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Encyclopedia > German Crusade, 1096
Crusade series
First Crusade
People's Crusade
German Crusade, 1096
Crusade of 1101
Second Crusade
Third Crusade
Fourth Crusade
Albigensian Crusade
Children's Crusade
Fifth Crusade
Sixth Crusade
Seventh Crusade
Shepherds' Crusade
Eighth Crusade
Ninth Crusade
Northern Crusades

The German Crusade of 1096 is that part of the First Crusade in which peasant crusaders, mostly from Germany, attacked not Muslims but Jews. Although anti-Semitism had existed in Europe for centuries, this was the first organized mass pogrom. In some cases, authorities and religious leaders attempted to shelter their Jewish subjects. Depiction of the Siege File links The following pages link to this file: Crusade Northern Crusades Sixth Crusade Albigensian Crusade First Crusade Second Crusade Third Crusade Fourth Crusade Childrens Crusade Eighth Crusade Fifth Crusade Seventh Crusade High Middle Ages Template:Crusade Crusade of 1101 Ninth Crusade Siege of Jerusalem... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims. ... The Peoples Crusade is part of the First Crusade and lasted roughly six months from April 1096 to October. ... The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade, actually three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. ... The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204), originally designed to conquer Jerusalem through an invasion of Egypt, instead, in 1204, invaded and conquered the Eastern Orthodox city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the religion practiced by the Cathars of Languedoc, which the Roman Catholic hierarchy considered heretical. ... The Childrens Crusade is the name given to a variety of fictional and factual events in 1212 that combine some or all of these elements: visions by a boy, children marching to south Italy, an attempt to free the Holy Land, and children being sold into slavery. ... The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt to take back Jerusalem and the rest of holy Land by first conquering the powerful Muslim state in Egypt. ... The Sixth Crusade began in 1228 as an attempt to reconquer Jerusalem. ... The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. ... The Shepherds Crusade is two separate events from the 13th and 14th century. ... The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France, (who was by now in his mid-fifties) in 1270. ... // Summary The Ninth Crusade which is sometimes grouped with the Eighth Crusade, is commonly considered to be the last of the medieval Crusades to defend Christianity from the Muslims in the Holy Land. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: the 16th century was a good time for European peasants A peasant, from 15th... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot, a massive violent attack on a particular group; ethnic, religious or other, primarily characterized by destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ...

Contents


Background

The preaching of the First Crusade inspired an outbreak of anti-Semitism. It was popularly believed that the Christian conquest of Jerusalem and the establishment of a Christian emperor there would instigate the End Times, during which the Jews were supposed to convert to Christianity. In parts of France and Germany, Jews were perceived as just as much of an enemy as Muslims: they were thought to be responsible for the crucifixion, and they were more immediately visible than the far-away Muslims. Many people wondered why they should travel thousands of miles to fight non-believers when there were already non-believers closer to home. It is also likely that the crusaders were motivated by a need for money, and the Rhineland communities were relatively wealthy, both due to their isolation, and because they were not restricted as Christians were against moneylending. The end times are, in one version of Judeo-Christian eschatology and in Islam, a time of tribulation that will precede the Second Coming of the Messiah. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of new religious beliefs that differ from the converts previous beliefs; in some cultures (e. ... Deicide literally means God-killing (Latin Deus, God + -cida, killing) and usually refers to the execution of Jesus by crucifixion. ... Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the victim was tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang there until dead. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany, although some consider the lands to the east of the river culturally distinct, jovially referring to them as Schäl Sick; the bad or wrong side... Moneylending is a trade in which money is lent to individuals and corporations. ...


The first outbreaks of violence may have occurred in France, although no direct evidence survived. The French Jewish community sent a letter to the Rhineland Jews warning them of the crusaders' arrival, but the Rhinelanders responded that they had no fear. The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany, although some consider the lands to the east of the river culturally distinct, jovially referring to them as Schäl Sick; the bad or wrong side...


Folkmar and Gottschalk

In the spring of 1096, a number of small bands of knights and peasants, inspired by the preaching of the Crusade, set off from various parts of France and Germany. The crusade of the priest Folkmar, beginning in Saxony, persecuted Jews in Magdeburg and later in Prague in Bohemia. Folkmar's crusade split up before reaching Hungary. Another priest named Gottschalk led a crusade from the Rhineland and Lorraine into Hungary, occasionally attacking Jewish communities along the way. His force was attacked and destroyed by Hungarian troops after his drunken followers pillaged Hungarian territory. The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stata Sakska) is at a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... View of Magdeburg with the cathedral, from the tower of the Johanniskirche. ... Prague (Czech: Praha, see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... Bohemia. ... Lorraine coat of arms Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ...


