berlin) was a german writer. ... Jakob the Liar is a novel written by the Polish author Jurek Becker published in 1969. ... The Théâtre Benno Besson in Yverdon, named in his honour Benno Besson (born René-Benjamin Besson, November 4, 1922 in Yverdon-les-Bains; died February 23, 2006 in Berlin) was a Swiss actor and film director. ... Frank Beyer (born 26 May 1932 in Nobitz) is a German film director. ... Karl Wolf Biermann (born 15 November 1936 in Hamburg) is a former East German dissident who works as a German Liedermacher (songwriter). ... SPD redirects here. ... Bärbel Bohley (born 24 May 1945) was an East German opposition figure and artist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ernst Degner (born 22 September 1931 in Gleiwitz, Germany) was a German motorcycle racer. ... Rainer Eppelmann (born February 12, 1943 in Berlin), is a German politician. ... Gert Fröbe playing Auric Goldfinger The title of this article contains the character ö. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Gert Froebe. ... Klaus Fuchs ID badge at Los Alamos. ... Erwin Geschonneck (born December 27, 1906) is a German actor. ... Gregor Gysi Gregor Gysi (born January 16, 1948) is a German politician of the Left Party. ... Nina Hagen (born Catharina Hagen on March 11, 1955) is a singer from Berlin, Germany. ... Peter Hacks ( b. ... Wolfgang Harich (3 December 1923 - 21 March 1995) was a philosopher and journalist in East Germany. ... Robert Havemann (11 March 1910 - 9 April 1982) was a chemist, communist and an East German dissident. ... Self-portrait, 1920 Translation: Der Sinn des Hitlergrusses The real meaning of the Hitler salute Kleiner Mann bittet um grosse Gaben The little man asks for big gifts Millionen stehen hinter mir! Ive got millions standing behind me John Heartfield (June 19, 1891 - April 26, 1968) is the anglicized... Ulrike Uli Herzner (born 23 April 1971) is a German American fashion designer, currently living in Miami, Florida. ... Sigmund Werner Paul Jähn (born February 13, 1937) was the first German cosmonaut. ... Gustav Just (born June 16, 1921 in Reinowitz, Bohemia) was First Secretary of the (East) German Writers Union and later editor-in-chief of the East German weekly journal Sonntag until 1957 when he was sentenced to four years imprisonment after a show trial in which he was accused of... Manfred Krug (born February 8, 1937 in Duisburg) is a German actor and singer. ... Olaf Ludwig (born April 13, 1960,Gera) is a former German racing cyclist. ... Lothar de Maizière [] (born 2 March 1940) is a German conservative politician who served as the last and only democratically elected Prime Minister of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in 1990. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Kurt Masur Conducting Mendelssohns Scottish Symphony Kurt Masur (born July 18, 1927) is a German conductor. ... Armin Mueller-Stahl (born December 17, 1930) is a German film actor. ... Heiner Müller (January 9, 1929 – December 30, 1995) was an East German dramatist and writer. ... Volksbühne, Berlin The Volksbühne (German for Peoples Theatre) is a theatre in Berlin, Germany. ... Industrial metal is a musical genre which draws elements from industrial music and heavy metal music. ... For the airshow accident, see Ramstein airshow disaster. ... Democratic Awakening (German: Demokratischer Aufbruch) was an East German opposition political movement. ... Katarina Witt (December 3, 1965, Staaken) is a German figure skater, in Germany commonly affectionately called Kati Witt. Won two Olympic Gold Medals for East Germany, first in the 1984 Sarajevo Olympics and the second in 1988 at the Calgary Olympics. ... Christa Wolf (born March 18, 1929 in Landsberg an der Warthe, Germany (currently Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland) as Christa Ihlenfeld) is one of the best-known writers to emerge from the former East Germany. ... Kassandra look for Cassandra from mythology is a book writen by the german author Christa Wolf (published 1983) is a Venezuelan telenovela, involving a gypsy maiden marrying into a rich family. ... Fritz Geißler (born September 16, 1921 in Wurzen, Germany; died January 11, 1984 in Bad Saarow, Germany) is one of the importants composers of the German Democratic Republic. ...

