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Encyclopedia > Gerardus Mercator

Gerardus Mercator (March 5, 1512December 2, 1594) was a Flemish cartographer. He was born in Rupelmonde in East Flanders in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation to parents from Gangelt in the Duchy of Jülich (modern Germany). He lived since 1552 in Duisburg. He is remembered for the Mercator chart named after him. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1512 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; generally called the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; the constituent governing institution... Cartography is the study of map making and cartographers are map makers. ... Rupelmonde is a constituent town of the municipality of Kruibeke, located in the Belgian province of East Flanders. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; generally called the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; the constituent governing institution... The Holy Roman Empire should not be mistaken for the Roman Empire (31 B.C.–A.D. 476). ... Gangelt is a village and a municipality in the district Heinsberg, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... The Duchy of Jülich was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (part of Limburg). ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Duisburg is a German city and port in the western part of the Ruhr Area (Ruhrgebiet) in North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Mercator world map Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigatium Emendate (1569) The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator, in 1569. ...


Mercator was born Gheert Cremer (or Gerard de Cremere) in the Flemish town of Rupelmonde. "Mercator" is the Latinized form of his name. It means "merchant" or "marketeer". He was educated in 's-Hertogenbosch by the famous humanist Macropedius and at the University of Leuven. Despite his fame as a cartographer, Mercator's main source of income came through his craftmanship of mathematical instruments. He returned to Leuven and worked with Gemma Frisius and Gaspar Myrica. They worked together from 1535 to 1536 to construct a terrestrial globe, although the role of Mercator in the project was not primarily as a cartographer, but as a highly skilled engraver of brass plates. Mercator's own independent map-making only began when he produced a map of Palestine in 1537, and this was followed by another map of the world (1538) and a map of Flanders (1540). During this period he learned Italic script since it was the most suitable type of script for copper engraving of maps. He wrote the first instruction book of Italic script published in northern Europe. Rupelmonde is a constituent town of the municipality of Kruibeke, located in the Belgian province of East Flanders. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... s-Hertogenbosch (literally The Dukes Forest in Dutch; translated in French as Bois-le-Duc), unofficially also called Den Bosch, is a municipality in the Netherlands, the capital of the province of North Brabant. ... Georgius Macropedius, portrait by Philips Galle, poem by Benito Arias Montanus. ... The Catholic University of Leuven, founded in 1425, is now the names of two Belgian universities, after the original university split in 1968: the Dutch-speaking Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, and the French-speaking Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium This is a disambiguation page — a... Gemma Frisius, seventeenth-century woodcut by E. de Boulonois For the crater, see Gemma Frisius (crater) Gemma Frisius (or Reiner Gemma, December 9, 1508 - May 25, 1555) was a mathematician, cartographer and instrument maker. ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Antarctica Oceania Africa Asia Europe North America South America Middle East Caribbean Central Asia East Asia North Asia South Asia Southeast Asia SW. Asia Australasia Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia Central America Latin America Northern America Americas C. Africa E. Africa N. Africa Southern Africa W. Africa C. Europe E. Europe N... Cartography is the study of map making and cartographers are map makers. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Italic can refer to: Italic languages Italic scripts Italic means Of or from Italy; the usage is most commonly restricted to talking about the people and languages of what is now Italy from the historic period before the Roman Empire. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...

Mercator map of Europe
Mercator map of Europe

Mercator was convicted of heresy in 1544 because of his wide travels and Protestant faith; he spent seven months in prison. [1] map of europe from 16th century This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... map of europe from 16th century This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


In 1552, he moved to Duisburg, one of the major cities in the German Duchy of Cleves. He opened a cartographic workshop, where he completed a six-panel map of Europe in 1554. He also worked as a surveyor for the city. His motives for moving to Duisburg are not clear. Mercator might have left the Netherlands for religious reasons or because he was informed about the plans to found a university. He taught mathematics at the academic college of Duisburg. After producing several maps he was appointed Court Cosmographer to the Duke Wilhelm of Cleve in 1564. He constructed a new chart and first used it in 1569; it had parallel lines of longitude to aid navigation by sea, as compass courses could be marked as straight lines. Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Duisburg is a German city and port in the western part of the Ruhr Area (Ruhrgebiet) in North Rhine-Westphalia. ... The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland). ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Portion of chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ...

