FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Gerhard von Scharnhorst

Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst (November 12, 1755 - June 28, 1813) was a general in Prussian service, Chief of the Prussian General Staff, noted for both his writings and his leadership during the Napoleonic Wars. November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... (Some entries on this page have been duplicated on August 1. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... General is a military rank used by nearly every country in the world. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of... In common usage, leadership generally refers to: the position or office of an authority figure, such as a President [1] a position of office associated with technical skill or experience, as in a team leader or a chief engineer a group or person in the vanguard of some trend or... The Napoleonic Wars are the wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule of France. ...


Born at Bordenau near Hanover, of farming stock, he succeeded in educating himself and in securing admission to the military academy at Wilhelmstein, and in 1778 received a commission in the Hanoverian service. He employed the intervals of regimental duty in further self-education and literary work. In 1783, transferred to the artillery, he received an appointment to the new artillery school in Hanover. He had already founded a military journal which under various names endured till 1805, and in 1788 he designed, and in part published, a Handbuch für Offiziere in den anwendbaren Teilen der Kriegswissenschaften ("Handbook for Officers in the Applied Sections of Military Science"). He also published in 1792 his Militarisches Taschenbuch für den Gebrauch im Felde ("Military Handbook for Use in the Field"). Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the river Leine, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The income he derived from his writings provided his chief means of support, for he still held the rank of lieutenant, and though the farm of Bordenau produced a small sum annually he had a wife (Clara Schmalz, sister of Theodor Schmalz, first director of Berlin University) and family to maintain. His first campaign took place in 1793 in the Netherlands, in which he served under the Duke of York with distinction. In 1794 he took part in the defence of Menin and commemorated the escape of the garrison in his Vertheidigung der Stadt Menin ("Defence of the Town of Menin") (Hanover, 1803), which, next to his paper Die Ursachen des Glücks der Franzosen im Revolutionskrieg ("The Origins of the Good Fortune of the French in the Revolutionary War"), remains his best-known work. Shortly after this he received promotion to the rank of major and joined the staff of the Hanoverian contingent. Alternative meaning: Humboldt State University, located in Arcata, California German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is the successor to Berlins oldest university, the Friedrich Wilhelm University (Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität), founded in 1810 by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... His Royal Highness The Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (Frederick Augustus) (16 August 1763 - 5 January 1827) was a member of the British Royal Family, the second eldest child, and second son of King George III. From 1820 until his own death in 1827, he was the heir... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


After the peace of Basel (5 March 1795) Scharnhorst returned to Hanover. He had by now become so well-known to the armies of the various allied states that he received invitations from several of them to transfer his services. This in the end led to his engaging himself to King Frederick William III of Prussia, who gave him a patent of nobility, the rank of lieutenant-colonel and a pay more than twice as large as that he had received in Hanover (1801). The War Academy of Berlin employed him, almost as a matter of course, in important instructional work (he had Clausewitz as one of his pupils) and he founded the Berlin Military Society. In the mobilizations and precautionary measures that marked the years 1804 and 1805, and in the war of 1806 that naturally ensued, Scharnhorst served as chief of the general staff (lieutenant-quartermaster) of the Duke of Brunswick, received a slight wound at Auerstadt (14 October 1806) and distinguished himself by his stern resolution during the retreat of the Prussian army. He attached himself to Blücher in the last stages of the disastrous campaign, went into captivity with him at the capitulation of Ratkau (7 November 1806), and, quickly exchanged, bore a prominent and almost decisive part in the leading of L'Estocq's Prussian corps which served with the Russians. For his services at Eylau (February 1807), he received the order Pour le Mérite. March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Frederick William III Frederick William III, known in German as Friedrich Wilhelm III, reigned as king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... 1801 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Carl Phillip Gottlieb von Clausewitz (June 1, 1780 - November 16, 1831) was a Prussian general and military thinker. ... Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick (October 9, 1735 - November 10, 1806), German general, was born at Wolfenbüttel. ... The Battle of Auerstädt, was fought on 14 October 1806, and resulted in a French victory under marshall Davout against the Prussians under General Brunswick. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher (December 16, 1742 in Rostock (Mecklenburg) - September 12, 1819 in Krieblowitz (Silesia) (now Krobielowice in Poland)), Graf (Count), later elevated to Fürst von Wahlstatt, was a Prussian general who led his army against Napoleon I at the Battle of... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... Battle of Eylau Conflict Napoleonic Wars Date February 7, 1807 – February 8, 1807 Place Eylau, Poland Result Inconclusive The Battle of Eylau, fought on February 7–8, 1807, was a bloody and inconclusive contest between the forces of Napoléon and a mostly Russian army under Austria assisted by Russia), and... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Pour le Mérite, known informally as the Blue Max, was Germanys highest military order awarded during World War I. The award was first founded in 1740, named in French, the language of the royal court, for merit. ...