Administrative divisions

In 1952, as part of the reforms designed to centralise power in the hands of the SED's Politbüro, the five Länder of East Germany were abolished, and East Germany was divided into fifteen Bezirke (districts), each named after the largest city: the northern Land Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was divided between the Bezirke Rostock, Schwerin and Neubrandenburg; Brandenburg (surrounding Berlin) was reorganised into the Bezirke of Potsdam, Frankfurt (Oder) and Cottbus; Sachsen-Anhalt split into the Bezirke of Halle and Magdeburg; the south-western Land Thüringen (Thuringia) was picked apart to produce the Bezirke of Erfurt, Gera and Suhl; finally, the south-eastern Land Sachsen (Saxony) was divided between Leipzig, Dresden and Karl-Marx-Stadt (formerly and following the GDR's collapse again known as Chemnitz. The GDR capital, East Berlin formed the 15th Bezirk, though it retained a special legal status in the GDR until 1968, when East Berliners voted with the rest of the GDR to approve the draft of the new constitution. From this point onwards, irrespective of the Four Power Status and the western allies' objections that East Berlin was merely the Soviet occupied sector of the German capital, East Berlin was treated as a Bezirk like any other. Subdivisions of the German Democratic Republic Subdivisions of the German Democratic Republic from 1952 Following the redrawing of Germanys national boundaries after 1945, there were five states or Länder in the Soviet controlled eastern zone: Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern), Saxony (Sachsen), Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt), and... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a Bundesland (federal state) in northern Germany. ... Rostock is a city in northern Germany. ... Schwerin is a town in northern Germany. ... Neubrandenburg is a city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... Frankfurt (Oder) ( Sorbian/Lusatian: Frankobord ) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the city of SÅ‚ubice. ... Cottbus (Sorbian: ChoÅ›ebuz, archaic German: Kottbus) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany, situated around 125 km southeast of Berlin on the Spree river. ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... Halle (also called Halle an der Saale in order to distinguish from Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia) is the largest town in the German Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt. ... This article is about the German city. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Mariendom and the Severikirche. ... Gera is the largest Town in the east of Thuringia, Germany. ... Suhl is a city in Thuringia, Germany. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) has a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ...   [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state of Saxony in Germany with a population of over 504,000. ... For other uses, see Dresden (disambiguation). ... Chemnitz (Sorbian/Lusatian Kamjenica, 1953-1990 called Karl-Marx-Stadt; Czech: Saská Kamenice) is a city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... Chemnitz (Sorbian/Lusatian Kamjenica, 1953-1990 called Karl-Marx-Stadt; Czech: Saská Kamenice) is a city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ...


Economy

Economic activity in the GDR.
Economic activity in the GDR.

Like other East European socialist states, East Germany had a centrally planned economy (CPE), similar to the one in the former Soviet Union, in contrast to the market economies or mixed economies of most Western states. The state established production targets and prices and allocated resources, codifying these decisions in a comprehensive plan or set of plans. The means of production were almost entirely state owned. In 1985, for example, state-owned enterprises or collectives earned 96.7 percent of total net national income. To secure constant prices for inhabitants, the state bore 80% of costs of basic supplies, from bread to housing. Like other East European communist states, East Germany had a centrally planned economy (CPE), similar to the one in the former Soviet Union, in contrast to the more familiar market economies or mixed economies of most Western states. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (656x1084, 133 KB) Summary Economic activity in the GDR. From German wikipedia: http://de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (656x1084, 133 KB) Summary Economic activity in the GDR. From German wikipedia: http://de. ... Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of Europe from the Ural and Caucasus mountains in the East to an arbitrarily chosen boundary in the West. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ... A market economy (also called free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services takes place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ... A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... Collective can also refer to the collective pitch flight control in helicopters A collective is a group of people who share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together on a specific project(s) to achieve a common objective. ...


The ultimate directing force in the economy, as in every aspect of the society, was the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands--SED), particularly its top leadership. The party exercised its leadership role formally during the party congress, when it accepted the report of the general secretary, and when it adopted the draft plan for the upcoming five-year period. The logo of the SED The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ...