Rumold's world map, drawn in 1587 after his father's map of 1567 (published in 1595)

He took the word atlas to describe a collection of maps, and encouraged Abraham Ortelius to compile the first modern world atlas, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum in 1570. He produced his own atlas in a number of parts, the first of which was published in 1578 and consisted of corrected versions of the maps of Ptolemy (though introducing a number of new errors). Maps of France, Germany and the Netherlands were added in 1585 and of the Balkans and Greece in 1588, further maps were published in 1595 after his death by his son Rumold Mercator. Download high resolution version (1496x1077, 558 KB)Gerardus Mercator, Atlas sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi et Fabricati Figura, Duisburg, 1595. ... Download high resolution version (1496x1077, 558 KB)Gerardus Mercator, Atlas sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi et Fabricati Figura, Duisburg, 1595. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other meanings of Atlas, see Atlas (disambiguation). ... Abraham Ortelius. ... Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World) is considered to be the first true modern atlas. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ... Events January 31 - Battle of Gemblours - Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... Rumold Mercator (1545 - 1599) was a cartographer and the son of cartographer Gerardus Mercator. ...


Mercator devised a technique to produce globes— celestial as well as terrestrial— by techniques of relative mass production. Globes at the time were laboriously produced by engraving upon a sphere of wood or gilded brass. Mercator moulded globes of papier-mâché on a wooden mould, then cut them along the equator; once reassembled, the globes were applied with gesso, a white mixture of thin plaster and sizing. Mercator engraved and printed sets of world maps on twelve tapering gores, with curved edges that narrowed towards the poles, which were cut out and applied to the globe. Circular engraved caps covered the ends at the poles. After the globes were hand-tinted with watercolors they were set in wooden stands with calibrated brass horizon rings. Twenty-two such pairs of Mercator globes have survived. Antarctica Oceania Africa Asia Europe North America South America Middle East Caribbean Central Asia East Asia North Asia South Asia Southeast Asia SW. Asia Australasia Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia Central America Latin America Northern America Americas C. Africa E. Africa N. Africa Southern Africa W. Africa C. Europe E. Europe N... Papier-mâché around a form such as a balloon to create a pig. ... Gesso is the Italian word for chalk (akin to the Greek word gypsum), and is a powdered form of the mineral calcium carbonate used in art. ... A gore is a segment of a three-dimensional shape fabricated from a two-dimensional material. ...


After moving to Duisburg Mercator never left the city and died there a respected and wealthy citzen. He was buried in the city's main cathedral of Saint Salvatorus. Exhibits of his works can be seen in the Mercator treasury located in the city.


More exhibits about Mercator's life and work are featured at the Mercator Museum in Sint-Niklaas, Belgium. Sint-Niklaas is a municipality located in the province of East Flanders, Flemish Region, Belgium. ...


See also

Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) has been an integral part of the human story for a long time (maybe 8,000 years - nobody knows exactly, but longer than written words). ...

Further reading

  • Nicholas Crane: Mercator: the man who mapped the planet, London: Phoenix, 2003, ISBN 075381692X

External links

  1. Turn the pages of the British Library's Mercator Atlas of Europe (c.1570)
  2. Library of Congress Map Collection
  3. Mercator's Atlas
  4. India Tertia and the mapping of the colonial imaginary by Siddharth Varadarajan
  5. O'Connor, John J.; Edmund F. Robertson "Gerardus Mercator". MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.  
  1. ^ "Gerardus Mercator" at St. Andrew's University

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gerardus Mercator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (732 words)
Gerardus Mercator (March 5, 1512 – December 2, 1594) was a Flemish cartographer of German descent, his parents being from Gangelt in the Duchy of Jülich.
Mercator was born Gerard de Cremere (or Kremer) in the Flemish town of Rupelmonde.
Mercator died a respected and wealthy citzen of Duisburg and was buried in the city's main cathedral of Saint Salvatorus.
GERARDUS MERCATOR - LoveToKnow Article on GERARDUS MERCATOR (946 words)
Mercator early began to incline towards Protestantism; in 1533 he had retired for a time from Louvain to Antwerp, partly to avoid inquiry into his religious beliefs; in 1544 he was arrested and prosecuted for heresy, but escaped serious consequences (two of the forty-two arrested with him were burnt, one beheaded, two buried alive).
The organization of the university was adjourned, and never completed in Mercators lifetime; but he now became cosmographer to the duke and permanently settled on the German soil to which many of his ancestors and relatives had belonged.
In 1554 Mercator published his great map of Europe in six sheets, three or four of which had already been pretty well worked out at Louvain; a copy of this was rediscovered at Breslau in 1889.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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