Emicho

The largest of these crusades, and the most involved in attacking Jews, was that led by Count Emicho. Setting off in the early summer of 1096, an army of around 10,000 men, women, and children proceeded through the Rhine valley, towards the Main River and then to the Danube. Emicho was joined by William the Carpenter and Drogo of Nesle, among others from the Rhineland, eastern France, Lorraine, Flanders, and even England. Count Emicho (of Flonheim) was a count in the Rhineland in the late 11th century and the leader of the German Crusade in 1096. ... For other uses, see Main (disambiguation). ... The Danube bend at Visegrád is a popular destination of tourists The Danube (German: Donau, Slovak: Dunaj, Hungarian: Duna, Slovenian: Donava, Croatian: Dunav, Serbian: Дунав/Dunav, , Bulgarian: Дунав (Dunav), Romanian: Dunăre, Ukrainian: , Latin: Danuvius), all ultimately derived from the PIE *dānu, meaning river or stream, is Europes second...


Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, absent in southern Italy, ordered the Jews to be protected when he learned of Emicho's intent. After some Jews were killed at Metz in May, the Bishop of Speyer, John, gave shelter to the Jewish inhabitants. The Bishop of Worms attempted to do the same, but the crusaders broke in to his episcopal palace and killed the Jews inside on May 18. News of Emicho's crusade spread quickly, and he was prevented from entering Mainz on May 25 by Bishop Ruthard. Ruthard tried to protect the Jews by hiding them in his lightly fortified palace, but nevertheless Emicho entered on May 27 and a massacre followed; Ruthard was possibly involved in this, as he took money from Jews who had been killed and then fled the city. Mainz was the site of the greatest violence, with possibly thousands of Jews being killed. One man, named Isaac, was forcefully converted, but later, wracked with guilt, killed his family and burned himself alive in his house. Another woman, Rachel, killed her four children with her own hands so that they would not be killed by the crusaders. The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... HEINRIC·IMP[ERATOR], Emperor Henry Henry IV (November 11, 1050 – August 7, 1106) was King of Germany (Holy Roman Empire) from 1056 and Emperor from 1084, until his abdication in 1105. ... City motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) City proper (commune) Région Lorraine Département Moselle (57) Mayor Jean-Marie Rausch Area 41. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... // Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... May 18 the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... Mainz (French: Mayence) is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ...


On May 29 Emicho arrived at Cologne, where most Jews had already left or were hiding in Christian houses. In Cologne, other smaller bands of crusaders met Emicho, and they left with quite a lot of money taken from the Jews there. Emicho continued towards Hungary, soon joined by some Swabians. Coloman of Hungary refused to allow them through Hungary and they were completely defeated at Nis; William the Carpenter and other survivors eventually joined Hugh of Vermandois and the main body of crusader knights. May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... Cologne Cathedral with Hohenzollern Bridge Cologne (German: (help· info) ; Kölsch: Kölle) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the largest... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Coloman (Hungarian: Könyves Kálmán, Slovak and Croatian: Koloman) (1070 – February 3, 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 to 1116. ... NIS is an acronym for: National Intelligence Service (Albania), Albanias new state security agency Naval Investigative Service, predecessor of the Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS) National Intelligence Service (South Korea), South Koreas state security agency Network Information Service New Israeli sheqel Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet... Hugh of Vermandois (1053 - October 18, 1101), was son to King Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev, and the younger brother of King Philip I of France. ...


Later attacks on Jews

Later in 1096, Godfrey of Bouillon also collected tribute from the Jews in Mainz and Cologne, but there was no slaughter in this case. After the success of the First Crusade in the Holy Land, the Jews in Jerusalem were either slaughtered along with the Muslims, or they were expelled and forbidden from living in the city. Godfrey of Bouillon Godfrey of Bouillon (c. ... The phrase The Holy Land (Arabic الأرض المقدسة, al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah; Hebrew ארץ הקודש: Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeš, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreṣ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta) generally refers to Israel, otherwise known as Palestine (sometimes including Jordan, Syria and parts of Egypt). ... Jerusalem (31°46′N 35°14′E; Hebrew: (help· info) Yerushalayim; Arabic: (help· info) al-Quds, Greek Ιεροσόλυμα), is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ...


