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Encyclopedia > Gerald Ford
Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr.
Gerald Ford

In office
August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977
Vice President none (August–December 1974)
Nelson Rockefeller
(December 1974–January 1977)
Preceded by Richard Nixon
Succeeded by Jimmy Carter

In office
December 6, 1973 – August 9, 1974
President Richard Nixon
Preceded by Spiro Agnew
Succeeded by Nelson Rockefeller

In office
January 3, 1965 – December 6, 1973
Preceded by Charles A. Halleck
Succeeded by John Jacob Rhodes

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Michigan's 5th District
In office
January 3, 1949 – December 6, 1973
Preceded by Bartel J. Jonkman
Succeeded by Richard F. Vander Veen

Born July 14, 1913(1913-07-14)
Omaha, Nebraska
Died December 26, 2006 (aged 93)
Rancho Mirage, California
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse Elizabeth Bloomer Warren
Alma mater University of Michigan
Occupation Lawyer
Religion Episcopalian
Signature Gerald Ford's signature

Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. (July 14, 1913December 26, 2006) was the thirty-eighth President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977, and the fortieth Vice President of the United States serving from 1973 to 1974. He was the first person appointed to the vice presidency under the terms of the 25th Amendment, and became President upon Richard Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974. Ford was the fifth U.S. President never to have been elected to that position, and the only one never to have won a national election at all. Gerald Ford can refer to: Gerald Ford (1913–2006), 38th President of the United States Gerald Rudolff Ford, namesake father of the 38th president Gerald J. Ford, a banker Category: ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (920x1181, 85 KB)Official White House Portrait of U.S. President Gerald Ford. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... Nixon redirects here. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives are elected by their... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Charles Abraham Halleck (August 22, 1900 – March 3, 1986) was a Republican leader of the United States House of Representatives from the second district of Indiana. ... Rhodes Official House Photo John Jacob Rhodes, Jr. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Congressman of Third District of Michigan who was defeated by Gerald Ford in 1949. ... Richard Franklin VanderVeen (November 26, 1922 – March 3, 2006) was a Democratic US Representative from Michigan. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Omaha redirects here. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rancho Mirage is a city located in Riverside County, California. ... GOP redirects here. ... Betty Fords official White House portrait, painted in 1977 by Felix de Cossio Elizabeth Anne Bloomer Warren Ford (born April 8, 1918) is the widow of former United States President Gerald R. Ford and was the First Lady from 1974 to 1977. ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM, U-M or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... Image File history File links Gerald_R._Ford_signature. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Page 1 of Amendment XXV in the National Archives Page 2 of the amendment Amendment XXV (the Twenty-fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the... Nixon redirects here. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


Before ascending to the vice-presidency, Ford served nearly 25 years as Representative from Michigan's 5th congressional district, eight of them as the Republican Minority Leader. Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The Fifth Congressional District of the U.S. state of Michigan is located in a mostly industrial area[1] encompasing the area south of Saginaw Bay in Tuscola, Saginaw, and Genesee counties in the eastern-central portion of the state. ... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives are elected by their...


As president, Ford signed the Helsinki Accords, marking a move toward détente in the Cold War, even as South Vietnam, a former ally, was invaded and conquered by North Vietnam. Ford did not intervene in Vietnamese affairs, but did help extract friends of the U.S. Domestically, the economy suffered from inflation and a recession under President Ford. One of his more controversial decisions was granting a presidential pardon to President Richard Nixon for his role in the Watergate scandal. In 1976, Ford narrowly defeated Ronald Reagan for the Republican nomination, but ultimately lost the presidential election to Democrat Jimmy Carter by a small margin. For the set of principles on human experimentation, see Declaration of Helsinki. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... Anthem Tiến Quân Ca (Army March) Location of North Vietnam Capital Hanoi Language(s) Vietnamese Government Socialist republic First president Ho Chi Minh Historical era Cold War  - Independence proclaimed (from Japan) September 2, 1945  - Recognized 1954  - Disestablished July 2, 1976 Area 157,880 km² Population  -  est. ... In macroeconomics, a Recession is a decline in any countrys Gross Domestic Product (GDP), or negative real economic growth, for two or more successive quarters of a year. ... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ... Nixon redirects here. ... Watergate redirects here. ... The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


Following his years as president, Ford remained active in the Republican party. After experiencing health problems and being admitted to the hospital four times in 2006, Ford died at his home, aged 93, on December 26, 2006. Betty Ford kneels in prayer at the casket of her late husband, Gerald Ford, as he lies in state. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Early life

Childhood

Gerald R. Ford was born Leslie Lynch King, Jr. on July 14, 1913, at 12:43 a.m. CST, at 3202 Woolworth Avenue in Omaha, Nebraska. His father, Leslie Lynch King, Sr., a wool trader who was the son of a prominent banker, and his mother, the former Dorothy Ayer Gardner, separated just sixteen days after his birth. His mother took him to the Oak Park, Illinois home of her sister Tannisse and her husband, Clarence Haskins James. From there she moved to the home of her parents, Levi Addison Gardner and his wife, the former Adele Augusta Ayer, in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Ford's parents divorced the following December with his mother gaining full custody. is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...  CST or UTC-6 The Central Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time (UTC-6) and five hours during daylight saving time (UTC-5). ... The Gerald R. Ford Birthsite and Gardens in Omaha, Nebraska marks the location of the house where U.S. President Gerald R. Ford was born in 1913. ... Omaha redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Leslie Lynch King, Sr. ... Dorothy Ayer Gardner Ford (February 27, 1892-September 17, 1967) was the mother of President Gerald R. Ford. ... Downtown (Oak Park Avenue) Ernest Hemingway Museum Oak Park, Illinois Lake Theater and shops along Lake Street. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Grand Rapids redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Leslie Lynch King, Jr. (later known as Gerald R. Ford) at one year of age in 1914

Gerald Ford later said his biological father had a history of hitting his mother.[1] James M. Cannon, who was the executive director of the domestic council during the Ford administration, wrote in a Ford biography the Kings' separation and divorce were sparked when, a few days after Ford's birth, Leslie King, Sr. threatened Dorothy with a butcher knife and threatened to kill her, the baby, and the baby's nursemaid. His first abusive action, according to Ford, occurred on the couple's honeymoon, when King hit his wife for smiling at another man.[2] Image File history File links Gerald_Ford_1914. ... Image File history File links Gerald_Ford_1914. ...


On February 1, 1916, now settled in Grand Rapids, Dorothy King married Gerald Rudolff Ford, a salesman in a family-owned paint and varnish company, who later became president of the firm.[3] She began calling her son Gerald Rudolff Ford, Jr. The future president was never formally adopted, however, and he did not legally change his name until December 3, 1935; he also used a more conventional spelling of his middle name.[4] He was raised in Grand Rapids with his three half-brothers by his mother's second marriage: Thomas Gardner Ford (1918–1995), Richard Addison Ford (born 1924), and James Francis Ford (1927–2001). He also had three half-siblings by his father's second marriage: Marjorie King (1921–1993), Leslie Henry King, Sr. (1923–1976), and Patricia Jane King (born 1925). is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Gerald Rudolff Ford (December 9, 1890-January 26, 1962) was the namesake step-father of President Gerald Ford. ... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Coordinates: Country United States State Michigan County Kent Government  - Mayor Cindy Bartman Area  - City  3. ...


Ford was not aware of his biological parentage until he was 17, when his parents told him about the circumstances of his birth. That same year his biological father, whom he described as a "carefree, well-to-do man", approached Ford while he was waiting tables in a Grand Rapids restaurant. The two "maintained a sporadic contact" until Leslie King, Sr.'s death,[1][5] but Ford maintained his distance emotionally, saying, "My stepfather was a magnificent person and my mother equally wonderful. So I couldn't have written a better prescription for a superb family upbringing."[6]


Scouting and athletics

Eagle Scout Gerald Ford (circled in red) in 1929. Michigan Governor Fred Green at far left, holding hat.
Eagle Scout Gerald Ford (circled in red) in 1929. Michigan Governor Fred Green at far left, holding hat.

Ford joined the Boy Scouts of America, and attained that program's highest rank, Eagle Scout.[7] He always regarded this as one of his proudest accomplishments, even after attaining the White House.[8] In subsequent years, Ford received the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award in May 1970 and Silver Buffalo Award from the Boy Scouts of America. He is the only US president who was an Eagle Scout.[9] Scouting was so important to Ford that his family asked that Scouts participate in his funeral. About 400 Eagle Scouts were part of the funeral procession, where they formed an honor guard as the casket went by in front of the museum, and served as ushers.[10][11] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Michigan Governors Territorial Governors State Governors From statehood until the election of 1966, governors were elected to two-year terms. ... Fred Green was an American politician. ... For the Boy Scouting program within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America). ... An Eagle Scout is a Scout with the highest rank attainable in the Boy Scouting program of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... The Distinguished Eagle Scout Award, is a special award, awarded only to Eagle Scouts, for distinguished service in his profession or to the community for a period of at least 25 years after earning his Eagle Scout rank. ... The Silver Buffalo Award is the highest service award of the Boy Scouts of America. ... This article is about the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts/Girl Guides organizations. ...


Ford attended Grand Rapids South High School and was a star athlete and captain of his football team. In 1930, he was selected to the All-City team of the Grand Rapids City League. He also attracted the attention of college recruiters.[12] In team sports, a captain is an honorary title given to the member of the team primarily responsible for strategy and teamwork while the game is in progress on the field. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... The Grand Rapids City League is an athletic league located in Grand Rapids, MI. It consists of the four public high schools of the Grand Rapids Public Schools that offer interscholastic sports, plus two parochial private schools and one non-parochial private school. ...


Attending the University of Michigan as an undergraduate, Ford played center and linebacker for the school’s football team and helped the Wolverines to undefeated seasons and national titles in 1932 and 1933. The team suffered a steep decline in his 1934 senior year, however, winning only one game. Ford was the team’s star nonetheless, and after a game during which Michigan held heavily favored Minnesota (the eventual national champion) to a scoreless tie in the first half, assistant coach Bennie Oosterbaan later said, “When I walked into the dressing room at half time, I had tears in my eyes I was so proud of them. Ford and [Cedric] Sweet played their hearts out. They were everywhere on defense.” Ford himself later recalled, “During 25 years in the rough-and-tumble world of politics, I often thought of the experiences before, during, and after that game in 1934. Remembering them has helped me many times to face a tough situation, take action, and make every effort possible despite adverse odds.” His teammates later voted Ford their most valuable player, with one assistant coach noting, “They felt Jerry was one guy who would stay and fight in a losing cause.”[13] The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM, U-M or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... The offensive team or offense in American football or Canadian football, is the team that begins a play from scrimmage in possession of the ball. ... This article relates to sports. ... Head coach Lloyd Carr 13th year, 121–40 Home stadium Michigan Stadium Capacity 107,501 - Field Turf Conference Big Ten First year 1879 Athletic director William C. Martin Website MGoBlue. ... The NCAA Division I-A national football championship is the only Division I NCAA-sponsored sport without an organized tournament to determine its champion; in fact, while various other organizations (as described below) designate a national champion at the Division I level, the NCAA itself does not award a championship... The University of Minnesota Golden Gophers are one of the oldest and most storied programs in college football history. ... Bennie Oosterbaan (born February 4, 1906 in Muskegon, Michigan, USA - October 25, 1990) was a football player and coach at the University of Michigan. ...

Ford as a University of Michigan football player, 1933
Ford as a University of Michigan football player, 1933

During the same season, in a game against the University of Chicago, Ford “became the only future U.S. president to tackle a future Heisman Trophy winner when he brought down running back Jay Berwanger, who would win the first Heisman the following year.”[14] In 1934 Gerald Ford was selected for the Eastern Team on the Shriner’s East West Crippled Children game at San Francisco (a benefit for crippled children), played on January 1, 1935. As part of the 1935 Collegiate All-Star football team, Ford played against the Chicago Bears in an exhibition game at Soldier Field.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2024x1591, 851 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gerald Ford Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2024x1591, 851 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gerald Ford Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... Heisman redirects here. ... John Jay Berwanger (March 19, 1914 - June 26, 2002) was an American football player born in Dubuque, Iowa. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... City Chicago, Illinois Other nicknames Da Bears, The Monsters of the Midway Team colors Navy Blue and Orange Head Coach Lovie Smith Owner Virginia Halas McCaskey Chairman Michael McCaskey General manager Jerry Angelo Fight song Bear Down, Chicago Bears Mascot Staley Da Bear League/Conference affiliations Independent (1919) National Football... Soldier Field (formerly Municipal Grant Park Stadium) is located on Lake Shore Drive in Chicago, Illinois, and is currently home to the NFLs Chicago Bears. ...