The private sector of the economy was small but not entirely insignificant. In 1985 about 2.8 percent of the net national product came from private enterprises. The private sector included private farmers and gardeners; independent craftsmen, wholesalers, and retailers; and individuals employed in so-called free-lance activities (artist, writers, and others). Although self-employed, such individuals were strictly regulated; in some cases the tax rate exceeded 90 %. In 1985, for the first time in many years, the number of individuals working in the private sector increased slightly. According to East German statistics, in 1985 there were about 176,800 private entrepreneurs, an increase of about 500 over 1984. Certain private sector activities were quite important to the system because those craftsmen provided rare, specially made spare parts.


Culture

Music

For ideological reasons artists were expected to sing songs only in German at first, which changed with the end of the sixties. This seemed a logical constraint by the Party leaders but it was rather unpopular among young people. There were strict rules that regulated that all artistic activity ought to be censored for any open or implied anti-socialist tendencies. The band Renft, for example, was prone to political misbehaviour, which eventually led to its split.


The Puhdys and Karat were some of the most popular mainstream bands, managing to hint at critical thoughts in their lyrics without being explicit. Like most mainstream acts, they appeared in popular youth magazines such as Neues Leben and Magazin. Other popular rock bands were Wir, Dean Reed, City and Pankow. Most of these artists recorded on the state-owned AMIGA label. Die Puhdys are a veteran German rock band, formed in Oranienburg, in what was then East Germany, in 1969, although they had been performing together, with various lineups, as the Puhdys since 1965. ... Dean Cyril Reed (September 22, 1938 – June 13, 1986) was an American actor, singer and songwriter who lived a great part of his adult life in South America, then in Communist East Germany. ... City are a German music band formed in East Berlin in 1972 by Fritz Puppel (Guitar), Klaus Selmke (Drums), Ingo Doering (Bass Guitar), Klaus Witte (Keyboards), Frank Pfeiffer (Vocals) and Andreas Pieper (Flute) as the City Band Berlin. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Influences from the West were heard everywhere, because TV and radio that came from the Klassenfeind (class enemy, meaning "enemy of the working class") could be received in many parts of the East, too (a notorious exception being Dresden, with its geographically disadvantageous position in the Elbe valley, giving it the nickname of “Valley of the Clueless”)[citation needed]. The Western influence led to the formation of more "underground" groups with a decisively western-oriented sound. A few of these bands were Die Skeptiker, as well as Feeling B. For other uses, see Dresden (disambiguation). ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Die Skeptiker was a Punk band founded 1986 in East Berlin. ... Feeling B was one of the first punk bands in the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ...


Classical music was highly supported, so that there existed over 50 classical symphony orchestras in a country with a population about 16 million. See also:

Johann Sebastian Bach was born in East German territory and his birthplace in Eisenach was turned into a museum of his life, which, among other things, included more than 300 instruments from Bach's life. In 1980 this museum was receiving more than 70,000 visitors annually. The Thomanerchor is a choir featuring boy sopranos in Leipzig, Germany. ...   [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state of Saxony in Germany with a population of over 504,000. ... The Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden (Engl: Saxon State Orchestra Dresden) is an orchestra based in Dresden, Germany. ... For other uses, see Dresden (disambiguation). ... The Berlin Symphony Orchestra (also known as BSO; Berliner Sinfonie-Orchester in German) is a major symphony orchestra from Berlin, Germany. ... Berlin State Opera (in German: Staatsoper Berlin) is a prominent German opera company. ... Bach in a 1748 portrait by Haussmann Places in which Bach resided throughout his life Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the... Eisenach is a city in Thuringia, Germany. ...


In Leipzig, an enormous archive with recordings of all of Bach's music was compiled, along with many historical documents and letters both to and from him.


Every other year, school children from across East Germany gathered for a Bach competition held in East Berlin. Every four years an international Bach competition for keyboard and strings was held.


Theatre

Stamp celebrating the GDR's 25th anniversary in 1974.
Stamp celebrating the GDR's 25th anniversary in 1974.

East German theatre was originally dominated by Bertolt Brecht, who brought back many artists out of exile and reopened the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm with his Berliner Ensemble. Alternatively, other influences tried to establish a "Working Class Theatre", played for the working class by the working class. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1375x1385, 157 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1375x1385, 157 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Visitor card from about 1908 Berliner Ensemble at the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm The Theater, Theater am Schiffbauerdamm, was opened on 19 November 1892 as Neues Theater Which means new theater. The adress is am Schiffbauerdamm 4a/5 in Berlin Germany. ... The Berliner Ensemble was a German theatre company established by playwright, Bertolt Brecht and his wife, Helene Weigel in January 1949. ...