It had become apparent that Scharnhorst's skills exceeded those of a merely brilliant staff officer. Educated in the traditions of the Seven Years' War, he had by degrees, as his experience widened, divested his mind of antiquated forms of war, and realised that only a "national" army and a policy of fighting decisive battles could give an adequate response to the political and strategical situation brought about by the French Revolution. By slow and labored steps he converted the professional long-service army of Prussia, wrecked at Jena (1806), into a national army based on universal service. He gained promotion to major-general a few days after the Peace of Tilsit (July 1807), and became the head of a reform commission which included the best of the younger officers, such as Gneisenau, Grolmann and Boyen. Stein himself became a member of the commission and secured Scharnhorst free access to King Frederick William III by organizing his appointment as aide-de-camp-general. But Napoleon quickly became suspicious, and Frederick William had repeatedly to suspend or to cancel the reforms recommended. The Seven Years War (1754 and 1756–1763) pitted Great Britain, Prussia, and Hanover against France, Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Saxony. ... During the French Revolution (1789–1799) democracy and republicanism overthrew the absolute monarchy in France, and the French portion of the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ... The Battle of Jena was fought on October 14, 1806, in Jena, in todays Germany, and resulted in a French victory under Napoleon Bonaparte against the Prussians under General Hohenlohe. ... The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... August Wilhelm Anton, Count Neithardt von Gneisenau (27 October 1760 - 24 August 1831) was a Prussian field marshal. ... Karl Wilhelm Georg von Grolmann (July 30, 1777 - June 1, 1843), Prussian soldier, was born in Berlin. ... Leopold Hermann Ludwig von Boyen (20 June or July 23, 1771- February 15, 1848) served as an army officer who helped to reform the Prussian army in the early 19th century. ... Heinrich Friedrich Karl, baron von und zum Stein Heinrich Friedrich Karl, baron von und zum Stein (October 26, 1757 - June 29, 1831), German statesman, was born at the family estate near Nassau. ... An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


In 1809, the war between France and Austria roused premature hopes in the patriots' party, which the conqueror did not fail to note. By direct application to Napoleon, Scharnhorst evaded the decree of September 26, 1810, which mandated all foreigners to leave the Prussian service forthwith, but when in 1811-1812 France forced Prussia into an alliance against Russia and Prussia despatched an auxiliary army to serve under Napoleon's orders, Scharnhorst left Berlin on unlimited leave of absence. In retirement he wrote and published a work on firearms, Über die Wirkung des Feuergewehrs (1813). But the retreat from Moscow (1812) at last sounded the call to arms for the new national army of Prussia. 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 96 days remaining. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow (Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, IPA:   listen?) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097. ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Scharnhorst, recalled to the king's headquarters, refused a higher post but became Chief of Staff to Blücher, in whose vigour, energy, and influence with the young soldiers he had complete confidence. In the first battle, Lützen or Gross-Gotschen (2 May 1813), Prussia suffered defeat, but a very different defeat from those which Napoleon had hitherto customarily inflicted. In this battle, Scharnhorst received a wound in the foot, not in itself grave, but soon made mortal by the fatigues of the retreat to Dresden, and he succumbed to it on 28 June 1813 at Prague, whither he had travelled to negotiate with Schwarzenberg and Radetzky for the armed intervention of Austria. Shortly before his death he had received promotion to the rank of lieutenant-general. Frederick William III erected a statue in memory of him, by Rauch, in Berlin. May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Battle of Dresden was fought on August 26_27, 1813, and resulted in a French victory under Austrians, Russians and Prussians under General Schwartzenberg. ... (Some entries on this page have been duplicated on August 1. ... Prague (Praha in Czech) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... Karl Philipp Fürst zu Schwarzenberg (or Prince Karl Philipp zu Schwarzenberg (April 18, 1771 - October 15, 1820), Austrian generalissimo, was born at Vienna. ... Johann Josef Wenzel Graf Radetzky von Radetz (en: Count Joseph Radetzky, in Czech: Jan Josef Václav hrabě Radecký z Radče) (November 2, 1766 - January 5, 1858) was a Bohemian nobleman and soldier, immortalised by Johann Strauss Is Radetzky March. ... Frederick William III Frederick William III, known in German as Friedrich Wilhelm III, reigned as king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... Christian Daniel Rauch (January 2, 1777 _ December 3, 1857), German sculptor, was born at Arolsen in the principality of Waldeck. ...