Ford retained his interest in football and his alma mater throughout life, occasionally attending games and on one occasion asking to be awakened to find out the score of an Ohio State-Michigan football game, while attending a summit in the Soviet Union as President.[16] The University of Michigan retired Ford's #48 jersey in 1994.


Education

At Michigan, Ford became a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity and washed dishes at his fraternity house to earn money for college expenses. Following his graduation in 1935 with a degree in political science he turned down contract offers from the Detroit Lions and Green Bay Packers of the National Football League in order to take a coaching position at Yale and apply to its law school. Each team was offering him a contract of $200 a game, but he wanted a legal education.[17] Ford continued to contribute to football and boxing, accepting an assistant coaching job for both at Yale in September 1935.[18] Delta Kappa Epsilon (ΔΚΕ; also pronounced D-K-E or Deke) was founded at Yale College in 1844 by 15 men of the sophomore class who, upon hearing that some but not all of them had been invited to join the two existing societies (Alpha Delta Phi and Psi Upsilon), instead... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... City Detroit, Michigan Team colors Honolulu Blue, Silver, and Black Head Coach Rod Marinelli Owner William Clay Ford, Sr. ... Packers redirects here. ... NFL redirects here. ... Yale redirects here. ...


Ford hoped to attend Yale's law school beginning in 1935 while serving as boxing coach and assistant varsity football coach, but Yale officials initially denied his admission to the law school, because of his full-time coaching responsibilities. He spent the summer of 1937 as a student at the University of Michigan Law School[19] and was eventually admitted in the spring of 1938 to Yale Law School.[20] Ford earned his LL.B. degree in 1941 (later amended to Juris Doctor), graduating in the top 25 percent of his class. His introduction to politics came in the summer of 1940 when he worked in Wendell Willkie's presidential campaign. While attending Yale Law School, he joined a group of students led by R. Douglas Stuart, Jr., and signed a petition to enforce the 1939 Neutrality Act. The petition was circulated nationally and was the inspiration for the America First Committee, a group determined to keep the U.S. out of World War II.[21] The University of Michigan Law School, located in Ann Arbor, is a unit of the University of Michigan. ... J.D. redirects here. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. ... The Sterling Law Building Sculptural ornamentation on the Sterling Law Building Yale Law School, or YLS, is the law school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. ... Several United States laws have been called Neutrality Acts: The Neutrality Act of 1935 prohibited American citizens from selling arms to belligerents in international war. ... The America First Committee was the foremost pressure group against American entry into the Second World War. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Ford graduated from law school in 1941, and was admitted to the Michigan bar shortly thereafter. In May 1941, he opened a Grand Rapids law practice with a friend, Philip Buchen,[18] who would later serve as Ford's White House counsel. But overseas developments caused a change in plans, and Ford responded to the attack on Pearl Harbor by enlisting in the Navy.[22] A bar association is a body of lawyers who, in some jurisdictions, are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession. ... This article is about the actual attack. ...


Naval service in World War II

Ford received a commission as ensign in the U.S. Naval Reserve on April 13, 1942. On April 20, he reported for active duty to the V-5 instructor school at Annapolis, Maryland. After one month of training, he went to Navy Preflight School in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, where he was one of 83 instructors and taught elementary seamanship, ordnance, gunnery, first aid and military drill. In addition, he coached in all nine sports that were offered, but mostly in swimming, boxing and football. During the one year he was at the Preflight School, he was promoted to Lieutenant Junior Grade on June 2, 1942, and to Lieutenant in March 1943. Ensign is a junior rank of commissioned officer in the militaries of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. ... The United States Navy Reserve is the reserve component of the United States Navy. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Annapolis redirects here. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Nickname: Location in North Carolina Coordinates: , Country State Counties Orange, Durham, and Chatham Founded 1793 Government  - Mayor Kevin C. Foy Area  - City  19. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... LTJG insignia. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ...

Ford in Navy uniform, 1945
Ford in Navy uniform, 1945

Applying for sea duty, Ford was sent in May 1943 to the pre-commissioning detachment for the new aircraft carrier USS Monterey, at New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey. From the ship's commissioning on June 17, 1943 until the end of December 1944, Ford served as the assistant navigator, Athletic Officer, and antiaircraft battery officer on board the Monterey. While he was on board, the carrier participated in many actions in the Pacific Theater with the Third and Fifth Fleets during the fall of 1943 and in 1944. In 1943, the carrier helped secure Makin Island in the Gilberts, and participated in carrier strikes against Kavieng, New Ireland in 1943. During the spring of 1944, the Monterey supported landings at Kwajalein and Eniwetok and participated in carrier strikes in the Marianas, Western Carolines, and northern New Guinea, as well as in the Battle of the Philippine Sea.[23][24] After overhaul, from September to November 1944, aircraft from the Monterey launched strikes against Wake Island, participated in strikes in the Philippines and Ryukyus, and supported the landings at Leyte and Mindoro. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3642x4645, 3397 KB) (All user names refer to de. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3642x4645, 3397 KB) (All user names refer to de. ... USN redirects here. ... The USS Monterey (CVL-26) was an Independence-class light aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, in service during World War II and used in training for several years thereafter. ... The City of Camden is the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A map of the Pacific Theater. ... Third Fleet is one of five numbered fleets in the U.S. Navy. ... The 5th Fleet of the United States Navy is responsible for naval forces in the Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Arabian Sea and coast off East Africa as far south as Kenya. ... Butaritari Atoll is an atoll of 10 islands in the Pacific Ocean island nation of Kiribati. ... Kavieng is the capital of the Papua New Guinean province of New Ireland and the largest town on the island of the same name. ... Kwajalein Atoll - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kwajalein Atoll (Marshallese: Kuwajleen ; common English pronunciation , often nicknamed Kwaj by English-speaking residents of the U.S. facilities) is part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). ... Enewetak (or Eniwetok) is an atoll in the Marshall Islands of the central Pacific Ocean. ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels... Sunset at Colonia on Yap The Caroline Islands form a large archipelago of widely scattered islands in the western Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Guinea. ... Combatants United States Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Ray Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Kakuji Kakuta Strength 7 fleet carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 5 fleet carriers, 4 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties... Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ... This article is about the island. ... Beach in Northern Mindoro Mindoro is the seventh-largest island in the Philippines. ...


Although the ship was not damaged by Japanese forces, the Monterey was one of several ships damaged by the typhoon that hit Admiral William Halsey's Third Fleet on December 18–19, 1944. The Third Fleet lost three destroyers and over 800 men during the typhoon. The Monterey was damaged by a fire, which was started by several of the ship's aircraft tearing loose from their cables and colliding on the hanger deck. During the storm, Ford narrowly avoided becoming a casualty himself. As he was going to his battle station on the bridge of the ship in the early morning of December 18, the ship rolled twenty-five degrees, which caused Ford to lose his footing and slide toward the edge of the deck. The two-inch steel ridge around the edge of the carrier slowed him enough so he could roll, and he twisted into the catwalk below the deck. As he later stated, "I was lucky; I could have easily gone overboard." Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... William Frederick Bull Halsey, Jr. ... Lowest pressure ≤907 mbar Damage Three destroyers lost Fatalities 790 U.S., unknown elsewhere Areas affected Philippine Sea Part of the 1940-1944 Pacific typhoon seasons Typhoon Cobra, also known as the Typhoon of 1944, was the United States Navy designation for a tropical cyclone which struck the United States... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Because of the extent of the fires, Admiral Halsey ordered Captain Ingersoll to abandon ship. Lieutenant (j.g.) Ford stood near the helm, awaiting his orders. "We can fix this" Captain Ingersoll said, and with a nod from his skipper, Lieutenant Ford donned a gas mask and led a fire brigade below.


Aircraft-gas tanks exploded as hose handlers slid across the burning decks. Into this furnace, Lieutenant Ford led his men, his first order of business to carry out the dead and injured. Five hours later he and his team emerged burned and exhausted, but they had put out the fire.

Men aboard the USS Monterey (CVL-26) playing basketball in the forward elevator well June, 1944; the jumper on the left is Ford[25][26]

After the fire the Monterey was declared unfit for service, and the crippled carrier reached Ulithi on December 21 before proceeding across the Pacific to Bremerton, Washington where it underwent repairs. On December 24, 1944 at Ulithi, Ford was detached from the ship and sent to the Athletic Department of the Navy Pre-Flight School at Saint Mary's College of California, where he was assigned to the Athletic Department until April 1945. One of his duties was to coach football. From the end of April 1945 to January 1946, he was on the staff of the Naval Reserve Training Command, Naval Air Station, Glenview, Illinois as the Staff Physical and Military Training Officer. On October 3, 1945 he was promoted to Lieutenant Commander. In January 1946, he was sent to the Separation Center, Great Lakes to be processed out. He was released from active duty under honorable conditions on February 23, 1946. On June 28, 1946, the Secretary of the Navy accepted Ford's resignation from the Naval Reserve. The USS Monterey (CVL-26) was an Independence-class light aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, in service during World War II and used in training for several years thereafter. ... Ulithi atoll Ulithi is an atoll in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific Ocean, about 100 km (62 mi) east of Yap. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sinclair Inlet and Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (left), Dyes Inlet (middle distance) and Manette and Warren Avenue Bridges (left to right) across Port Washington Narrows Bremerton is a city in Kitsap County, Washington, USA. The population was 37,259 at the 2000 census. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Marys College of California is a private, coeducational college located in Moraga, California, United States. ... The Glenview Naval Air Station was an operational U.S. Naval Air Station from 1923 to 1995. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... An aerial view showing a special recruit graduation Pass in Review Ceremony held at Ross Field, Naval Training Center Great Lakes. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ...


For his naval service, Gerald Ford earned the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with nine engagement stars for operations in the Gilbert Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, Marshall Islands, Asiatic and Pacific carrier raids, Hollandia, Marianas, Western Carolines, Western New Guinea, and the Leyte Operation. He also received the Philippine Liberation Medal with two bronze stars for Leyte and Mindoro, as well as the American Campaign and World War II Victory medals.[22] The Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal is a service decoration of the Second World War which was awarded to any member of the United States military who served in the Pacific Theater from 1941 to 1945. ... It has been suggested that Central Gilberts be merged into this article or section. ... The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, named in honour of the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck and belonging to Papua New Guinea. ... April 22, 1944. ... The Philippine Liberation Medal is a military award of the Republic of the Philippines which was created by an order of Commonwealth of the Philippines Army Headquarters on December 20, 1944. ... American Campaign Medal The American Campaign Medal was a decoration of the United States military which was first created in 1942 by order of President Franklin Roosevelt. ... WWII Victory Medal The World War II Victory Medal is a decoration of the United States military which was created by an act of Congress in July 1945. ...


Ford was a member of several civic organizations, including the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, American Legion, Veterans of Foreign Wars, and AMVETS.Gerald R. Ford was initiated into Freemasonry on September 30, 1949.[27] He later said in 1975, "When I took my obligation as a master mason — incidentally, with my three younger brothers — I recalled the value my own father attached to that order. But I had no idea that I would ever be added to the company of the Father of our Country and 12 other members of the order who also served as Presidents of the United States."[28] Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks Grand Lodge in Chicago, Illinois The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks had modest beginnings in 1868 as a social club (then called the Jolly Corks) established as a private club to elude New York City laws governing the opening hours of public taverns. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Veterans of Foreign Wars, or VFW, is an American organization whose members are current or former members of the U.S. armed forces. ... AMVETS or American Veterans is a volunteer-led organization formed by World War II veterans which accepts honorably discharged veterans as members. ... Freemasons redirects here. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Marriage and children

The Fords on their wedding day, October 15, 1948

On October 15, 1948, at Grace Episcopal Church in Grand Rapids, Ford married Elizabeth Bloomer Warren, a department store fashion consultant. Warren had been a John Robert Powers fashion model and a dancer in the auxiliary troupe of the Martha Graham Dance Company. She had previously been married to and divorced from William G. Warren. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... Betty Fords official White House portrait, painted in 1977 by Felix de Cossio Elizabeth Anne Bloomer Warren Ford (born April 8, 1918) is the widow of former United States President Gerald R. Ford and was the First Lady from 1974 to 1977. ... John Robert Powers (April 16, 1892 - November, 1977) was an American actor and founder of a prominent New York City modelling agency. ... For the supercentenarian, see Martha Graham (supercentenarian). ...


At the time of his engagement, Ford was campaigning for what would be his first of thirteen terms as a member of the United States House of Representatives. The wedding was delayed until shortly before the elections because, as The New York Times reported in a 1974 profile of Betty Ford, "Jerry was running for Congress and wasn't sure how voters might feel about his marrying a divorced ex-dancer."[29] Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


The Fords had four children:

Michael Ford in 2007 Michael Gerald Ford (b. ... John Jack Gardner Ford (born March 16, 1952) is the second child and second son of U.S. President Gerald Ford and First Lady Betty Ford. ... Steven Ford in 2007 Steven Meigs Ford (born May 19, 1956 in East Grand Rapids, Michigan) is an American actor. ... Susan Elizabeth Ford Vance Bales (born July 6, 1957, in Washington, D.C.) is an American author, photojournalist, and the chairman of the board of the Betty Ford Center for alcohol and drug abuse. ...

