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Encyclopedia > Gerald Edelman

Gerald Maurice Edelman (born July 1, 1929) is an American biologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1972 for his work on the immune system.[1] Edelman's Nobel Prize-winning research concerned discovery of the structure of antibody molecules.[2] In interviews, he has said that the way the components of the immune system evolve over the life of the individual is analogous to the way the components of the brain evolve in a lifetime. This is the continuity between his Nobel-Prize-winning work and his highly influential later work on neural darwinism. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... See also: Other events of 1972 List of years in science . ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... The term Neural Darwinism is used in two different ways. ...

Contents

Education

Gerald Edelman was born in 1929 in Ozone Park, Queens, New York to Edward Edelman, a physician, and Anna Freedman Edelman.[3] After being raised in New York, he attended college in Pennsylvania where he graduated magna cum laude with a B.S. from Ursinus College in 1950 and received an M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1954.[3] Ozone Park is a New York City neighborhood located in the southwestern part of Queens bordering Woodhaven, Richmond Hill, Howard Beach, and the borough of Brooklyn. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Largest metro area Delaware Valley Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... B.S. redirects here. ... Ursinus College is a small, coeducational, liberal arts college in Collegeville, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. ... Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ...


After a year at the Johnson Foundation for Medical Physics, he became a house officer at the Massachusetts General Hospital and then practiced medicine in France while serving with US Army Medical Corps.[3] Edelman joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research as a graduate fellow in 1957, receiving a Ph.D. in 1960.[3] Rockefeller made him the Assistant (later Associate) Dean of Graduate Studies until 1966, when he became a professor at the school.[3] In 1992, he moved to California and became a professor of neurobiology at The Scripps Research Institute.[4] Edelman also serves as the founder and director of The Neurosciences Institute, a nonprofit research centre in San Diego that studies the biological basis of higher brain function in humans, and is on the scientific board of the World Knowledge Dialogue project [5] Residency is a stage of postgraduate medical training in North America and leads to eligibility for board certification in a primary care or referral specialty. ... Massachusetts General Hospital (often abbreviated to Mass General or just MGH) is a teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and biomedical research facility in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Army Medical Department (AMEDD) of the U.S. Army comprises the six medical Special Branches of the Army. ... Founders Hall Rockefeller University is a private university focusing primarily on graduate and postgraduate education research in the biomedical fields, located between 63rd and 68th Streets along York Avenue, on the Upper East Side of Manhattan island in New York City, New York. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... TSRIs Beckman Center for Chemical Sciences The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) is a medical research facility that focuses on research in the basic biomedical sciences. ... The Neurosciences Institute is a nonprofit research institute that is focused upon high risk - high payoff research designed to discover the biological basis of higher-brain function in humans. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin...


Nobel Prize

While in Paris serving in the Army, Edelman read a book that sparked his interest in antibodies.[6] He decided that, since the book said so little about antibodies, he would investigate them further upon returning to the United States, which led him to study physical chemistry for his 1960 Ph.D.[6] Research by Edelman and his colleagues and Rodney Robert Porter in the early 1960s produced fundamental breakthroughs in the understanding of the antibody's chemical structure, opening a door for further study.[7] For this work, Edelman and Porter shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1972.[1] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... Rodney Robert Porter (1917 - 1985): Born on the 8th of October in 1917 in Lancashire, England, Rodney Robert Porter received his Bachelors of Sciences--with Honours--from the University of Liverpool in 1939 for Biochemistry, going on to receive his Ph. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ...


Theory of mind

Edelman is noted for his theory of mind, published in a trilogy of technical books, and in briefer form for a more general audience in Bright Air, Brilliant Fire (1992) and more recently in Wider than the Sky (2004). Neural Darwinism (1987) contains a theory of memory that is built around the idea of plasticity in the neural network in response to the environment. Topobiology (1988) contains a theory of how the original neuronal network of a newborn's brain is established during development of the embryo. The Remembered Present (1990) contains a theory of consciousness. The phrase theory of mind (often abbreviated as ToM) is used in several related ways: general categories of theories of mind - theories about the nature of mind, and its structure and processes; theories of mind related to individual minds; in recent years, the phrase theory of mind has more commonly... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ...


Edelman has asked whether we should attempt to construct models of functioning minds or models of brains which, through interactions with their surroundings, can develop minds. Edelman's answer is that we should make model brains and pay attention to how they interact with their environment. Edelman accepts the existence of qualia and incorporates them into his brain-based theory of mind. His concept of qualia attempts to avoid the pitfalls of the idea of special qualia with non-functional properties, which was criticized by Daniel Dennett. An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents something, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Redness is the canonical quale. ... Daniel Clement Dennett (born March 28, 1942 in Boston, Massachusetts) is a prominent American philosopher whose research centers on philosophy of mind, philosophy of science and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science. ...