After Brecht's death, conflicts began to arise between his family (around Helene Weigel) and other artists about Brecht's heritage. Heinz Kahlau, Slatan Dudow, Erwin Geschonneck, Erwin Strittmatter, Peter Hacks, Benno Besson, Peter Palitzsch and Ekkehard Schall were considered to be among Bertolt Brecht's scholars and followers. Born in Vienna in 1900 the daughter of a Jewish Lawyer, she was one of the most outstanding German actors of her generation, a Communist Party member from 1930 and Artistic Director of The Berliner Ensemble after her husband Bertholt Brechts death in 1956. ... Slatan Theodor Dudow was a Bulgarian born film director and screenwriter who made a number of films in the Weimar Republic and East Germany. ... Erwin Geschonneck (born December 27, 1906) is a German actor. ... Peter Hacks ( b. ... The Théâtre Benno Besson in Yverdon, named in his honour Benno Besson (born René-Benjamin Besson, November 4, 1922 in Yverdon-les-Bains; died February 23, 2006 in Berlin) was a Swiss actor and film director. ... Ekkehard Schall (May 29th, 1930 - Sept. ...


In the 1950s the Swiss director Benno Besson with the Deutsches Theater successfully toured Europe and Asia including Japan with "The Dragon" by Jewgenij Schwarz. In the 1960s, he became the Intendant of the Volksbühne often working with Heiner Müller. This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Théâtre Benno Besson in Yverdon, named in his honour Benno Besson (born René-Benjamin Besson, November 4, 1922 in Yverdon-les-Bains; died February 23, 2006 in Berlin) was a Swiss actor and film director. ... The Deutsches Theater in Berlin, Germany is a well known theater, which was built in 1850 (then as Friedrich-Wilhelm-Städtisches Theater, after Friedrich Wilhelm). ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Volksbühne, Berlin The Volksbühne (German for Peoples Theatre) is a theatre in Berlin, Germany. ... Heiner Müller (January 9, 1929 – December 30, 1995) was an East German dramatist and writer. ...


After 1975 many artists left the GDR due to increasing censorship. A parallel theatre scene grew up, creating theatre "outside of Berlin" in which artists played at provincial theatres. For example Peter Sodann founded the neues theater in Halle/Saale and Frank Castorf at the theater Anklam. Map of Germany showing Halle Halle (also called Halle an der Saale in order to distinguish from Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia) is the largest town in the German Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Map of Germany showing Anklam Anklam or Anclam is a town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, situated on the banks of the Peene river, 8 km from its mouth in the Kleines Haff, and 85 km northwest of Stettin, on the railway to Stralsund. ...


Theatre and Cabaret had high status in the GDR, which allowed it to be very pro-active. This often brought it into confrontation with the State. Benno Besson once said: "At least they took us seriously, we had a bearing."


Important theatres:

The Deutsches Theater in Berlin, Germany is a well known theater, which was built in 1850 (then as Friedrich-Wilhelm-Städtisches Theater, after Friedrich Wilhelm). ... The Berliner Ensemble was a German theatre company established by playwright, Bertolt Brecht and his wife, Helene Weigel in January 1949. ... Volksbühne, Berlin The Volksbühne (German for Peoples Theatre) is a theatre in Berlin, Germany. ...

Cinema

In the GDR, the movie industry was very active. The head-group for film-productions was the DEFA [5], Deutsche Film AG, which was subdivided in different local groups, for example Gruppe Berlin, Gruppe Babelsberg or Gruppe Johannisthal, where the local teams shot and produced films. Besides folksy movies, the movie-industry became known worldwide for its productions, especially children's movies ("Das kalte Herz", film versions of the Grimm brothers fairy-tales and modern productions such as "Das Schulgespenst"). Deutsche Film-Aktiengesellschaft, better known as DEFA, was the national film company in the German Democratic Republic (GDR/DDR). ... Castle of Babelsberg with the river Havel as one part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Observatory on the Babelsberg UEFA Womens Cup final Potsdam-Babelsberg or short Babelsberg is the largest district of the city of Potsdam, Germany today. ... The Johannisthal Air Field, located 10 miles southeast of Berlin, was Germanys first airfield. ... Grimm could mean: Brothers Grimm, collectors of German fairy tales Grimms Fairy Tales, the collected tales Grimms Fairy Tale Classics, a cartoon based on their tales Grimm (film), a 2003 Dutch film directed by Alex van Warmerdam Grimm (band), a folk metal band from the Dutch provence Brabant...