House of Representatives

Ford meets with President Richard Nixon as House Minority Leader
Ford meets with President Richard Nixon as House Minority Leader

After returning to Grand Rapids, Ford became active in local Republican politics, and supporters urged him to take on Bartel J. Jonkman, the incumbent Republican congressman. Military service had changed his view of the world; "I came back a converted internationalist", Ford wrote, "and of course our congressman at that time was an avowed, dedicated isolationist. And I thought he ought to be replaced. Nobody thought I could win. I ended up winning two to one."[6] During his first campaign in 1948, Ford visited farmers and promised he would work on their farms and milk the cows if elected—a promise he fulfilled.[30] In 1961, the U.S. House membership voted Ford a special award as a "Congressman's Congressman" that praised his committee work on military budgets.[31] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives are elected by their... Congressman of Third District of Michigan who was defeated by Gerald Ford in 1949. ... Non-interventionism, the diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations in order to avoid being drawn into wars not related to direct territorial self-defense, has had a long history in the United States. ... The U.S. House election, 1948 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1948 which coincided with President Harry Trumans re-election. ... Agriculture is a major industry in the United States and the country is a net exporter of food. ...


Ford was a member of the House of Representatives for twenty-four years, holding the Grand Rapids congressional district seat from 1949 to 1973. It was a tenure largely notable for its modesty. As an editorial in The New York Times described him, Ford "saw himself as a negotiator and a reconciler, and the record shows it: he did not write a single piece of major legislation in his entire career."[32] Appointed to the House Appropriations Committee two years after being elected, he was a prominent member of the Defense Appropriations Subcommittee. Ford described his philosophy as "a moderate in domestic affairs, an internationalist in foreign affairs, and a conservative in fiscal policy." A congressional district is an electoral constituency that elects a single member of a congress. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The Committee on Appropriations, or Appropriations Committee (often referred to as simply Appropriations, as in Hes on Appropriations) is a committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... The House Subcommittee on Defense is a standing subcommittee within the House Appropriations Committee. ... Fiscal conservatism (also known as economic liberalism) is a term used in the United States to refer to economic and political policy that advocates restraint of government taxation, government expenditures and deficits, and government debt. ...

Congressman Gerald Ford, MSFC director Wernher von Braun, Congressman George H. Mahon, and NASA Administrator James E. Webb visit the Marshall Space Flight Center for a briefing on the Saturn program, 1964
Congressman Gerald Ford, MSFC director Wernher von Braun, Congressman George H. Mahon, and NASA Administrator James E. Webb visit the Marshall Space Flight Center for a briefing on the Saturn program, 1964

In November 1963, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Ford to the Warren Commission, a special task force set up to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Ford was assigned to prepare a biography of Lee Harvey Oswald, the accused assassin.[33] The Commission's work continues to be debated in the public arena. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... George Herman Mahon (August 22, 1900 - November 19, 1985) was a Texas politician. ... James E. Webb James Edwin Webb (October 7, 1906–March 27, 1992) was the second administrator of NASA, serving from February 14, 1961 to October 7, 1968. ... Aerial view of the test area at Marshall Space Flight Center The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a lead NASA center for propulsion, Space Shuttle propulsion, external fuel tank, crew training and payloads, International Space Station (ISS) design and construction, for computers, networks, and information management. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... John F. Kennedy The assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 PM Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ...


In 1965, Republican members of the House elected Ford as its Minority Leader. During the eight years (1965–1973) he served as Minority Leader, Ford won many friends in the House because of his fair leadership and inoffensive personality.[31] But President Johnson disliked Ford for the congressman's frequent attacks on the administration's "Great Society" programs as being unneeded or wasteful, and for his criticism of the President's handling of the Vietnam War. As Minority Leader in the House, Ford appeared in a popular series of televised press conferences with famed Illinois Senator Everett Dirksen, in which they proposed Republican alternatives to Johnson's policies. Many in the press jokingly called this "The Ev and Jerry Show".[34] Johnson said of Ford at the time, "That Gerald Ford. He can't fart and chew gum at the same time."[35] The press, used to sanitizing LBJ's salty language, reported this as "Gerald Ford can't walk and chew gum at the same time."[36] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives are elected by their... The Great Society was also a 1960s band featuring Grace Slick, and a 1914 book by English social theorist Graham Wallas. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... A joint press conference by U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair at the White House. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Everett McKinley Dirksen Everett McKinley Dirksen (January 4, 1896 – September 7, 1969) was a Republican U.S. Congressman and Senator from Illinois. ...


Vice Presidency, 1973–74

On October 10, 1973, Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned the Nixon administration and then pleaded no contest to criminal charges of tax evasion and money laundering, part of a negotiated resolution to a scheme wherein he accepted $29,500 in bribes while governor of Maryland. According to The New York Times, "Nixon sought advice from senior Congressional leaders about a replacement. The advice was unanimous. 'We gave Nixon no choice but Ford,' House Speaker Carl Albert recalled later".[32] is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. ... Carl Bert Albert (May 10, 1908 – February 4, 2000) was a lawyer and a Democratic American politician from Oklahoma. ...

The Fords and the Nixons in the White House Blue Room following President Nixon's nomination of Ford to be Vice President, October 1973

Ford was nominated to take Agnew's position on October 13, the first time the vice-presidential vacancy provision of the 25th Amendment had been implemented. The United States Senate voted 92 to 3 to confirm Ford on November 27. Only three Senators, all Democrats, had voted against Ford's confirmation: Gaylord Nelson of Wisconsin, Thomas Eagleton of Missouri and William Hathaway of Maine. On December 6, the House confirmed Ford by a vote of 387 to 35. One hour after the confirmation vote in the House, Ford took the oath of office as Vice President of the United States. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 587 × 368 pixelsFull resolution (587 × 368 pixel, file size: 38 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 587 × 368 pixelsFull resolution (587 × 368 pixel, file size: 38 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Blue Room, looking toward the southeast. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Page 1 of Amendment XXV in the National Archives Page 2 of the amendment Amendment XXV (the Twenty-fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gaylord Nelson Gaylord Anton Nelson (June 4, 1916 – July 3, 2005) was a Democratic American politician from Wisconsin. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Thomas Eagleton and George McGovern on July 24, 1972 cover of Time magazine after his nomination for vice president on the Democratic ticket Thomas Eagleton on August 7, 1972 cover of Time Magazine after his withdrawal for vice president on the Democratic ticket. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Categories: Stub | 1924 births | United States Senators ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ford's tenure as Vice President was little noted by the media. Instead, reporters were preoccupied by the continuing revelations about criminal acts during the 1972 presidential election and allegations of cover-ups within the White House. Ford said little about the Watergate scandal, although he privately expressed his personal disappointment in the President's conduct. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Watergate redirects here. ...


Following Ford's appointment, the Watergate investigation continued until Chief of Staff Alexander Haig contacted Ford on August 1, 1974, and told him that "smoking gun" evidence had been found. The evidence left little doubt that President Nixon had been a part of the Watergate cover-up. At the time, Ford and his wife, Betty, were living in suburban Virginia, waiting for their expected move into the newly designated vice president's residence in Washington, D.C. However, "Al Haig [asked] to come over and see me," Ford later related, "to tell me that there would be a new tape released on a Monday, and he said the evidence in there was devastating and there would probably be either an impeachment or a resignation. And he said, 'I'm just warning you that you've got to be prepared, that things might change dramatically and you could become President.' And I said, 'Betty, I don't think we're ever going to live in the vice president's house.'"[6] Joshua B. Bolten, the current White House Chief of Staff. ... For other persons named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation). ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The term smoking gun was originally, and still primarily is, a reference to an object or fact that serves as conclusive evidence of a crime or similar act. ... Number One Observatory Circle, official home of the Vice President of the United States, photographed in 2003. ... ... The Watergate tapes, also known as the Nixon tapes, are a collection of conversations between President Nixon and various White House staff members, recorded on the White House taping system and White House dictabelts. ...


Presidency, 1974–77

Accession

Gerald Ford is sworn in as the 38th President of the United States by Chief Justice Warren Burger in the White House East Room, while Betty Ford looks on.
Gerald Ford is sworn in as the 38th President of the United States by Chief Justice Warren Burger in the White House East Room, while Betty Ford looks on.
Ford and his golden retriever, Liberty, in the Oval Office, 1974
Ford and his golden retriever, Liberty, in the Oval Office, 1974

When Nixon resigned in the wake of the Watergate scandal on August 9, 1974, Ford assumed the presidency making him the only person to assume the vice-presidency and the presidency without having been voted into either office. Immediately after taking the oath of office in the East Room of the White House, he spoke to the assembled audience in a speech broadcast live to the nation. Ford noted the peculiarity of his position: "I am acutely aware that you have not elected me as your president by your ballots, and so I ask you to confirm me as your president with your prayers."[37] On August 20 Ford nominated former New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller to fill the vice presidency he had vacated. Rockefeller was confirmed by the House and Senate.[38] Caption: Gerald R. Ford is sworn in as the 38th President of the United States by Chief Justice Warren Burger as Mrs. ... Caption: Gerald R. Ford is sworn in as the 38th President of the United States by Chief Justice Warren Burger as Mrs. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial... Warren Burger at a press conference in May 1969 shortly after he was nominated to be Chief Justice of the United States. ... The East Room is one of the largest rooms in the White House, the home of the President of the United States. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1891, 1004 KB) Gerald Ford and golden retriever Liberty (dog) on November 7, 1974. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1891, 1004 KB) Gerald Ford and golden retriever Liberty (dog) on November 7, 1974. ... The Oval Office from above in 2003, during the administration of George W. Bush. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The East Room with Gilbert Stuart portrait of George Washington in the background. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the state. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ...


Nixon pardon

On September 8, 1974, Ford issued Proclamation 4311, which gave Nixon a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes he may have committed against the United States while President.[39][40] In a televised broadcast to the nation, Ford explained that he felt the pardon was in the best interests of the country and that the Nixon family's situation "is a tragedy in which we all have played a part. It could go on and on and on, or someone must write the end to it. I have concluded that only I can do that, and if I can, I must."[41] At the same time as he announced the Nixon pardon, Ford introduced a conditional amnesty program for Vietnam War draft dodgers who had fled to countries such as Canada.[42] Unconditional amnesty, however, did not come about until the Jimmy Carter Presidency.[43] is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Their actions were criminal offences and once they had left the country draft dodgers could not return or they would be arrested. ...


The Nixon pardon was highly controversial. Critics derided the move and claimed, a "corrupt bargain" had been struck between the men.[12] They claimed Ford's pardon was quid pro quo in exchange for Nixon's resignation that elevated Ford to the Presidency. Nixon's Chief of Staff, Alexander Haig, did in fact offer a deal to Ford. Bob Woodward, in his book Shadow, recounts that Haig entered Ford's office on August 1, 1974 while Ford was still Vice President and Nixon had yet to resign. Haig told Ford that there were three pardon options: (1) Nixon could pardon himself and resign, (2) Nixon could pardon his aides involved in Watergate and then resign, or (3) Nixon could agree to leave in return for an agreement that the new president would pardon him. After listing these options, Haig handed Ford various papers; one of these papers included a discussion of the president's legal authority to pardon and another sheet was a draft pardon form that only needed Ford's signature and Nixon's name to make it legal. Woodward summarizes the setting between Haig and Ford as follows: "Even if Haig offered no direct words on his views, the message was almost certainly sent. An emotional man, Haig was incapable of concealing his feelings; those who worked closely with him rarely found him ambiguous." Three deals cut in connection with the Presidency of the United States, two in contested United States presidential elections and one involving a Presidential appointment of a Vice President, have been described as Corrupt Bargains. ... Quid pro quo (Latin for something for something [1]) indicates a more-or-less equal exchange or substitution of goods or services. ... Bob Woodward signs his book State of Denial after a talk in March 2007. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...

