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Encyclopedia > Geothermal power
The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Plant in Iceland
The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Plant in Iceland
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Geothermal power (from the Greek words geo, meaning earth, and thermal, meaning heat) is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earth's surface or the collection of absorbed heat in the atmosphere and oceans. Prince Piero Ginori Conti tested the first geothermal generator on 4 July 1904, at the Larderello dry steam field in Italy.[1] The largest group of geothermal power plants in the world is located in The Geysers, a geothermal field in California.[2] As of 2007, geothermal power supplies less than 1% of the world's energy.[3] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 1600 pixel, file size: 993 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The author of this work, Gretar Ivarsson, geologist at Nesjavellir, after being contacted by user Palthrow, has agreed to release this photograph into the public domain... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 1600 pixel, file size: 993 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The author of this work, Gretar Ivarsson, geologist at Nesjavellir, after being contacted by user Palthrow, has agreed to release this photograph into the public domain... The Nesjavellir Power Plant Nesjavellir is the largest geothermal power plant in Iceland. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Bio-energy redirects here. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... The Solar Two 10 MW solar power facility, showing the power tower (left) surrounded by the sun-tracking mirrors. ... Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. ... Wave power refers to the energy of ocean surface waves and the capture of that energy to do useful work - including electricity generation, desalination, and the pumping of water (into reservoirs). ... An example of a wind turbine. ... Larderello is a geologically active area of southern Tuscany, Italy, which is renowned for its geothermal productivity. ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... The West Ford Flat power plant is one of 21 power plants at The Geysers The Geysers, a geothermal power field located 72 miles (116 km) north of San Francisco, California, is the largest geothermal development in the world. ... Geothermal may refer to: Geothermal (geology), heat that comes from within the Earth Geothermal desalination, the production of fresh water using heat energy extracted from underground rocks Geothermal heating, a method of heating and cooling a building using underground heat Geothermal power, electricity generated from naturally occurring geological heat sources...

Contents

Advantages

Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland

Geothermal energy offers a number of advantages over traditional fossil fuel based sources. From an environmental standpoint, the energy harnessed is clean and safe for the surrounding environment.[4] It is also sustainable because the hot water used in the geothermal process can be re injected into the ground to produce more steam. In addition, geothermal power plants are unaffected by changing weather conditions.[5] Geothermal power plants work continuously, day and night, making them base load power plants. From an economic view, geothermal energy is extremely price competitive in some areas and reduces reliance on fossil fuels and their inherent price unpredictability.[6] It also offers a degree of scalability: a large geothermal plant can power entire cities while smaller power plants can supply more remote sites such as rural villages.[7] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 867 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Krafla Geothermal Station. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 867 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Krafla Geothermal Station. ... A base load power plant is one that provides a steady flow of power regardless of total power demand by the grid. ...


Disadvantages

There are several environmental concerns behind geothermal energy. Construction of the power plants can adversely affect land stability in the surrounding region. This is mainly a concern with Enhanced Geothermal Systems, where water is injected into hot dry rock where no water was before.[8] Dry steam and flash steam power plants also emit low levels of carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, and sulfur, although at roughly 5% of the levels emitted by fossil fuel power plants.[7] However, geothermal plants can be built with emissions-controlling systems that can inject these gases back into the earth, thereby reducing carbon emissions to less than 0.1% of those from fossil fuel power plants.[9] Geothermal power technologies. ...


Although geothermal sites are capable of providing heat for many decades, eventually specific locations may cool down. It is likely that in these locations, the system was designed too large for the site, since there is only so much energy that can be stored and replenished in a given volume of earth. Some interpret this as meaning a specific geothermal location can undergo depletion, and question whether geothermal energy is truly renewable. If left alone, however, these places will recover some of their lost heat, as the mantle has vast heat reserves[citation needed]. An assessment of the total potential for electricity production from the high-temperature geothermal fields in Iceland gives a value of about 1500 MWh or 15 TWh per year over a 100 year period. The electricity production capacity from geothermal fields is now only 1.3 TWh per year. [10] Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ...


