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Encyclopedia > German Autumn

The German Autumn (German: Deutscher Herbst) was a set of events revolving around the kidnapping of Hanns-Martin Schleyer and the hijacking of the Lufthansa airplane Landshut, by the Red Army Faction (RAF) and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) respectively, in autumn 1977. Hanns Martin Schleyer (May 1, 1915, Offenburg – October 19, 1977 near Mulhouse, France) was a German manager, Nazi Party member and employer representative. ... Hijacking or highjacking is the forcible robbery from, or seizure of, a vehicle in transit. ... It has been suggested that Miles and More be merged into this article or section. ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ... The Landshut was a Lufthansa aircraft that was hijacked as part of the events in the German Autumn of 1977. ... RAF Logo with red star and MP5 The Red Army Faction (in German: Rote Armee Fraktion; RAF), was postwar Western Germanys most active left-wing insurgent organization. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين - al-jabhah al-sha`biyyah li-tahrīr filastīn) is a Marxist-Leninist, nationalist Palestinian political and military organization, founded in 1967. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...

On September 5, 1977, an RAF "commando unit" attacked the chauffeured car carrying Hanns-Martin Schleyer, then president of the German employers' association, in Cologne. His driver, Heinz Marcisz and three police bodyguards Reinhold Brandle, Roland Pieler and Helmut Ulmer were killed in the attack, and Schleyer was abducted and held prisoner in a rented apartment in an anonymous residential neighborhood near Cologne. He was forced to appeal to the center-left German government under Helmut Schmidt for the "first generation" of RAF members (then imprisoned) to be exchanged for him. Police investigations to locate Schleyer proved unsuccessful. September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... Cologne Cathedral with Hohenzollern Bridge Cologne (German: (help· info) ; Kölsch: Kölle) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the largest... Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt (born December 23, 1918) is a German SPD politician. ...

When it became clear that the government was unwilling to entertain a further prisoner exchange given the experience of the kidnapping of Peter Lorenz two years earlier, the RAF tried to exert additional pressure by hijacking the Lufthansa airplane Landshut on October 13 with the help of the allied Palestinian group PFLP. After a long odyssey through the Arabian Peninsula and the killing of Captain Jürgen Schumann, the terrorists and their hostages landed in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia. October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years). ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic Al-Jabhah al-Shabiyyah Li-Tahrir Filastin الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين) is a secular, Marxist-Leninist, nationalist Palestinian organization, founded after the Six-Day War in 1967. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... Mogadishu Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, Italian: Mogadiscio), a city in East Africa on the Indian Ocean, serves as the nominal capital of anarchic Somalia. ...

After political negotiations with the Somali leader Siad Barre, the German government was granted permission to assault the plane. This was carried out on October 18 by the special task force GSG 9, which had been formed after the 1972 Munich Olympics hostage crisis. All hostages were freed without injuries; only one terrorist aboard survived. Siad Barre Mohamed Siad Barre (Somali: Maxamed Siyaad Barre) (1919 or 1921?, Ganane, Italian Somaliland - January 2, 1995, Lagos, Nigeria) was the socialist President of Somalia from 1969 to 1991. ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in Leap years). ... Grenzschutzgruppe 9 (GSG 9 - Border protection group 9) is a German counter-terrorism unit, and is considered to be among the best of such units in the world. ... One of the Black September terrorists on the balcony of the Israeli team quarters at the Olympic village The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist organization Black September – a group within...

In response, Hanns-Martin Schleyer – taken to Belgium through the Netherlands – was shot and killed by his kidnappers. At the same time, founding RAF members Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, and Jan-Carl Raspe – all imprisoned in Stuttgart-Stammheim – were found dead on their cells. Oficial investigstion concluded that they all commited suicide, although it failed to establish how did handguns that were used entered the maximum security prison of Stammheim. Irmgard Möller, who was imprisoned with them, survived with four knife wounds in her chest. She later claimed that the suicides were actually extrajudicial killings. Andreas Baader Andreas Baader (May 6, 1943 - October 18, 1977) was the first leader of the German revolutionary organization Red Army Faction, commonly known as the Baader-Meinhof gang. ... Gudrun Ensslin Gudrun Ensslin (August 15, 1940 - October 18, 1977) was a founder of the German terrorist group Rote Armee Fraktion (RAF), better known as the Baader-Meinhof Gang. ... Jan-Carl Raspe (July 24, 1944 - October 18, 1977) member of the German militant group Red Army Faction. ... Irmgard Möller (born 1947) German member of the the Red Army Faction. ... Extrajudicial execution and extrajudicial punishment are terms to describe death sentences and other types of punishment, respectively, executed without prior proper judicial procedure. ...

After the Landshut crisis, the German government stated that it would never again negotiate with terrorists.

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