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Despite the situation, Ford never accepted the offer from Haig and later decided to pardon Nixon on his own terms. Regardless, historians believe the controversy was one of the major reasons Ford lost the election in 1976, an observation with which Ford concurred.[44] In an editorial at the time, The New York Times stated that the Nixon pardon was "a profoundly unwise, divisive and unjust act" that in a stroke had destroyed the new president's "credibility as a man of judgment, candor and competence."[32] Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


Ford's first press secretary and close friend Jerald Franklin terHorst resigned his post in protest after the announcement of President Nixon's full pardon. Ford also voluntarily appeared before Congress on October 17, 1974 to give sworn testimony—the only time a sitting president has done so—about the pardon.[18] Jerald Franklin terHorst (born 1922) was the first person to serve as press secretary for President Gerald Ford. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


After Ford left the White House in 1977, intimates said that the former President privately justified his pardon of Nixon by carrying in his wallet a portion of the text of Burdick v. United States, a 1915 U.S. Supreme Court decision which stated that a pardon indicated a presumption of guilt and that acceptance of a pardon was tantamount to a confession of that guilt.[44] In 2001, the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation awarded the John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award to Ford for his pardon of Nixon.[45] Holding Court membership Chief Justice: Edward Douglass White Associate Justices: Joseph McKenna, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... The John F Kennedy Library The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library is the presidential library and museum of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The Profile in Courage Award is an award given to someone who displays the type of courage that John F. Kennedy described in his book of the same name. ...


Administration and cabinet

Upon assuming office, Ford inherited Nixon's cabinet. Over the course of Ford's relatively brief administration, only Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and Secretary of the Treasury William E. Simon remained. Ford appointed William Coleman as Secretary of Transportation, the second African American to serve in a presidential cabinet (after Robert Clifton Weaver) and the first appointed in a Republican administration.[46] The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... William Edward Simon (November 27, 1927–June 3, 2000) became the 63rd Secretary of the Treasury on May 8, 1974, during the Nixon administration. ... William Thaddeus Coleman Jr (July 7, 1920 -) was the USAs fourth Secretary of Transportation and the second African American to serve in the Cabinet. ... Seal of the United States Department of Transportation The United States Secretary of Transportation is the head of the United States Department of Transportation. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Robert Clifton Weaver (December 29, 1907-July 17, 1997) served as the first United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (also known as HUD) from 1966 to 1968. ...

The Ford Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM

President Gerald Ford 1974–1977
Vice President Nelson Rockefeller 1974–1977

State Henry Kissinger 1974–1977
Treasury William E. Simon 1974–1977
Defense James R. Schlesinger 1974–1975
  Donald Rumsfeld 1975–1977
Justice William Saxbe 1974–1975
  Edward Levi 1975–1977
Interior Rogers Morton 1974–1975
  Stanley K. Hathaway 1975
  Thomas S. Kleppe 1975–1977
Agriculture Earl Butz 1974–1976
  John Albert Knebel 1976–1977
Commerce Frederick B. Dent 1974–1975
  Rogers Morton 1975
  Elliot Richardson 1975–1977
Labor Peter J. Brennan 1974–1975
  John Thomas Dunlop 1975–1976
  William Usery, Jr. 1976–1977
HEW Caspar Weinberger 1974–1975
  F. David Mathews 1975–1977
HUD James Thomas Lynn 1974–1975
  Carla Anderson Hills 1975–1977
Transportation Claude Brinegar 1974–1975
  William Thaddeus Coleman, Jr. 1975–1977

Other cabinet-level posts: Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... William Edward Simon (November 27, 1927–June 3, 2000) became the 63rd Secretary of the Treasury on May 8, 1974, during the Nixon administration. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born February 15, 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1975 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... William Bart Saxbe (born June 24, 1916) was an American politician of the Republican Party, who served as a U.S. Senator from Ohio and as U.S. Attorney General under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald R. Ford. ... Edward H. Levi Edward Hirsch Levi (June 26, 1911–March 7, 2000) was an American academic leader, scholar and statesman. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1914 births | 1979 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of the Interior ... Stanley Knapp Hathaway (born July 19, 1924–October 4, 2005), U.S. Republican Party politician. ... Thomas Savig Kleppe (born July 1, 1919) is a former United States Representative from North Dakota. ... Earl Lauer Butz (born July 3, 1909) is a former United States government official who served as Secretary of Agriculture under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... John Albert Knebel was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA in 1936. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Frederick Baily Dent United States Secretary of Commerce from February 2, 1973 to March 26, 1975. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1914 births | 1979 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of the Interior ... Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 – December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... Peter Joseph Brennan (May 24, 1918 - October 2, 1996) was United States Secretary of Labor under President Nixon and President Ford. ... John Thomas Dunlop (born July 5,1914, died October 2nd 2003) was a U.S. administrator. ... The official portrait of W. J. Usery, Jr. ... The United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare was the head of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. ... Caspar Willard Cap Weinberger, GBE (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006), was an American politician and Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from January 21, 1981, until November 23, 1987, making him the third longest-serving defense secretary to date, after Robert McNamara and Donald Rumsfeld. ... Forrest David Mathews was secretary of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) from 1975 to 1977. ... The United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... James Thomas Lynn (born 1927) was a U.S. administrator. ... Carla Anderson Hills (born January 3, 1934) is an American lawyer and public figure. ... Claude Stout Brinegar (born December 16, 1926) was the third United States Secretary of Transportation, serving from February 2, 1973 to February 1, 1975. ... William Thaddeus Coleman, Jr. ...

Other important posts: Joshua B. Bolten, the current White House Chief of Staff. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is a body within the Executive Office of the President of the United States which is tasked with coordinating United States Federal agencies. ... Roy L. Ash (born 1918 in Los Angeles, California-) was the co-founder and president of Litton Industries and director of the Office of Management and Budget (February 2, 1973 - February 3, 1975) during the Nixon and Ford Administrations. ... James Thomas Lynn (born 1927) was a U.S. administrator. ... The Office of the United States Trade Representative, or USTR, is an arm of the executive branch of the United States government that falls within the Executive Office of the President. ... William D. Eberle is a businessman and polician from Idaho who held the office of United States Trade Representative from 1970 to 1975. ... Frederick Baily Dent United States Secretary of Commerce from February 2, 1973 to March 26, 1975. ... The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency is the head of the United States federal governments Environmental Protection Agency, and is thus responsible for enforcing the nations Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, as well as numerous other environmental statutes. ... Russell Errol Train (born June 4, 1920) was the second EPA Agency Administrator, from September 1973 to January 1977. ... United States Ambassador to the United Nations, full title, Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, and Representative of the United States of America in the Security Council of the United Nations (also known as the... John A. Scali (US Ambassador to the United Nations) ... Daniel Patrick “Pat” Moynihan (March 16, 1927 – March 26, 2003) was a United States Senator, Ambassador, and eminent sociologist. ... Scranton made the cover of Time in 1962 William Warren Scranton (born July 19, 1917) is a former U.S. Republican Party politician. ...

Ford selected George H.W. Bush to be his liaison to the People's Republic of China in 1974 and then Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in late 1975.[47] The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft KBE (born March 19, 1925 in Ogden, Utah), USAF (Ret. ... The Office of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was established on January 23rd 1946 with Adm. ... William Egan Colby (January 4, 1920–April 27, 1996) became director of the CIA on September 4, 1973, after James R. Schlesinger. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born June... The Ambassador to China is the chief American diplomat to China. ... The Office of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was established on January 23rd 1946 with Adm. ... CIA redirects here. ...


Ford's transition chairman and first Chief of Staff was former congressman and ambassador Donald Rumsfeld. In 1975, Rumsfeld was named by Ford as the youngest-ever Secretary of Defense. Ford chose a young Wyoming politician, Richard Cheney, to replace Rumsfeld as his new Chief of Staff and later campaign manager for Ford's 1976 presidential campaign.[48] Ford's dramatic reorganization of his Cabinet in the fall of 1975 has been referred to by political commentators as the "Halloween Massacre." Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... In United States and other democracies, political campaigns larger than a few individuals generally include a campaign manager whose role is to coordinate the campaigns operations. ... The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. ... The Halloween Massacre (November 4, 1975) was the term given by political commentators to U.S. President Gerald R. Fords reorganization of his Cabinet. ...


Midterm elections

The 1974 Congressional midterm elections took place less than three months after Ford assumed office. Occurring in the wake of the Watergate scandal, the Democratic Party was able to turn voter dissatisfaction into large gains in the House elections, taking 49 seats from the Republican Party, and increasing their majority to 291 of the 435 seats, which was one more than the number needed (290) for a 2/3rds majority, necessary in order to over-ride a Presidential veto (or to submit a Constitutional Amendment). Perhaps due in part to this fact, the 94th Congress overrode the highest percentage of vetoes since Andrew Johnson was President of the United States (1865–1869).[49] Even Ford's old, reliably Republican seat was taken by Democrat Richard VanderVeen. In the Senate elections, the Democratic majority became 61 in the 100-seat body.[50] The U.S. House election, 1974 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1974 that occurred in the wake of the Watergate scandal, which had forced President Richard M. Nixon to resign in favor of Gerald Ford. ...  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The U.S. Senate election, 1974 was an election for the United States Senate held in the wake of the Watergate scandal, Richard M. Nixons resignation from the presidency, and Gerald Fords subsequent pardon of Nixon. ... The U.S. House election, 1974 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1974 that occurred in the wake of the Watergate scandal, which had forced President Richard M. Nixon to resign in favor of Gerald Ford. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... // 1975-1976 The first session of this Congress took place in Washington, DC from January 14, 1975 to December 19, 1975. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... Richard Franklin VanderVeen (November 26, 1922-March 3, 2006) was a Democratic US Representative from Michigan. ...  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The U.S. Senate election, 1974 was an election for the United States Senate held in the wake of the Watergate scandal, Richard M. Nixons resignation from the presidency, and Gerald Fords subsequent pardon of Nixon. ...


Domestic policy

President Ford meets with his Cabinet in 1975.
President Ford meets with his Cabinet in 1975.

The economy was a great concern during the Ford administration. In response to rising inflation, Ford went before the American public in October 1974 and asked them to "Whip Inflation Now." As part of this program, he urged people to wear "WIN" buttons.[51] In hindsight, this was viewed as simply a public relations gimmick without offering any effective means of solving the underlying problems.[52] At the time, inflation was approximately seven percent.[53] Gerald Ford Cabinet; Ford Library; This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Gerald Ford Cabinet; Ford Library; This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... Whip Inflation Now (WIN) was an attempt to spur a grass-roots movement to combat inflation, by encouraging personal savings and disciplined spending habits in combination with public measures, urged by U.S. President, Gerald Ford. ... // Dictionary. ... A gimmick is a unique or quirky special feature that makes something stand out from its contemporaries. ...


The economic focus began to change as the country sank into a mild recession and in March 1975, Congress passed and Ford signed into law income tax rebates as part of the Tax Reduction Act of 1975 to boost the economy. When New York City faced bankruptcy in 1975, Mayor Abraham Beame was unsuccessful in obtaining Ford's support for a federal bailout. The incident prompted the New York Daily News' notorious headline: "Ford to City: Drop Dead."[54] In macroeconomics, a Recession is a decline in any countrys Gross Domestic Product (GDP), or negative real economic growth, for two or more successive quarters of a year. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... The United States Tax Reduction Act of 1975 provided a 10 percent rebate on 1974 tax liability ($200 cap) and created a temporary $30 general tax credit for each taxpayer and dependent. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... The Mayor of New York City is the chief executive of the government of New York City, as stipulated by the Charter of the City of New York. ... Abe Beame in mid-career Abraham David Beame (known as Abe Beame) (March 20, 1906 – February 10, 2001) was mayor of New York City from 1974 to 1977. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Ford was confronted with a potential swine flu pandemic. Sometime in the early 1970s, an influenza strain H1N1 shifted from a form of flu that affected primarily pigs and crossed over to humans. On February 5, 1976, an Army recruit at Fort Dix mysteriously died and four fellow soldiers were hospitalized; health officials announced that "swine flu" was the cause. Soon after, public health officials in the Ford administration urged that every person in the United States be vaccinated.[55] Although the vaccination program was plagued by delays and public relations problems, some 25% of the population was vaccinated by the time the program was canceled in December of that year. The vaccine was blamed for twenty-five deaths; more people died from the shots than from the swine flu.[56] Swine Flu is a form of Type A influenza that is normally virulent only in pigs. ... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ... Flu redirects here. ... H1N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Fort Dix is a census-designated place located in Burlington County, New Jersey. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ...


Despite his reservations about how this program ultimately would be funded in an era of tight public budgeting, Ford still signed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, which established special education throughout the United States. Ford expressed "strong support for full educational opportunities for our handicapped children" according to the official White House press release for the bill signing.[57] The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (sometimes referred to using the acronyms EAHCA or EHA) was enacted by the United States Congress in 1975. ...


Ford was an outspoken supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment, issuing Presidential Proclamation 4383. The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution intended to guarantee equal rights under the law for Americans regardless of sex. ...

In this Land of the Free, it is right, and by nature it ought to be, that all men and all women are equal before the law.