Frank Beyer's "Jakob der Lügner" (about persecution of Jews in Third Reich) and, "Fünf Patronenhülsen"(Five Bullet Shells) about resistance against fascism, became internationally famous. Frank Beyer (born 26 May 1932 in Nobitz) is a German film director. ... Jakob the Liar is a novel written by the Polish author Jurek Becker published in 1969. ...


Movies about problems of everyday life such as "Die Legende von Paul und Paula" (directed by Heiner Carow) and "Solo Sunny" (directed by Konrad Wolf and Wolfgang Kohlhaase) were also very popular. Die Legende von Paul und Paula (The Legend of Paul and Paula) is a 1973 tragicomic East German film directed by Heiner Carow. ... Konrad Wolf (Hechingen 20 October 1925 - Berlin, 7 March 1982) was a East German film director, son of Friedrich Wolf, brother of Markus Wolf. ...


The film industry was remarkable for its production of Ostern, or Westerns. Indians in these films often took the role of displaced people who fight for their rights, in contrast to the American westerns of the time, where Indians were often either not mentioned at all or are portrayed as the villains. Yugoslavians were often cast as the Indians, due to the small number of American Indians in eastern Europe. Gojko Mitić was well-known in these roles, often playing the righteous, kindhearted and charming chief ("Die Söhne der großen Bärin" directed by Josef Mach). He became an honorary Sioux chief when he visited the United States of America in the 90s and the television crew accompanying him showed the tribe one of his movies. American actor and singer Dean Reed, an expatriate who lived in East Germany, also starred in several films. These films were part of the phenomenon of Europe producing alternative films about the colonization of America. See also Spaghetti Western and the West German Winnetou films (adaptations of novels of Karl May). The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western was the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain countries take on the Western movie. ... i like western films The Western is an American genre in literature and film. ... i like western films The Western is an American genre in literature and film. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Gojko Mitic (1940-) was a famous director, actor, stuntman, and author. ... Chief can refer to : Paramount chief is the highest political leader in a region or country typically administered with a chief-based system. ... The Sons of the Great Mother Bear, or Die Söhne der großen Bärin was a German language Red Western of 1966. ... Josef Mach is a writer and film director from the Czech Republic, best known for the Red Western he did for the East German DEFA The Sons of the Great Mother Bear (1966) Josef Mach was born on February 25th, 1909 in Prostejov and died on July, 7th 1987 in... Wahktageli (Gallant Warrior), a Yankton Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer) Funeral scaffold of a Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer) Horse racing of the Sioux Indians (Karl Bodmer) The Sioux (IPA ) are a Native American people. ... Dean Cyril Reed (September 22, 1938 – June 13, 1986) was an American actor, singer and songwriter who lived a great part of his adult life in South America, then in Communist East Germany. ... Movie poster for Once Upon a Time in the West Spaghetti Western is a nickname for a broad sub-genre of Western film that emerged in the mid-1960s, so named because most of them were produced by Italian studios. ... Winnetou is the Native-American hero of several novels written by Karl May (one of the best selling German writers of all time), in German including the sequel Winnetou I to Winnetou III. According to Karl Mays story, first-person-narrator Old Shatterhand encounters Winnetou and after initial dramatic... Karl May. ...


Because of censorship a certain number of very remarkable movies were forbidden at this time and reissued after the Wende in 1990. Examples are "Spur der Steine" (directed by Frank Beyer) and "Der geteilte Himmel" (directed by Konrad Wolf). German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR - in English often called East Germany) were incorporated into The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) (FRG). ... Frank Beyer (born 26 May 1932 in Nobitz) is a German film director. ... Konrad Wolf (Hechingen 20 October 1925 - Berlin, 7 March 1982) was a East German film director, son of Friedrich Wolf, brother of Markus Wolf. ...