Several German navy ships, including the World War I armored cruiser SMS Scharnhorst, the World War II battlecruiser Scharnhorst, and a post war frigate, as well as a district of the city of Dortmund, were named after him. World War I was a basically European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machineguns and poison gas. ... The armored cruiser was a naval cruiser protected by armor on its sides as well as on the decks and gun positions. ... This article is about the World War I armored cruiser Scharnhorst; for the World War II battlecruiser of the same name, see German battlecruiser Scharnhorst. ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons—the atom bomb being the ultimate. ... HMS Hood (left) and HMS Barham (right), in Malta, 1937. ... Scharnhorst was a 31,500 ton Gneisenau class battlecruiser of the German Kriegsmarine, named the Prussian general and army reformer Gerhard von Scharnhorst and to commemorate the World War I armored cruiser SMS Scharnhorst. ... Map of Germany showing Dortmund Dortmund is a city in Germany, located in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the Ruhr area. ...


References

  • Karl von Clausewitz, Über das Leben und den Charakter des General v. Scharnhorst
  • Hermann von Boyen, Beiträge zur Kenntnis des General v. Scharnhorst
  • life by Schweder (Berlin, 1865)
  • life by Klippel (Leipzig, 1869)
  • life by M Lehmann (Leipzig, 1886-1888, an important work in two volumes)
  • Max Jöhns, Geschichte der Kriegswissenschaften, iii. 2154
  • Weise, Scharnhorst und die Durchführung der allgemeinen Wehrpflicht (1892)
  • A von Holleben, Der Frühjahrsfeldzug, 1813 (1905)
  • FN Maude, The Leipzig Campaign (1908)

Carl Phillip Gottlieb von Clausewitz (June 1, 1780 - November 16, 1831) was a Prussian general and military thinker. ... Leopold Hermann Ludwig von Boyen (20 June or July 23, 1771- February 15, 1848) served as an army officer who helped to reform the Prussian army in the early 19th century. ...

Succession

Preceded by:
New ministry
Chief of the Prussian General Staff
1808-10
Followed by:
Karl von Hake
Prussian Minister of War
1808-10

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. The German General Staff or Großer Generalstab was the most important German weapon for nearly two centuries. ... The Prussian War Ministry was gradually established between 1808 and 1809 as part of a series of reforms initiated by the Military Reorganization Commission created after the disastrous Treaty of Paris. ... The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911), contend supporters, in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gerhard von Scharnhorst - Biocrawler (894 words)
Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst (November 12, 1755 - June 28, 1813) was a general in Prussian service, Chief of the Prussian General Staff, noted for both his writings and his leadership during the Napoleonic Wars.
Scharnhorst, recalled to the king's headquarters, refused a higher post but became chief of staff to Blücher, in whose vigour, energy and influence with the young soldiers he had complete confidence.
In it Scharnhorst received a wound in the foot, not in itself grave, but soon made mortal by the fatigues of the retreat to Dresden, and he succumbed to it on 28 June 1813 at Prague, whither he had travelled to negotiate with Schwarzenberg and Radetzky for the armed intervention of Austria.
Scharnhorst - Origin of the Name - Gerhard Johann von Scharnhorst (465 words)
Following education in the noted War College of Wilhelmstein, Steinhuder Meer, Scharnhorst was commissioned into the Hannoverian Army in 1776 and in 1801 applied for the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the Prussian Army.
Despite the pressures exerted by such reformers as Gneisenau, Götzen, Boyen, and Freiherr vom Stein, resistance by the king was such that Scharnhorst did not succeed in implementing general conscription until 1813.
Scharnhorst's major achievement was the "shrinkage system" designed to circumvent the limit of 42.000 men for the standing army imposed by Napoleon on Prussia in the Paris Treaty of 1808.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m