Now, THEREFORE, I, GERALD R. FORD, President of the United States of America, to remind all Americans that it is fitting and just to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment adopted by the Congress of the United States of America, in order to secure legal equality for all women and men, do hereby designate and proclaim August 26, 1975, as Women's Equality Day.[58] is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

As president, Ford's position on abortion was that he supported "a federal constitutional amendment that would permit each one of the 50 States to make the choice."[59] This had also been his position as House Minority Leader in response to the 1973 Supreme Court case of Roe v. Wade, which he opposed.[60] Ford came under criticism for a 60 Minutes interview his wife Betty gave in 1975, in which she stated that Roe v. Wade was a "great, great decision."[61] During his later life, Ford would identify as pro-choice.[62] Holding Texas law making it a crime to assist a woman to get an abortion violated her due process rights. ... This article is about the CBS news magazine. ... Issues of discussion Pro-choice describes the political and ethical view that a woman should have complete control over her fertility and pregnancy. ...


Foreign policy

All U.S. military forces had withdrawn from Vietnam in 1973. As the North Vietnamese invaded and conquered the South in 1975, Ford ordered the final withdrawal of U.S. civilians from Vietnam in Operation Frequent Wind, and the subsequent fall of Saigon. On April 29 and the morning of April 30, 1975, the U.S. embassy in Saigon was evacuated amidst a chaotic scene. Some 1,373 U.S. citizens and 5,595 Vietnamese and third country nationals were evacuated by military and Air America helicopters to U.S. Navy ships off-shore. USAF CH-53 helicopters on the deck of Midway during Operation Frequent Wind, April 1975 Operation Frequent Wind was the emergency evacuation of Americans by helicopter from Saigon, South Vietnam in April 1975 during the last days of the Vietnam War. ... Belligerents Democratic Republic of Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Commanders Van Tien Dung Tran Van Tra Hoang Cam Le Duc Anh Nguyen Van Toan Nguyen Hop Doan Strength 100,000 [1] 30,000 [1] Casualties and losses Unknown Unknown The Fall of Saigon... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saigon redirects here. ... Air America Pilots Cap Air America was an American passenger and cargo airline covertly owned and operated by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ... USN redirects here. ...

Ford meets with Soviet Union leader Leonid Brezhnev in Vladivostok, November 1974, to sign a joint communiqué on the SALT treaty
Ford meets with Soviet Union leader Leonid Brezhnev in Vladivostok, November 1974, to sign a joint communiqué on the SALT treaty

Ford continued the détente policy with both the Soviet Union and China, easing the tensions of the Cold War. In his meeting with Indonesian president Suharto, Ford gave the green light[63][64] through arms and aid to invade the former Portuguese colony East Timor. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 544 pixel Image in higher resolution (3527 × 2400 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 544 pixel Image in higher resolution (3527 × 2400 pixel, file size: 1. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... Communiqu is the second album by British rock band Dire Straits, released in 1979 (see 1979 in music). ... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ...


Still in place from the Nixon Administration was the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT).[65] The thawing relationship brought about by Nixon's visit to China was reinforced by Ford's December 1975 visit to the communist country.[66] In 1975, the Administration entered into the Helsinki Accords[67] with the Soviet Union, creating the framework of the Helsinki Watch, an independent non-governmental organization created to monitor compliance that later evolved into Human Rights Watch.[68] The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Helsinki Watch was an independent NGO created in mid-1970s to monitor compliance to the Helsinki Accords (signed 1975). ... NGO redirects here. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Ford also faced a foreign policy crisis with the Mayaguez Incident. In May 1975, shortly after the Khmer Rouge took power in Cambodia, Cambodians seized the American merchant ship Mayaguez in international waters. Ford dispatched Marines to rescue the crew, but the Marines landed on the wrong island and met unexpectedly stiff resistance just as, unknown to the U.S., the Mayaguez sailors were being released. In the operation, 41 U.S. servicemen were killed and 50 wounded while approximately 60 Khmer Rouge soldiers were killed.[69] The Mayagüez incident was the first major foreign policy crisis of United States President Gerald R. Ford. ... Some of the Khmer Rouge leaders during their period in power. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ...


Ford attended the inaugural meeting of the Group of Seven (G7) industrialized nations (initially the G5) in 1975 and secured membership for Canada. Ford supported international solutions to issues. "We live in an interdependent world and, therefore, must work together to resolve common economic problems," he said in a 1974 speech.[70]


Assassination attempts

Secret Service agents rush Ford to safety after the first assassination attempt.

Ford faced two assassination attempts during his presidency, occurring within three weeks of each other: while in Sacramento, California on September 5, 1975, Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, a follower of Charles Manson, pointed a Colt 45-caliber handgun at Ford. As Fromme pulled the trigger, Larry Buendorf,[71] a Secret Service agent, grabbed the gun and managed to insert the webbing of his thumb under the hammer, preventing the gun from firing. It was later found that, although the gun was loaded with four cartridges, it was a semi-automatic pistol and the slide had not been pulled to place a round in the firing chamber, making it impossible for the gun to fire. Fromme was taken into custody; she was later convicted of attempted assassination of the President and was sentenced to life in prison.[72] Image File history File links Frommeassassinationattempt. ... Image File history File links Frommeassassinationattempt. ... USSS redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Targeted killing be merged into this article or section. ... Sacramento redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lynette Alice Squeaky Fromme (born October 22, 1948) is a former member of Charles Mansons Family, convicted of attempting to assassinate U.S. President Gerald Ford in 1975. ... Charles Milles Manson (b. ... The M1911 is a single-action, semiautomatic handgun chambered for the . ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... Larry Buendorf (born 1937) is the Chief Security Officer of the United States Olympic Committee. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Reaction immediately after the second assassination attempt.
Reaction immediately after the second assassination attempt.

In reaction to this attempt, the Secret Service started to keep Ford at a more secure distance from anonymous crowds, a strategy that may have saved his life seventeen days later: as he left a hotel in downtown San Francisco, Sara Jane Moore, standing in a crowd of onlookers across the street, pointed her pistol at him.[73] Just before she fired, former Marine Oliver Sipple grabbed at the gun and deflected her shot; one person was injured, and she was later sentenced to life in prison. She was paroled from prison on December 31, 2007, having served 32 years.[74] San Francisco redirects here. ... Sara Jane Moore (born Sara Jane Kahn on February 15, 1930 in Charleston, West Virginia) attempted to assassinate US President Gerald Ford on September 22, 1975 outside the St. ... Oliver Billy Sipple (November 20, 1941 - February 2, 1989) was a Vietnam War veteran, who saved the life of U.S. President Gerald Ford during an assassination attempt in San Francisco on September 22, 1975. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Supreme Court appointment

In 1975, Ford appointed John Paul Stevens as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States to replace retiring Justice William O. Douglas. Stevens had been a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, appointed by President Nixon.[75] During his tenure as House Republican leader, Ford had led efforts to have Douglas impeached. After being confirmed, Stevens eventually disappointed some conservatives by siding with the Court's liberal wing regarding the outcome of many key issues.[76] Nevertheless, President Ford paid tribute to Stevens. "He has served his nation well," Ford said of Stevens, "with dignity, intellect and without partisan political concerns."[77] John Paul Stevens (born April 20, 1920) is currently the most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are the members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States. ... William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898 – January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the courts in the following districts: Central District of Illinois Northern District of Illinois Southern District of Illinois Northern District of Indiana Southern District of Indiana Eastern District of Wisconsin Western District... Judicial philosophy is the set of ideas and beliefs which dictate how justices rule in many cases. ...


1976 presidential election

Ford reluctantly agreed to run for office in 1976, but first he had to counter a challenge for the Republican party nomination. Then-former Governor of California Ronald Reagan and the party's conservative wing faulted Ford for failing to do more in South Vietnam, for signing the Helsinki Accords and for negotiating to cede the Panama Canal (negotiations for the canal continued under President Carter, who eventually signed the Torrijos-Carter Treaties). Reagan launched his campaign in late 1975 and won several primaries before withdrawing from the race at the Republican Convention in Kansas City, Missouri. The conservative insurgency convinced Ford to drop the more liberal Vice President Nelson Rockefeller in favor of Kansas Senator Bob Dole.[78] The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... Reagan redirects here. ... American conservatism is a constellation of political ideologies within the United States under the blanket heading of conservative. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. ... Map of Panama, with Panama canal The Torrijos-Carter Treaties (sometimes referred to in the singular as the Torrijos-Carter Treaty), are a pair of treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D. C. on September 7, 1977, abrogating the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty signed in 1903. ... The series of Presidential primary elections and caucuses is one of the first steps in the long, complex process of electing the President of the United States of America. ... The 1976 Republican National Convention was held in Kansas City, Missouri at Kemper Arena from August 16 to August 19. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... American liberalism—that is, liberalism in the United States of America—is a broad political and philosophical mindset, favoring individual liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty, whether they come from established religion, from government regulation, from the existing class structure, or from multi-national corporations. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ...


In addition to the pardon dispute and lingering anti-Republican sentiment, Ford had to counter a plethora of negative media imagery. Chevy Chase often did pratfalls on Saturday Night Live, imitating Ford, who had been seen stumbling on two occasions during his term. As Chase commented, "He even mentioned in his own autobiography it had an effect over a period of time that affected the election to some degree."[79] For other uses, see Chevy Chase (disambiguation). ... Physical comedy is comedic performance relying mostly on the use of the body to convey humor. ... SNL redirects here. ...


President Ford's 1976 election campaign had the advantage that he was an incumbent President during several anniversary events held during the period leading up to the United States Bicentennial. The Washington, D.C. fireworks display on the Fourth of July was presided over by the President and televised nationally.[80] On July 7, 1976, the President and First Lady served as proud hosts at a White House state dinner for Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip of the United Kingdom, which was televised on the Public Broadcasting Service network. The 200th anniversary of the Battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts gave Ford the opportunity to deliver a speech to 110,000 in Concord acknowledging the need for a strong national defense tempered with a plea for "reconciliation, not recrimination" and "reconstruction, not rancor" between the United States and those who would pose "threats to peace".[81] Speaking in New Hampshire on the previous day, Ford condemned the growing trend toward big government bureaucracy and argued for a return to "basic American virtues".[82] The United States Bicentennial was celebrated on Sunday, July 4, 1976, the 200th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. ... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... These fireworks over the Washington Monument are typical of Fourth of July celebrations In the United States, Independence Day, also called the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... HRH The Duke of Edinburgh His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (Philip Mountbatten), styled HRH The Duke of Edinburgh (born June 10, 1921), is the consort of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... Combatants Militia of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, (Minutemen) British Army, British Marines, Royal Artillery Commanders John Parker, James Barrett, John Buttrick, William Heath, Joseph Warren Francis Smith, John Pitcairn, Walter Laurie, Hugh, Earl Percy Strength 75 at Lexington Common (Parker). ...

Ford (at right) and Jimmy Carter debate
Ford (at right) and Jimmy Carter debate

Democratic nominee and former Georgia governor Jimmy Carter campaigned as an outsider and reformer; he gained support from voters dismayed by the Watergate scandal. Carter led consistently in the polls, and Ford was never able to shake voter dissatisfaction following Watergate and the Nixon pardon. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 513 pixel Image in higher resolution (6000 × 3847 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 513 pixel Image in higher resolution (6000 × 3847 pixel, file size: 2. ... John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon debate in 1960 During presidential elections in the United States, it has become customary for the main candidates (almost always the candidates of the two main parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party) to engage in a debate. ... This is a list of Governors of the state of Georgia, including governors of the British colony of Georgia. ...


Presidential debates were reintroduced for the first time since the 1960 election. While Ford was seen as the winner of the first debate, during the second debate he inexplicably blundered when he stated, "There is no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe and there never will be under a Ford Administration." Ford also said that he did not "believe that the Poles consider themselves dominated by the Soviet Union".[83] In an interview years later, Ford said he had intended to imply that the Soviets would never crush the spirits of eastern Europeans seeking independence. However, the phrasing was so awkward that questioner Max Frankel was visibly incredulous at the response.[84] John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon debate in 1960 During presidential elections in the United States, it has become customary for the main candidates (almost always the candidates of the two main parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party) to engage in a debate. ... The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Max Frankel is a journalist. ...


In the end, Carter won the election, receiving 50.1% of the popular vote and 297 electoral votes compared with 48.0% and 240 electoral votes for Ford. The election was close enough that had fewer than 25,000 votes shifted in Ohio and Wisconsin – both of which neighbored his home state – Ford would have won the electoral vote.[85] Though he lost, in the three months between the Republican National Convention and the election Ford managed to close what was once a 34-point Carter lead to a 2-point margin. In fact, the Gallup poll the day before the election showed Ford held a statistically insignificant 1-point advantage over Carter.[86] Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ...


Had Ford won the election, he would have been disqualified by the 22nd Amendment from running in 1980, since he served more than two years of Nixon's term. Amendment XXII in the National Archives The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution sets a term limit for the President of the United States, providing that No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office... The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, along with third party candidates, the independent John B. Anderson and Libertarian Ed Clark. ...