Cinemas in the GDR also showed some foreign films. Czechoslovak and Polish productions were more common, but also certain western movies were shown, but the numbers were limited because it cost foreign exchange to buy the licences. Further, movies representing or glorifying capitalistic ideology were not bought. Comedies enjoyed great popularity, such as the Danish "Olsen Gang" or movies with the French comedian Louis de Funès. Scene from the fourteenth and last Olsen Gang film (1998). ... Louis de Funès poster from Les Grandes Vacances Louis de Funès de Galarza (fyˈnÉ›s) (July 31, 1914, Courbevoie, France, – January 27, 1983) was a French actor who is considered by many to be one of the giants of French comedy. ...


Sports

The most successful sports organisation was the SV Dynamo. For a small country, the people of East Germany achieved some remarkable results in many sports, including cycling, weightlifting, track and field, boxing, skating and other winter sports. One reason for the success was started with late 1960s leadership of Dr. Manfred Hoeppner, when his policy of steroid administration to many athletes was established. This program allowed East Germany, with its small population, to become a world leader in the following two decades, winning a large number of Olympic and world gold medals and records. This success continued even after the international steroid testing policy was established. Sportvereinigung Dynamo (Sport Association Dynamo) in the era of the GDR. It was created for the members of the Volkspolizei and mainly for the Staatsicherheit. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Steroid skeleton of lanosterol. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


Another factor for success was the furtherance-system for young people in GDR. When some children were aged around 6 until 10 years old (or older) sport-teachers at school were encouraged to look for certain talents in every pupil. For older pupils it was possible to attend grammar-schools with a focus on sports (for example sailing, football and swimming). This policy was also used for talented pupils with regard to music or mathematics.


Sports clubs were highly subsidised, especially sports in which it was possible to get international fame. For example, the major leagues for ice hockey and basketball just included each 2 teams (excluding the school and university sport). Football (soccer) was the most popular sport after team handball, although the national team was rarely successful in comparison to the West German national team, which won the World Cup three times before reunification. Club football sides like Dynamo Dresden, 1. FC Magdeburg, FC Carl Zeiss Jena and 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig did have some success in European competition. Many East German players became integral parts of the reunified national football team, for example Matthias Sammer. Other sports enjoyed great popularity like figure skating, especially because of sportswomen like Katharina Witt. Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Handball player leaps towards the goal prior to throwing the ball, while the goalkeeper extends himself trying to stop it. ... First international Poland 3 - 0 East Germany (Warsaw, Poland; 21 September 1952) Last International Belgium 0 - 2 East Germany (Brussels, Belgium; 12 September 1990) Largest win Ceylon 1 - 12 East Germany (Colombo, Ceylon; 12 January 1964) Worst defeat 0 - 3, 12 times; 1 - 4, three times World Cup Appearances 1... First international Switzerland 5 - 3 Germany (Basel, Switzerland; 5 April 1908) Biggest win Germany 16 - 0 Russia (Stockholm, Sweden; 1 July 1912) Biggest defeat England 9 - 0 Germany (Oxford, England; 16 March 1909) World Cup Appearances 16 (First in 1934) Best result Winners, 1954, 1974, 1990 (all as West Germany... The FIFA World Cup Trophy, which has been awarded to the world champions since 1974. ... Dynamo Dresden are a German football club, based in Dresden, Saxony. ... 1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Club Crest FC Lokomotive Leipzig is a football club from Leipzig, Germany, earlier known as VfB Leipzig. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Katarina Witt (born December 3, 1965 in Staaken (today Berlin-Staaken)) is a world famous German figure skater. ...


One of the reasons for the East German ambition to be so successful in world sports, was on the one hand similar to those of the USSR or the United States as a part of this certain kind of competition. On the other hand it was an attempt to be accepted internationally as a state in its own right. After German reunification, the gold medals became ever less, at the Olympic Games. The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (-_-)East Germany(-_-) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


Notes

  1. ^ The Berlin Wall (1961 - 1989) German Notes, Accessed 2006-10-24
  2. ^ Darnton, Robert, Berlin Journal (New York, 1992, W.W. Norton) pp.98-99

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ...