Edelman expounds a biological theory of consciousness, based on his studies of the immune system, which he explicitly locates within Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection and Darwinian theories of population dynamics. He rejects dualism and also dismisses newer hypotheses such as the so-called 'computational' model of consciousness, which liken the brain's functions to the operations of a computer. For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... René Descartes illustration of dualism. ...


Edelman argues that the mind and consciousness are wholly material and purely biological phenomena, occurring as highly complex cellular processes within the brain, and that the development of consciousness and intelligence can be satisfactorily explained by Darwinian theory.


Personal

Edelman married Maxine M. Morrison in 1950.[3] They have two sons, Eric, an accomplished visual artist in New York City, and David. Their daughter, Judith Edelman, is a bluegrass musician. Judith Edelman (born on November 11, 1964 in Manhattan) is a contemporary American bluegrass/folk musician. ... Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music. ...


References

  1. ^ a b The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  2. ^ Structural differences among antibodies of different specificities by G. M. Edelman, B. Benacerraf, Z. Ovary and M. D. Poulik in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (1961) volume 47, pages 1751-1758.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Odelberg, Wilhelm:Gerald M. Edelman: Biography. Les Prix Nobel en 1972. Nobel Foundation (1973). Retrieved on 2007-09-27. (Including Addendum, May 2005.)
  4. ^ Gerald M. Edelman: Curriculum Vitae (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  5. ^ World Knowledge Dialogue. Retrieved on 2007-10-12.
  6. ^ a b Frontiers Profile: Gerry Edelman (2000-11-21). Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  7. ^ Karolinksa Institutet (October 1972). The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972. Press release. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. “Their discoveries represent clearly a break-through that immediately incited a fervent research activity the whole world over [...]”

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Biologically-inspired computing (also bio-inspired computing) is a field of study that loosely knits together subfields related to the topics of connectionism, social behaviour and emergence. ... Embodied philosophy (also known as the embodied mind thesis, embodied cognition or the embodied cognition thesis) usually refers to a set of beliefs promoted by George Lakoff and his various co-authors (including Mark Johnson, Mark Turner, and Rafael E. Núñez), which suggest that the mind can only be... Embodiment is the way in which human (or any other animals) psychology arises from the brains and bodys physiology. ...

Bibliography

  • Neural Darwinism: The Theory of Neuronal Group Selection (Basic Books, New York 1987). ISBN 0-19-286089-5
  • Topobiology: An Introduction to Molecular Embryology (Basic Books, 1988, Reissue edition 1993) ISBN 0-465-08653-5
  • The Remembered Present: A Biological Theory of Consciousness (Basic Books, New York 1990). ISBN 0-465-06910-X
  • Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the Mind (Basic Books, 1992, Reprint edition 1993). ISBN 0-465-00764-3
  • The Brain, Edelman and Jean-Pierre Changeux, editors, (Transaction Publishers, 2000). ISBN 0-7658-0717-3
  • A Universe of Consciousness: How Matter Becomes Imagination, Edelman and Giulio Tononi, coauthors, (Basic Books, 2000, Reprint edition 2001). ISBN 0-465-01377-5
  • Wider than the Sky: The Phenomenal Gift of Consciousness (Yale Univ. Press 2004) ISBN 0-300-10229-1
  • Second Nature: Brain Science and Human Knowledge (Yale University Press 2006) ISBN 0-300-12039-7

The term Neural Darwinism is used in two different ways. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Edelman, Gerald M. - MSN Encarta (397 words)
Edelman received his Ph.D. degree in biochemistry and immunology from Rockefeller University in 1960 and remained there as a faculty member.
Edelman is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and a foreign member of the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of France.
In 1961 Edelman suggested that Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was made up of two amino acid chains, one light and one heavy.
"Edelman Review" (2118 words)
Edelman came along it was widely believed that there was a single kind of lymphocyte whose all-purpose antibody molecules had the chameleon-like ability to mold themselves to invading antigens.
Edelman's theory is that, as he sees it, no information actually passes from the environment to the brain, any more than information from the environment can be said to pass directly into an animal's genome; the environment simply selects from a random population those creatures best suited to survive.
Edelman insists that it is wrong to believe that "individual neurons carry information, just as some electronic devices carry information." Yet when he describes the brain he uses words that imply that the brain is something like a computer.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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