An article published in Newsweek shortly after Ford's death in 2006 discussed the former President's spiritual beliefs and cited evidence that Ford's preference not to openly express his Episcopalian faith in public contributed to his loss to Southern Baptist former Sunday school teacher Jimmy Carter. Ford's lowest level of support was in the Bible Belt states of the Deep South (Carter won every Southern state that year except Virginia). The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a United States cooperative ministry agency serving missionary Baptist churches around the world. ... The approximate extent of the Bible Belt, indicated in red The Bible Belt is an informal term for an area of the United States of America in which socially conservative Christian Evangelical Protestantism is a dominant part of the culture. ... The states in dark red comprise the Deep South. ...


Post-presidential years, 1977–2006

Activity

The Nixon pardon controversy eventually subsided. Ford's successor, Jimmy Carter, opened his 1977 inaugural address by praising the outgoing President, saying, "For myself and for our Nation, I want to thank my predecessor for all he has done to heal our land."[87] An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority. ...


Ford remained relatively active in the years after his presidency and continued to make appearances at events of historical and ceremonial significance to the nation, such as presidential inaugurals and memorial services. In 1977, he reluctantly agreed to be interviewed by James M. Naughton, a New York Times journalist who was given the assignment to write the former President's advance obituary, an article that would be updated prior to its eventual publication.[88]


During the term of office of his successor, Jimmy Carter, Ford received monthly briefs by President Carter’s senior staff on international and domestic issues, and was always invited to lunch at the White House whenever he was in Washington, D.C. However, a close friendship with Carter developed only after Carter had left office, with the catalyst being their trip together to the funeral of Anwar el-Sadat in 1981.[89] Until Ford's death, Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, visited the Fords' home frequently.[90] In 2001, Ford and Carter served as honorary co-chairs of the National Commission on Federal Election Reform. Anwar Sadat Mohamed Anwar el-Sadat ( Arabic : محمد انور السادات ) (December 25, 1918 - October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and President from 1970 to 1981. ... Eleanor Rosalynn Smith Carter (born August 18, 1927) is the wife of former President Jimmy Carter and was First Lady of the United States from 1977 to 1981. ... The United States Presidential election of 2000 was one of the most controversial ever. ...

Gerald R. Ford: Official White House portrait by Everett Kinstler

Like Presidents Carter, Bush Sr. and Clinton, Ford was an honorary co-chair of the Council for Excellence in Government, a group dedicated to excellence in government performance and which provides leadership training to top federal employees. Image File history File links Fordportrait. ... Image File history File links Fordportrait. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Gerald R. Ford. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Council for Excellence in Government is a public/private partnership organization designed to improve the effectiveness of federal, state, and local government in the United States. ...


After securing the Republican nomination in 1980, Ronald Reagan gave serious consideration to his former rival Ford as a potential vice-presidential running mate, but negotiations between the Reagan and Ford camps at the Republican National Convention were unsuccessful. Ford conditioned his acceptance on Reagan's agreement to an unprecedented "co-presidency",[91] giving Ford the power to control key executive branch appointments (such as Henry Kissinger as Secretary of State and Alan Greenspan as Treasury Secretary). After rejecting these terms, Reagan offered the vice-presidential nomination instead to George H. W. Bush.[92] The 1980 Republican National Convention was held in july,1980 in Detroit, Michigan ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Squalltoonix (born March 6, 1926 in New York City) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ...


In 1977, he established the Gerald R. Ford Institute of Public Policy at Albion College in Albion, Michigan, to give undergraduates training in public policy. In 1981, he opened the Gerald R. Ford Museum in Grand Rapids, and the Gerald R. Ford Library in Ann Arbor, Michigan.[93] In 1999, Ford was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Bill Clinton.[94] In 2001, he was presented with the John F. Kennedy Profiles in Courage Award for his decision to pardon Richard Nixon to stop the agony America was experiencing over Watergate.[95] In retirement Ford also devoted much time to his love of golf, often playing both privately and in public events with comedian Bob Hope, a longtime friend. Albion College is a small, private liberal arts college located in Albion, Michigan. ... Albion is a city in Calhoun County in the south central region of the Lower Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Gerald R. Ford Museum is located in Grand Rapids, Michigan. ... Ann Arbor redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... The Profiles in Courage Award is an award given to someone who displays the type of courage the John F. Kennedy described in his book of the same name. ... Bob Hope, KBE (May 29, 1903 – July 27, 2003), born Leslie Townes Hope, was an English-Born American entertainer who appeared in vaudeville, on Broadway, on radio and television, in movies, and in performing tours for U.S. Military personnel, well known for his good natured humor and career longevity. ...

Ford at his 90th birthday with Laura Bush, President George W. Bush, and Betty Ford in the White House State Dining Room in 2003
Ford at his 90th birthday with Laura Bush, President George W. Bush, and Betty Ford in the White House State Dining Room in 2003

In October 2001, Ford broke with conservative members of the Republican party by stating that gay and lesbian couples "ought to be treated equally. Period." He became the highest ranking Republican to embrace full equality for gays and lesbians, stating his belief that there should be a federal amendment outlawing anti-gay job discrimination and expressing his hope that the Republican Party would reach out to gay and lesbian voters.[96] He also was a member of the Republican Unity Coalition, which The New York Times described as "a group of prominent Republicans, including former President Gerald R. Ford, dedicated to making sexual orientation a non-issue in the Republican Party".[97] Image File history File linksMetadata Presford90. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Presford90. ... Laura Lane Welch Bush (born November 4, 1946) is the wife of the forty-third and current President of the United States George W. Bush and is thereby the First Lady of the United States. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The State Dining Room as refurbished during the administration of William Jefferson Clinton. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


On November 22, 2004, New York Republican Governor George Pataki named Ford and the other living former Presidents (Carter, George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton) as honorary members of the board rebuilding the World Trade Center. is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) is an American politician who was the 57th Governor of New York serving from January 1995 until January 1, 2007. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ...


In a pre-recorded embargoed interview with Bob Woodward of The Washington Post in July 2004, Ford stated that he disagreed "very strongly" with the Bush administration's choice of Iraq's alleged weapons of mass destruction as justification for its decision to invade Iraq, calling it a "big mistake" unrelated to the national security of the United States and indicating that he would not have gone to war had he been President. The details of the interview were not released until after Ford's death, as he requested.[98][99] News Embargo is the restriction imposed on the publication of information or news someone has. ... Bob Woodward signs his book State of Denial after a talk in March 2007. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


Health problems

As Ford approached his 90th year, he began to experience health problems associated with old age. He suffered two minor strokes at the 2000 Republican National Convention, but made a quick recovery.[100] In January 2006, he spent 11 days at the Eisenhower Medical Center near his residence at Rancho Mirage, California, for treatment of pneumonia.[101] On April 23, President George W. Bush visited Ford at his home in Rancho Mirage for a little over an hour. This was Ford's last public appearance and produced the last known public photos, video footage and voice recording. While vacationing in Vail, Colorado, he was hospitalized for two days in July, 2006 for shortness of breath.[102] On August 15 Ford was admitted to St. Mary's Hospital of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota for testing and evaluation. On August 21, it was reported that he had been fitted with a pacemaker. On August 25, he underwent an angioplasty procedure at the Mayo Clinic, according to a statement from an assistant to Ford. On August 28, Ford was released from the hospital and returned with his wife Betty to their California home. On October 13, he was scheduled to attend the dedication of a building of his namesake, the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, but due to poor health and on the advice of his doctors he did not attend. The previous day, Ford entered the Eisenhower Medical Center for undisclosed tests;[103] he was released on October 16. By November 2006 he was confined to a bed in his study.[104] For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... The 2000 Republican National Convention convened at the Wachovia Center (then the First Union Center) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from July 31 to August 3, 2000. ... The Eisenhower Medical Center of Rancho Mirage, California, USA is the Coachella Valleys only not-for-profit hospital, one of the top one hundred hospitals in the United States and the location of the world-famous Betty Ford Center. ... Rancho Mirage is a city located in Riverside County, California. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There are also Vail, Arizona and Vail, Iowa. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Main campus in downtown Rochester, Minnesota. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Olmsted Founded 1854 Government  - Mayor Ardell Brede Area  - Total 39. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A pacemaker, scale in centimeters A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the hearts natural pacemaker) is a medical device which uses electrical impulses, delivered by electrodes contacting the heart muscles, to regulate the beating of the heart. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Death

President Ford's tomb at his Presidential Museum in Grand Rapids, Michigan
President Ford's tomb at his Presidential Museum in Grand Rapids, Michigan

Ford died at the age of 93 years and 165 days on December 26, 2006 at 6:45 p.m Pacific Standard Time (02:45, December 27, UTC) at his home in Rancho Mirage, California of arteriosclerotic cerebrovascular disease and diffuse arteriosclerosis.[105] Betty Ford kneels in prayer at the casket of her late husband, Gerald Ford, as he lies in state. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Fords_grave. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Fords_grave. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... PST is UTC-8, highlighted in red. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... ... Rancho Mirage is a city located in Riverside County, California. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Cerebrovascular disease is damage to the blood vessels in the brain, resulting in a stroke. ... // Introduction Arteriosclerosis means the hardening of the arteries in Greek. ...


With their father's health failing, all four of Gerald and Betty Ford's children visited their parents' home shortly before Christmas. Mrs. Ford and their three sons, who had celebrated Christmas the day before at home, were at Ford's bedside when he died. The couple's daughter, Susan, had returned to Albuquerque, New Mexico, the day before Christmas to spend the holiday with her family. No local clergy were present but Ford's eldest son, Michael, is an Evangelical minister and he performed last rites.[106] For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... “Albuquerque” redirects here. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Extreme Unction, part of The Seven Sacraments (1445) by Roger van der Weyden. ...

Ford is honored during a memorial service in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda in Washington, D.C. on December 30, 2006.
Ford is honored during a memorial service in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda in Washington, D.C. on December 30, 2006.

At 8:49 p.m., Ford's wife, Betty, issued a statement that confirmed his death:[107] "My family joins me in sharing the difficult news that Gerald Ford, our beloved husband, father, grandfather and great grandfather, has died at 93 years of age. His life was filled with love of God, his family and his country."[108] The statement was released by President Ford's Office. The body was taken to the Eisenhower Medical Center, where it remained until the start of the funeral services on December 29, 2006. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x3011, 3113 KB) Other versions http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x3011, 3113 KB) Other versions http://www. ... United States Capitol . The United States Capitol is the building which serves as home for the legislative branch of the United States government. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Eisenhower Medical Center of Rancho Mirage, California, USA is the Coachella Valleys only not-for-profit hospital, one of the top one hundred hospitals in the United States and the location of the world-famous Betty Ford Center. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On December 30, 2006, Ford became the 11th U.S. President to lie in state. The burial was preceded by a state funeral and memorial services held at the National Cathedral in Washington, D.C. on January 2, 2007. Ford was eulogized by former President George H. W. Bush, former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, former NBC Nightly News anchorman Tom Brokaw and current President George W. Bush. On December 28, 2006, the New York Times reported that, at Ford's request, former President Jimmy Carter would deliver a eulogy. Decades ago, "Mr. Ford asked whether his successor might consider speaking at his funeral and offered, lightheartedly, to do the same for Mr. Carter, depending on who died first."[109] Carter delivered an emotional eulogy at the funeral service at Grace Episcopal Church in East Grand Rapids on January 3, 2007. Ford was also eulogized by Donald Rumsfeld, who was Ford's defense secretary, and Richard Norton Smith, Presidential historian. The invitation-only list of attendees included Vice President Dick Cheney, Michigan Gov. Jennifer Granholm, and U.S. Senators from Michigan Carl Levin and Debbie Stabenow. After the service, Ford was interred at his Presidential Museum in Grand Rapids, Michigan. is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... Washington National Cathedral was the site of two Presidential state funerals: for Dwight D. Eisenhower and Ronald W. Reagan, and a presidential burial in the cathedral mausoleum: Woodrow Wilson. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Look up eulogy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... NBC Nightly News is the flagship evening news program for NBC News and broadcasts from the GE Building, Rockefeller Center in New York City. ... Anchorman may refer to: News anchor, someone who works in radio who hosts a regular news program Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy, a 2004 American comedy movie This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Thomas John Brokaw (born February 6, 1940 in Webster, South Dakota) is a popular American television journalist, Previously working on regularly scheduled news documentaries for the NBC television network, and is the former NBC News anchorman and managing editor of the program NBC Nightly News with Tom Brokaw. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Jennifer Mulhern Granholm (born February 5, 1959) is a Canadian-born American politician and the current Governor of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Carl Milton Levin (born June 28, 1934) is a Democratic United States Senator from Michigan and is the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Armed Services. ... Deborah Ann Debbie Stabenow (born Deborah Ann Greer on April 29, 1950) is a Democratic United States Senator from Michigan. ... The Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum is on the campus of the University of Texas at Austin. ...