References

  • Thomas A. Baylis, David Childs, and Marilyn Rueschemeyer, eds.; East Germany in Comparative Perspective Routledge. 1989
  • Fulbrook, Mary. The People's State: East German Society from Hitler to Honecker Yale University Press, 2005. 352 pp. ISBN 0-300-10884-2.
  • Fulbrook; Mary. Anatomy of a Dictatorship: Inside the GDR, 1949-1989 Oxford University Press, 1995
  • William Glenn Gray; Germany's Cold War: The Global Campaign to Isolate East Germany, 1949-1969 University of North Carolina Press. 2003
  • Jonathan Grix; The Role of the Masses in the Collapse of the GDR Macmillan, 2000
  • Konrad H. Jarausch and Eve Duffy; Dictatorship as Experience: Towards a Socio-Cultural History of the GDR Berghahn Books, 1999

Holidays

Date English Name German Name Remarks
January 1 New Year's Day Neujahr  
March 8 Women's Day Internationaler Frauentag Was not a day off.
Moveable feast Good Friday Karfreitag  
Moveable feast Easter Sunday Ostersonntag  
Moveable feast Easter Monday Ostermontag Was not an official Holiday after 1967.
May 1 May Day Tag der Arbeit Labour Day
Moveable feast Father's Day / Ascension Day Vatertag / Christi Himmelfahrt Thursday after the 5th Sunday after Easter. Was not an official holiday nor a day off, but still widely celebrated.
Moveable feast Whitmonday Pfingstmontag 50 days after Easter Sunday
October 7 Republic Day Tag der Republik National holiday
December 25 First Day of Christmas 1. Weihnachtsfeiertag  
December 26 Second Day of Christmas 2. Weihnachtsfeiertag  

January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... This article is about January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in leap years). ... Image:IWD 2007 Logo. ... In Christianity, a moveable feast or movable feast is a holy day -- a feast or a fast -- whose date is not fixed to a particular day of the calendar year but moves in response to the date of Easter, which date varies according to a complex formula. ... Good Friday is the Friday before Easter (Easter always falls on a Sunday). ... In Christianity, a moveable feast or movable feast is a holy day -- a feast or a fast -- whose date is not fixed to a particular day of the calendar year but moves in response to the date of Easter, which date varies according to a complex formula. ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... In Christianity, a moveable feast or movable feast is a holy day -- a feast or a fast -- whose date is not fixed to a particular day of the calendar year but moves in response to the date of Easter, which date varies according to a complex formula. ... Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is celebrated as a holiday in some largely Christian cultures. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... May Day is May 1, and refers to any of several holidays celebrated on this day. ... In Christianity, a moveable feast or movable feast is a holy day -- a feast or a fast -- whose date is not fixed to a particular day of the calendar year but moves in response to the date of Easter, which date varies according to a complex formula. ... Fathers Day is a primarily secular holiday inaugurated in the early 20th century to complement Mothers Day in celebrating fatherhood and parenting by males, and to honor and commemorate fathers and forefathers. ... For other meanings see Ascension (disambiguation) The Ascension is one of the great feasts in the Christian liturgical calendar, and commemorates the bodily Ascension of Jesus into Heaven forty days after his resurrection from the dead. ... Easter, the Sunday of the Resurrection, Pascha, or Resurrection Day, is the most important religious feast of the Christian liturgical year, observed at some point between late March and late April each year (early April to early May in Eastern Christianity), following the cycle of the moon. ... In Christianity, a moveable feast or movable feast is a holy day -- a feast or a fast -- whose date is not fixed to a particular day of the calendar year but moves in response to the date of Easter, which date varies according to a complex formula. ... Pentecost (Greek: [], pentekostē [hēmera], the fiftieth day) is the fiftieth day after Easter Sunday, which corresponds to the tenth day after Ascension Thursday. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Republic Day is the name of a public holiday in several countries to commemorate the day when they first became republics. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ... Boxing Day is a public holiday observed in many Commonwealth countries on 26 December. ...