The First Crusade ignited a long tradition of organized violence against Jews in European culture. Jewish money was also used in France for financing the Second Crusade; the Jews were also attacked in many instances, but not on the scale of the attacks of 1096. In England, the Third Crusade was the pretext for the expulsion of the Jews and the confiscation of their money. The two Shepherds' Crusades in 1251 and 1320 also saw attacks on Jews in France; the second in 1320 also attacked and killed Jews in Aragon. The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... The Shepherds Crusade is two separate events from the 13th and 14th century. ... Events First Shepherds Crusade Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned from 1217 to 1252) Categories: 1251 ... Events January 20 - Dante - Quaestio de Aqua et Terra January 20 - Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes king of Poland April 6 - The Scots reaffirm their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath. ... Capital Zaragoza Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 11th  1 217 514  2,9%  25,51/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 AR Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate...


Jewish reactions

News of the attacks spread quickly and reached the Jewish communities in and around Jerusalem long before the crusaders themselves arrived. However, Jews were not systematically killed in Jerusalem, despite being caught up in the general indiscriminate violence caused by the crusaders once they reached the city.


The Hebrew chronicles portray the Rhineland Jews as martyrs who willingly sacrificed themselves in order to honour God and to preserve their own honour. Faced with conversion or death, they usually chose death. On numerous occasions, a prominent Jew is willing to convert, only to speak out against Christ and Christianity when a crowd has gathered for the baptism, mocking Jesus as a product of "lust" and "menstruation"; a swift death follows. Count Emicho is also cursed whenever he is mentioned ("may his bones be ground into dust"), and the Pope is compared to Satan. Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for their convictions or religious faith, such as during the persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire. ...


In the years following the crusade, the Jewish communities were faced with troubling questions about murder and suicide, which were normally sins just as they were for Christians. The Rhineland Jews looked to historical precedents to justify their actions: the honourable suicide of Saul, the Maccabees revolt against Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the suicide pact at Masada, and the Bar Kochba revolt were seen as justifiable deaths in the face of a stronger enemy. Saul (Hebrew Shaul meaning demanded) is: 1. ... The Maccabees (Hebrew: מכבים, Makabim) were Jewish rebels who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... This article is about the Judean fortress. ... Simon bar Kokhba was a Jewish military leader who led a revolt against the Romans in AD 132. ...


References

  • Albert of Aix, Historia Hierosolymitana
  • Robert Chazan, European Jewry and the First Crusade. University of California Press, 1987.
  • Robert Chazan, In the Year 1096: The First Crusade and the Jews. Jewish Publication Society, 1996 (also contains extracts from the Hebrew chronicles).
  • Jeremy Cohen, Sanctifying The Name of God: Jewish Martyrs and Jewish Memories of the First Crusade. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.
  • Kenneth Setton, ed., A History of the Crusades. Madison, 1969-1989 (available online).
  • see also First Crusade Selected Sources

Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle (floruit circa AD 1100), historian of the first crusade, was born during the later part of the 11th century, and afterwards became canon and custos of the church of Aix-la-Chapelle. ... The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Crusade - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article (3606 words)
The 13th century crusades never expressed such a popular fever, and after Acre fell for the last time in 1291, and after the extermination of the Occitan Cathars in the Albigensian Crusade, the crusading ideal became devalued by Papal justifications of political and territorial aggressions within Catholic Europe.
A crusading force from Hungary, Austria, and Bavaria achieved a remarkable feat in the capture of Damietta in Egypt in 1219, but under the urgent insistence of the papal legate, Pelagius, they proceeded to a foolhardy attack on Cairo, and an inundation of the Nile compelled them to choose between surrender and destruction.
The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the Crusader states in Syria.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: German Crusade, 1096 (3089 words)
The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254.
Count Emicho (of Flonheim) was a count in the Rhineland in the late 11th century and the leader of the German Crusade in 1096.
The Crusaders' atrocities against Jews in the German and Hungarian towns, later also in those of France and England, and in the massacres of non-combatants in Palestine and Syria have become a significant part of the history of anti-Semitism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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