Longevity

President George W. Bush with former President Ford and his wife Betty on April 23, 2006. This is the last known public photo of Gerald Ford.
President George W. Bush with former President Ford and his wife Betty on April 23, 2006. This is the last known public photo of Gerald Ford.

Ford was the longest-lived U.S. President, having outlived Ronald Reagan by 45 days. He was the third-longest-lived Vice President, falling short only of John Nance Garner, 98, and Levi P. Morton, 96. Ford had the second-longest post-presidency (29 years and 11 months) after Herbert Hoover (31 years and 7 months). Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The following list is based upon the persons age at the time of ascension to the office, not election to the Presidency. ... Reagan redirects here. ... At 50 years, 355 days, Daniel Tompkins was the shortest-lived Vice President. ... John Nance Garner IV (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ...


Ford died on the 34th anniversary of President Harry Truman's death, the second U.S. President to die on Boxing Day, which Ford's pastor, The Rev. Dr. Robert Certain, noted when he referred to December 26 as its traditional Christian reference, St. Stephen's Day.[110] He was the last surviving member of the Warren Commission.[105] For the victim of Mt. ... Boxing Day is a public holiday observed in many Commonwealth countries on 26 December. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... St Stephens Day, or the Feast of St Stephen, is a Christian saints day celebrated on 26 December in the Western Church and 27 December in the Eastern Church. ... Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ...


On November 12, 2006 upon surpassing Ronald Reagan's lifespan, Ford released his last public statement: is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The length of one’s days matters less than the love of one’s family and friends. I thank God for the gift of every sunrise and, even more, for all the years. He has blessed me with Betty and the children; with our extended family and the friends of a lifetime. That includes countless Americans who, in recent months, have remembered me in their prayers. Your kindness touches me deeply. May God bless you all and may God bless America.[111]

Electoral history

Ford's electoral history is:[112]


Michigan 5th district, 1966

  • Gerald Ford (R, Inc.) – 87,914 (68.39%)
  • James M. Catchick (D) – 40,629 (31.61%)

Michigan 5th dictrict, 1968

  • Gerald Ford (R, Inc.) – 105,085 (62.75%)
  • Lawrence E. Howard (D) – 62,219 (37.16%)
  • Frank Girard (Socialist Labor) – 156 (0.09%)

Michigan 5th dictrict, 1970

  • Gerald Ford (R, Inc.) – 88,208 (61.36%)
  • Jean McKee (D) – 55,337 (38.50%)
  • Frank Girard (Socialist Labor) – 120 (0.08%)
  • Walter M. Kus (Socialist Workers) – 87 (0.06%)

Michigan 5th district, 1972

  • Gerald Ford (R, Inc.) – 118,027 (61.08%)
  • Jean McKee (D) – 72,782 (37.67%)
  • Dwight W. Johnson (American Independent) – 2,045 (1.06%)
  • Frank Girard (Socialist Labor) – 235 (0.12%)
  • Alan Lee Maki (Communist) – 140 (0.07%)

1976 Republican National Convention American Independent Party is a United States American political party. ... The 1976 Republican National Convention was held in Kansas City, Missouri at Kemper Arena from August 16 to August 19. ...

United States presidential election, 1976 Reagan redirects here. ... Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 – December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. ...

For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... DC or dc may stand for: Da capo Democrazia Cristiana developed country (in the CIA World Factbook) direct current Doctor of Chiropractic Places District of Columbia Distrito Capital (Bogotá, D.C.) Companies DC Comics, a comic book publisher DC Shoes, a skateboarding apparel manafacturer Douglas Aircraft Company Software, Video Game... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... Reagan redirects here. ...

See also

United States Navy Portal 

Image File history File links United_States_Department_of_the_Navy_Seal. ... The Gerald R. Ford Freeway refers to interstate highways named for former President Gerald R. Ford in Omaha (where he was born) and Michigan (where he grew up and was a Congressman): Interstate 480 (Iowa-Nebraska) Interstate 196 (Michigan) Category: ... Gerald R. Ford International Airport (IATA: GRR, ICAO: KGRR) is a small commercial airport located a few miles southeast of Grand Rapids, Michigan. ... Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library is a library at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor that promotes United States post-World War II history. ... The Gerald R. Ford Museum is located in Grand Rapids, Michigan. ... The Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy at the University of Michigan, often referred to as the Ford School, is a leading public policy school in the United States. ... USS (CVN-78) is to be the lead ship of her class of United States Navy supercarriers. ... Gerald Ford and Liberty in 1974 Liberty was the golden retriever Presidential pet of Gerald R. Ford. ... The Golden Retriever is a large breed of dog, historically developed as a gundog to retrieve shot waterfowl and upland game during hunting. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Funk, Josh (2006). Nebraska - Born, Ford Left State As Infant. Associated Press. Boston.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
  2. ^ Cannon, James. Gerald R. Ford. Character Above All. Public Broadcasting System. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  3. ^ A Lifetime of Achievement. 4President.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  4. ^ Gerald R. Ford Genealogical Information. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum. University of Texas. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  5. ^ "A Common Man on an Uncommon Climb", The New York Times, 1976-08-19, p. 28. 
  6. ^ a b c Gerald Rudolph Ford. AmericanPresident.org. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  7. ^ Fact Sheet Eagle Scouts. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 03 March, 2008.
  8. ^ Gerald R. Ford. Report to the Nation. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  9. ^ Townley, Alvin [2006-12-26]. Legacy of Honor: The Values and Influence of America's Eagle Scouts. New York: St. Martin's Press, pp. 12–13 and 87. ISBN 0-312-36653-1. Retrieved on 2006-12-29. 
  10. ^ Balloch, Jim (2007-01-04). Knox Eagle Scout has role in Ford funeral. KnoxNews. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  11. ^ Ray, Mark (2007). Eagle Scout Welcome Gerald Ford Home. Scouting Magazine. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2007-03-05.
  12. ^ a b Kunhardt, Jr., Phillip [1999]. Gerald R. Ford "Healing the Nation". New York: Riverhead Books, pp. 79–85. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. 
  13. ^ Perry, Will [1974]. "No Cheers From the Alumni", The Wolverines: A Story of Michigan Football. Huntsville, Alabama: The Strode Publishers, pp. 150–152. ISBN 0-87397-055-1. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. 
  14. ^ "Ford one of most athletic Presidents", Associated Press via MSNBC, 2006-12-27. Retrieved on 2006-12-31. 
  15. ^ Greene, J.R. [1995]. The Presidency of Gerald R. Ford (American Presidency Series), p. 2. 
  16. ^ Larcom, Geoff. Colleagues mourn a 'Michigan man'. The Ann Arbor News. Retrieved on 2007-01-24.
  17. ^ Smith, Michael David (2006). Lions, Packers Had Their Chance, But Gerald Ford Chose Law and Politics. NFL Fanhouse. AOL Sports Blog. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  18. ^ a b c Timeline of President Ford's Life and Career. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum. Gerald R. Ford Library. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  19. ^ The U-M Remembers Gerald R. Ford. The University of Michigan. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  20. ^ Gerald R. Ford Biography. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum. Gerald R. Ford Library. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  21. ^ Doenecke, Justus D. (1990). In Danger Undaunted: The Anti-Interventionist Movement of 1940–1941 As Revealed in the Papers of the America First Committee (Hoover Archival Documentaries). Hoover Institution Press. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. p. 7
  22. ^ a b Naughton, James M.; Adam Clymer (2006-12-26). Gerald Ford, 38th President, Dies at 93. New York Times. Naval Historical Center. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
  23. ^ Hove, Duane [2003]. American Warriors: Five Presidents in the Pacific Theater of World War II. Burd Street Press. ISBN 1-57249-307-0. 
  24. ^ American Warriors: Five Presidents in the Pacific Theater of World War II. Americanwarriorsfivepresidents.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-29.
  25. ^ President Gerald R. Ford. US Navy (2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  26. ^ World War II Photographs. militaryunits (2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-09. “WW2042 "Activities aboard USS MONTEREY. Navy pilots in the forward elevator well playing basketball." Jumper at left identified as Gerald R. Ford. Attributed to Lt. Victor Jorgensen, circa June/July 1944. 80--G--417628”
  27. ^ The Supreme Council, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, USA.
  28. ^ Gerald Ford. The American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  29. ^ Howard, Jane. "The 38th First Lady: Not a Robot At All", The New York Times, 1974-12-08. 
  30. ^ Kruse, Melissa. "The Patterson Barn, Grand Rapids, Michigan - Barn razing erases vintage landmark", The Grand Rapids Press, 2003-01-03. Retrieved on 2006-12-29. 
  31. ^ a b Gerald R. Ford (1913–2006). From Revolution to Reconstruction - an .HTML project. Retrieved on 2006-12-29.
  32. ^ a b c Gerald R. Ford. Editorial. The New York Times (2006-12-28). Retrieved on 2006-12-29.
  33. ^ In 1997 the Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB) released a document that revealed that Ford had altered the first draft of the report to read: "A bullet had entered the base of the back of [Kennedy's] neck slightly to the right of the spine." Some believed that Ford had elevated the location of the wound from its true location in the back to the neck to support the single bullet theory. (Gerald Ford. Spartacus Schoolnet. Retrieved on 2006-12-29.) The original first draft of the Warren Commission Report stated that a bullet had entered Kennedy's "back at a point slightly above the shoulder and to the right of the spine." Ford replied in an introduction to a new edition of the Warren Commission Report in 2004:

    I have been accused of changing some wording on the Warren Commission Report to favor the lone-assassin conclusion. That is absurd. Here is what the draft said: "A bullet had entered his back at a point slightly above the shoulder and to the right of the spine.” To any reasonable person, “above the shoulder and to the right” sounds very high and way off the side — and that’s what it sounded like to me. That would have given the totally wrong impression. Technically, from a medical perspective, the bullet entered just to the right at the base of the neck, so my recommendation to the other members was to change it to say, “A bullet had entered the back of his neck, slightly to the right of the spine.” After further investigation, we then unanimously agreed that it should read, “A bullet had entered the base of his neck slightly to the right of the spine.” As with any report, there were many clarifications and language changes suggested by several of us. Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // The 1963 assassination of President Kennedy Congress created the Assassination Records Review Board as “a unique solution to the problem of [government] secrecy” relating to the murder of President Kennedy. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the body part. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ...