See also

Germany

Forces It has been suggested that West Germany be merged into this article or section. ... The German Democratic Republic (GDR), often known in English as East Germany, existed from 1949 to 1990, on roughly the territory between the Elbe and Oder rivers. ... // Leaders of the Socialist Unity Party Chairmen Wilhelm Pieck (formerly KPD) and Otto Grotewohl (formerly SPD) (1946–1954) First Secretaries / General Secretaries of the Central Committee German: Erster Sekretär des Zentralkomitees der Sozialistischen Einheitspartei Deutschlands, Generalsekretär des ZK der SED. Walter Ulbricht (1950–1971) Erich Honecker (1971–1989... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... The Stadthaus in Berlin, seat of the Ministerrat der DDR from 1961 until 1990 The Ministerrat (Council of Ministers) was the chief executive body of the East Germany since November 1950 until East Germany dissolved in 1990. ...

Media The National People’s Army (German: Nationale Volksarmee) served as the military of the German Democratic Republic. ... MIG-21PFM with marking of the NVA Die Luftstreitkräfte der NVA, was the Air Force of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... A 1:87 scale model of a Volkspolizei police car The Volkspolizei (German: Peoples Police) was the national police of East German, whose officers were commonly nicknamed VoPos. ... Shoulder board of East German soldier Construction Unit (Bausoldat) There was a high level of conscientious objection in East Germany. ...

Transport Broadcasting in East Germany was owned by the state, and was under its tight control and censorship. ... During the Cold War, the two Countries of Germany — the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic — viewed themselves among other things as representatives of their respective ideological systems and political camps. ... - Aktuelle Kameras opening (English: Good evening, ladies and gentlemen, its Current Camera — The Headlines. ... A Radio Berlin International QSL card Radio Berlin International was the international broadcaster for the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... Der Tunnel is a 2001 film by German director Roland Suso Richter that is loosely based on a true story about an expanding group of people who dug a tunnel in Berlin in the early 1960s to get friends and family from the East Germany to West Germany. ... Education in East Germany was a high priority for the communist government, and was compulsory from age six to age sixteen. ...

Other For the 1920-1945 company of the same name, see Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft. ... Interflug was the former state airline of the German Democratic Republic, until 1991, when it ceased operations following German reunification. ... The Trabant is an automobile formerly produced by East German auto maker VEB Sachsenring Automobilwerke Zwickau in Zwickau, Saxony. ...

Tourism in the German Democratic Republic was tightly controlled by the communist government, though it was nonetheless possible to enjoy a holiday in East Germany. ... With widespread censorship of literature, the media and the arts, political jokes were one of the main outlets for internal criticism of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... Ostalgie is a German term (the English equivalent would be eastalgia) referring to nostalgia for life in the former East Germany. ... The Palast der Republik in 2003 Inside the Palast der Republik in 2003, after asbestos and interior furnishings were removed Demolition work on the Palast der Republik, 2006 The Palast der Republik (Palace of the Republic) was a building in Berlin, on the bank of the River Spree between Schlossplatz... Dean Cyril Reed (September 22, 1938 – June 13, 1986) was an American actor, singer and songwriter who lived a great part of his adult life in South America, then in Communist East Germany. ... The Fichtelberg is a mountain with two main peaks in the middle of the Erzgebirge (English: ore mountains) in south-eastern Germany, in Saxony near the Czech border. ...

External links

Germany Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
GDR

Countries of the world  |  Europe
Preceded by
Allied Occupation Zones in Germany
Government of Germany
1949-1990

Concurrent with: Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ...


West Germany 1949-1990 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ...

Succeeded by
Germany

  Results from FactBites:
 
German Democratic Republic - definition of German Democratic Republic in Encyclopedia (1511 words)
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was a Communist Party-led state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany.
The GDR was proclaimed in the Soviet sector of Berlin on October 7, 1949.
Thus, on October 3 1990 the East German population was the first from the Eastern Bloc to join the European Union as a part of the reunified Federal Republic of Germany.
German Democratic Republic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4026 words)
The German Democratic Republic was proclaimed in East Berlin on October 7, 1949.
Consequent waves of German settlements, which in subsequent centuries later included French Hugenots and Jews, gradually modified the originally Slavic composition of the land, except for the small community of Sorbs in Lusatia, and eventually most of what is now East Germany formed a large part of the historical Kingdom of Prussia.
Thus, on October 3, 1990 the East German population was the first from the Eastern Bloc to join the European Economic Community as a part of the reunified Federal Republic of Germany.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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