    Ford's description matched a drawing prepared for the Commission under the direction of Dr. James J. Humes, supervisor of Kennedy's autopsy, who in his testimony to the Commission said three times that the entrance wound was in the "low neck." The Commission was not shown the autopsy photographs.
  34. ^ Ford, Gerald (2001-05-23). Address by President Gerald R. Ford, May 23, 2001. United States Senate. Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  35. ^ Jackson, Harold (2006-12-27). Guardian newspaper obituary. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  36. ^ Reeves, Richard [1975]. A Ford, not a Lincoln. 
  37. ^ Remarks By President Gerald Ford On Taking the Oath Of Office As President. Watergate.info (1974). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  38. ^ ROCKEFELLER, Nelson Aldrich (1908–1979). Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. US Congress. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  39. ^ Ford, Gerald (1974-09-08). President Gerald R. Ford's Proclamation 4311, Granting a Pardon to Richard Nixon. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum. University of Texas. Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  40. ^ Ford, Gerald (1974-09-08). Presidential Proclamation 4311 by President Gerald R. Ford granting a pardon to Richard M. Nixon. Pardon images. University of Maryland. Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  41. ^ Ford, Gerald (1974-09-08). Gerald R. Ford Pardoning Richard Nixon. Great Speeches Collection. The History Place. Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  42. ^ Bacon, Paul. The Pardoning President. Public Broadcasting System. Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  43. ^ Carter's Pardon. McNeil/Lehrer Report. Public Broadcasting System (1977-01-21). Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  44. ^ a b Shane, Scott. "For Ford, Pardon Decision Was Always Clear-Cut", The New York Times, p. A1. Retrieved on 2006-12-29. 
  45. ^ Award Announcement. JFK Library Foundation (2001-05-01). Retrieved on 2007-03-31.
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  49. ^ Bush vetoes less than most presidents, CNN, May 1, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
  50. ^ Renka, Russell D. Nixon's Fall and the Ford and Carter Interregnum. Southeast Missouri State University, (April 10, 2003). Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  51. ^ Gerald Ford Speeches: Whip Inflation Now (October 8, 1974), Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved on 2006-12-31
  52. ^ WIN buttons and Arthur Burns. Econbrowser (2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-24.
  53. ^ Consumer Price Index, 1913-. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved on 2006-12-31
  54. ^ Lemann, Nick. Rhetorical Bankruptcy. The Harvard Crimson, November 8, 1975. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
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  56. ^ Mickle, Paul. 1976: Fear of a great plague. The Trentonian. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  57. ^ President Gerald R. Ford's Statement on Signing the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library, December 2, 1975. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  58. ^ Proclamation 4383 - Women's Equality Day, 1975. Larry King Live Weekend. The American Presidency Project. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  59. ^ Presidential Campaign Debate Between Gerald R. Ford and Jimmy Carter, October 22, 1976
  60. ^ Ford, Gerald (1976-09-10). Letter to the Archbishop of Cincinnati. The American Presidency Project. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
  61. ^ Greene, John Edward. (1995). The presidency of Gerald R. Ford. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, p. 33. ISBN 0-7006-0639-4. 
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  63. ^ Hitchens, Christopher. "The Accidental President Gerald Ford: 1913–2006", The Mirror, December 28, 2006, p. 17. Retrieved on 2007-01-01. 
  64. ^ "East Timor Revisited", National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 62, December 6, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-03. 
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  66. ^ Trip To China. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library. University of Texas. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  67. ^ President Gerald R. Ford's Address in Helsinki Before the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. USA-presidents.info. Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
  68. ^ About Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  69. ^ Capture and Release of SS Mayaguez by Khmer Rouge forces in May 1975. United States Merchant Marine (2000). Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
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  71. ^ Election Is Crunch Time for U.S. Secret Service. National Geographic News. Retrieved on 2008-03-02.
  72. ^ McLaren, Janet. "'Squeaky' up for parole", New York Daily News, 2005-06-26. Retrieved on 2006-12-31. 
  73. ^ United States Secret Service. Public Report of the White House Security Review. United States Department of the Treasury. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  74. ^ Lee, Vic (2007-01-02). Interview: Woman Who Tried To Assassinate Ford. ABC-7 News. KGO-TV. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  75. ^ John Paul Stevens. OYEZ. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  76. ^ Levenick, Christopher. "The Conservative Persuasion", The Daily Standard, 2005-09-25. Retrieved on 2006-12-31. 
  77. ^ Letter from Gerald Ford to Michael Treanor (PDF). Fordham University, 2005-09-21 Retrieved on 2008-03-02.
  78. ^ Another Loss For the Gipper. Time, March 29, 1976. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  79. ^ VH1 News Presents: Politics: A Pop Culture History Premiering Wednesday, October 20 at 10:00 p.m. (ET/PT). PRNewswire October 19, 2004. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
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  81. ^ Shabecoff, Philip. "160,000 Mark Two 1775 Battles; Concord Protesters Jeer Ford -- Reconciliation Plea." New York Times, April 20, 1975, p. 1.
  82. ^ Shabecoff, Philip. "Ford, on Bicentennial Trip, Bids U.S. Heed Old Values." New York Times, April 19, 1975, p. 1.
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  87. ^ Jimmy Carter. Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents. University of Seattle (1977-01-20). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  88. ^ Naughton, James M (2006-12-27). The Real Jerry Ford. PoynterOnline. Retrieved on 2007-03-31.
  89. ^ Kornblut, Anne. "Ford Arranged His Funeral to Reflect Himself and Drew in a Former Adversary", The New York Times, 2006-12-29. Retrieved on 2007-04-04. 
  90. ^ Updegrove, Mark K. "Flying Coach to Cairo". AmericanHeritage.com (August/September 2006). Retrieved on December 31, 2006. "Certainly few observers in January 1977 would have predicted that Jimmy and I would become the closest of friends," Ford said in 2000.
  91. ^ Kantrowitz, Barbara (2006). The 38th President: More Than Met the Eye. Newsweek National News. Retrieved on 2007-03-31.
  92. ^ Allen, Richard V. How the Bush Dynasty Almost Wasn't. Hoover Institution, reprinted from the New York Times Magazine, July 30, 2000. Retrieved on December 31, 2006.
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  96. ^ Price, Deb. Gerald Ford: Treat gay couples equally. The Detroit News, October 29, 2001. Retrieved on December 28, 2006
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  99. ^ Embargoed Interview Reveals Ford Opposed Iraq War. Democracy Now Headlines for December 28, 2006. Retrieved on December 28, 2006
  100. ^ Gerald Ford recovering after strokes. BBC, August 2, 2000. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
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  112. ^ Ford, Jr., Gerald Rudolph. OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-02.

Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Southeast Missouri State University is a public, accredited university located in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Fed redirects here. ... Minneapolis redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Harvard Crimson, the breakfast daily of Harvard University, was founded in 1873. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Living on Earth is National Public Radios weekly, hour-long environmental news program. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University Press of Kentucky (UPK) is the scholarly publisher for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and was organized in 1969 as successor to the University of Kentucky Press. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Primary sources

  • Ford, Gerald R. (1994). Presidential Perspectives from the National Archives. ISBN 1-880875-04-7. 
  • Ford, Gerald R. (1987). Humor and the Presidency. ISBN 0-87795-918-8. 
  • Ford, Gerald R. (1979). A Time to Heal: The Autobiography of Gerald R. Ford. ISBN 0-06-011297-2. 
  • Ford, Gerald R. (1973). Selected Speeches. ISBN 0-87948-029-7. 
  • Ford, Gerald R. (1965). Portrait of the assassin (Lee Harvey Oswald). ASIN B0006BMZM4. 
  • Ford, Betty (1978). The Times of My Life. ISBN 0-06-011298-0. 
  • Casserly, John J. (1977). The Ford White House: Diary of a Speechwriter. ISBN 0-87081-106-1. 
  • Coyne, John R. (1979). Fall in and Cheer. ISBN 0-385-11119-3. 
  • DeFrank, Thomas. (2007). Write It When I'm Gone: Remarkable Off-the-Record Conversations with Gerald R. Ford. ISBN 0-399-15450-7. 
  • Gergen, David. (2000). Eyewitness to Power: The Essence of Leadership. ISBN 0-684-82663-1. , by speechwriter
  • Hartmann, Robert T. (1980). Palace Politics: An Insider's Account of the Ford Years. ISBN 0-07-026951-3. , by chief of staff
  • Hersey, John (1980). Aspects of the Presidency: Truman and Ford in Office (The President: A Minute-by-Minute Account of a Week in the Life of Gerald Ford). ISBN 0-89919-012-X. 
  • Kissinger, Henry A. (1999). Years of Renewal. ISBN 0-684-85572-0.  by Secretary of State
  • Thompson, Kenneth (ed.) (1980). The Ford Presidency: Twenty-Two Intimate Perspectives of Gerald Ford. ISBN 0-8191-6960-9. 

Secondary Sources

  • Brinkley, Douglas (2007). Gerald R. Ford. ISBN 0-805-06909-7.  full-scale biography
  • Cannon, James (1993). Time and Chance: Gerald R. Ford's Appointment with History. ISBN 0-472-08482-8.  full-scale biography
  • Conley, Richard S. "Presidential Influence and Minority Party Liaison on Veto Overrides: New Evidence from the Ford Presidency." American Politics Research 2002 30(1): 34–65. Issn: 1532-673x Fulltext: in Swetswise
  • Firestone, Bernard J. and Alexej Ugrinsky (eds) (1992). Gerald R. Ford and the Politics of Post-Watergate America. ISBN 0-313-28009-6. 
  • Greene, John Robert (1992). The Limits of Power: The Nixon and Ford Administrations. ISBN 0-253-32637-0. 
  • Greene, John Robert (1995). The Presidency of Gerald R. Ford. ISBN 0-7006-0639-4. , the major scholarly study
  • Hult, Karen M. and Walcott, Charles E. Empowering the White House: Governance under Nixon, Ford, and Carter. U. Press of Kansas, 2004.
  • Jespersen, T. Christopher. "Kissinger, Ford, and Congress: the Very Bitter End in Vietnam." Pacific Historical Review 2002 71(3): 439–473. Issn: 0030-8684 Fulltext: in University of California; Swetswise; Jstor and Ebsco
  • Jespersen, T. Christopher. "The Bitter End and the Lost Chance in Vietnam: Congress, the Ford Administration, and the Battle over Vietnam, 1975–76." Diplomatic History 2000 24(2): 265–293. Issn: 0145-2096 Fulltext: in Swetswise, Ingenta, Ebsco
  • Maynard, Christopher A. "Manufacturing Voter Confidence: a Video Analysis of the American 1976 Presidential and Vice-presidential Debates." Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 1997 17(4): 523–562. Issn: 0143-9685 Fulltext: in Ingenta
  • Mieczkowski, Yanek (2005). Gerald Ford And The Challenges Of The 1970s. ISBN 0-8131-2349-6. 
  • Werth, Barry (2006). 31 Days: The Crisis That Gave Us the Government We Have Today. ISBN 0-385-51380-1. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Gerald Ford
Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Gerald Ford
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Gerald Ford

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Published works

  • Works by Gerald Ford at Project Gutenberg.
  • First State of the Union Address.
  • Second State of the Union Address.
  • Third State of the Union Address.

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...

Libraries and museums

  • Gerald R. Ford Foundation.
  • Ford Library and Museum.
  • National Archives materials.
  • Hauenstein Center for Presidential Studies in President Ford's hometown.

Biographies

  • Extensive essay on Gerald Ford and shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs
  • White House biography
  • Gerald Ford at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
  • Hauenstein Center for Presidential Studies
  • Collection of photographs of President Ford's homes throughout his life

The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all members of both houses of the United States Congress, past and present. ...

Obituaries

For other uses, see Guardian. ...

Multimedia and other

  • Audio recordings of Ford's speeches
  • April 23, 2006, Gerald Ford's visit with George W. Bush, the last known public photos, video footage and voice recording taken of Ford alive
  • Gerald R. Ford: His Life and Presidency, (31 December 2006). New York Times/Associated Press multimedia (registration required)
  • Gerald R. Gerald R. Ford State Funeral, (31 December 2006). Photo Gallery of the State Funeral at the U.S. Capitol Building
United States House of Representatives
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Member from Michigan's 5th congressional district
1949 – 1973
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Political offices
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Spiro Agnew
Vice President of the United States
December 6, 1973 – August 9, 1974
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Nelson Rockefeller
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President of the United States
August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977
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Jimmy Carter
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France
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United Kingdom
Party political offices
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House Republican Conference Chairman
1963 – 1965
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House Minority Leader
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House Republican Leader
1965 – 1973
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Republican Party presidential candidate
1976
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Honorary titles
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Ronald Reagan
Oldest U.S. President still living
June 5, 2004 – December 26, 2006
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George H. W. Bush
Preceded by
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Persons who have lain in state or honor
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December 30, 2006 – January 2, 2007
Most recent
Persondata
NAME Ford, Gerald Rudolph
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Ford, Gerry
SHORT DESCRIPTION 38th President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH July 14, 1913
PLACE OF BIRTH Omaha, Nebraska, United States
DATE OF DEATH December 26, 2006
PLACE OF DEATH Rancho Mirage, California, United States
The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM, U-M or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... The University of Michigan features 24 varsity sports teams called the Wolverines, which compete in the NCAAs Division I and in the Big Ten Conference in all sports except mens ice hockey which competes in the NCAA D1 Central Collegiate Hockey Association, and womens water polo, which... Head coach Lloyd Carr 13th year, 121–40 Home stadium Michigan Stadium Capacity 107,501 - Field Turf Conference Big Ten First year 1879 Athletic director William C. Martin Website MGoBlue. ... Albert Alexander Ox[3] Wistert (born December 28, 1920 in Chicago, Illinois) was an All-Pro American football offensive tackle in the NFL for the Philadelphia Eagles. ... Alvin Wistert (born June 26, 1916) was an American football player. ... Francis Michael Whitey Wistert (born February 20, 1912 in Chicago, Illinois, died April 23, 1985 in Painesville, Ohio) was an American football and baseball player. ... Bennie Oosterbaan (born February 4, 1906 in Muskegon, Michigan, USA - October 25, 1990) was a football player and coach at the University of Michigan. ... In the long tradition of outstanding Michigan athletes, Ron Kramer deserves to be ranked among the best. ... Thomas Dudley Harmon (September 28, 1919 - March 15, 1990) was a star player of United States college football, a sports broadcaster, and patriarch of a family of American actors. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Omaha redirects here. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rancho Mirage is a city located in Riverside County, California. ...

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Biography of Gerald R. Ford (634 words)
Ford's reputation for integrity and openness had made him popular during his 25 years in Congress.
Ford established his policies during his first year in office, despite opposition from a heavily Democratic Congress.
Ford continued as he had in his Congressional days to view himself as "a moderate in domestic affairs, a conservative in fiscal affairs, and a dyed-in-the-wool internationalist in foreign affairs." A major goal was to help business operate more freely by reducing taxes upon it and easing the controls exercised by regulatory agencies.
Gerald Ford - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5070 words)
Ford's closest call with death was during a vicious typhoon in the Philippine Sea in December 1944.
Ford is a close friend of his successor Jimmy Carter, despite the fact that Carter defeated him in the 1976 presidential election.
Gerald Ford is the sole surviving member of the Warren Commission.
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