Potential

If heat recovered by ground source heat pumps is included, the non-electric generating capacity of geothermal energy is estimated at more than 100 GW (gigawatts of thermal power) and is used commercially in over 70 countries. During 2005, contracts were placed for an additional 0.5 GW of capacity in the United States, while there were also plants under construction in 11 other countries.[11] A geothermal exchange heat pump, also known as a ground source heat pump (GSHP), is a heat pump that uses the Earth as either a heat source, when operating in heating mode, or a heat sink, when operating in cooling mode. ...


Estimates of exploitable worldwide geothermal energy resources vary considerably. According to a 1999 study, it was thought that this might amount to between 65 and 138 GW of electrical generation capacity 'using enhanced technology'.[12]


A 2006 report by MIT, that took into account the use of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), concluded that it would be affordable to generate 100 GWe (gigawatts of electricity) or more by 2050 in the United States alone, for a maximum investment of 1 billion US dollars in research and development over 15 years.[11] Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Hot-Dry-Rock (HDR) is a type of geothermal power production that utilises the very high temperatures that can be found in rocks just a few kilometres below ground. ...


The MIT report calculated the world's total EGS resources to be over 13,000 ZJ. Of these, over 200 ZJ would be extractable, with the potential to increase this to over 2,000 ZJ with technology improvements - sufficient to provide all the world's energy needs for several millennia.[11] The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... A millennium (pl. ...


The key characteristic of an EGS (also called a Hot Dry Rock system), is that it reaches at least 10 km down into hard rock. At a typical site two holes would be bored and the deep rock between them fractured. Water would be pumped down one and steam would come up the other. The MIT report estimated that there was enough energy in hard rocks 10 km below the United States to supply all the world's current needs for 30,000 years. [11]


Drilling at this depth is now possible in the petroleum industry, albeit it is expensive. (Exxon announced an 11 km hole at the Chayvo field, Sakhalin. Lloyds List 1/5/07 p 6) Wells drilled to depths greater than 4000 metres generally incur drilling costs in the 10's of millions of dollars. The technological challenges are to drill wide bores at low cost and to break rock over larger volumes. Apart from the energy used to make the bores, the process releases no greenhouse gases.


Other important countries are China, Hungary, Mexico, Iceland, and New Zealand. There are a number of potential sites being developed or evaluated in South Australia that are several kilometres in depth. For the song, see South Australia (song). ...


History of development


Geothermal steam and hot springs have been used for centuries for bathing and heating, but it wasn't until the 20th century that geothermal power started being used to make electricity. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57°F or...


Prince Piero Ginori Conti tested the first geothermal power generator on 4 July 1904, at the Larderello dry steam field in Italy. It was a small generator that lit four light bulbs.[13] Later, in 1911, the world's first geothermal power plant was built there. It was the world's only industrial producer of geothermal electricity until 1958, when New Zealand built a plant of its own. is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Larderello is a geologically active area of southern Tuscany, Italy, which is renowned for its geothermal productivity. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Jan. ...


The first Geothermal power plant in the United States was made in 1922 by John D. Grant at The Geysers Resort Hotel. After drilling for more steam, he was able to generate enough electricity to light the entire resort. Eventually the power plant fell into disuse, as it was not competitive with other methods of energy production.[14] Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The West Ford Flat power plant is one of 21 power plants at The Geysers The Geysers, a geothermal power field located 72 miles (116 km) north of San Francisco, California, is the largest geothermal development in the world. ...


In 1960, Pacific Gas and Electric began operation of the first successful geothermal power plant in the United States at The Geysers. The original turbine installed lasted for more than 30 years and produced 11 MW net power. The Geysers are currently owned by the Calpine corporation and the Northern California Power agency; and it currently produces over 750 MW of power. [14] Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... MW could refer to (in alphabetical order): Lintilla - the original multiple worlds talker Maintenance of way Malawi (ISO 3166-1 country code) Master of Wine Maya Island Air IATA airline designator MediaWiki Mediumwave Megawatt Mens Wearhouse Merriam-Webster The Midwest region of the United States Microwave Miss World Molecular...


Development around the world

Geothermal power is generated in over 20 countries around the world including Iceland, the United States, Italy, Germany, France, Samogitia (Lithuania), New Zealand, Mexico, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Russia, the Philippines, Indonesia, the People's Republic of China, Japan and Saint Kitts and Nevis. Chevron Corporation is the world's largest producer of geothermal energy. Canada's government (which officially notes some 30,000 earth-heat installations for providing space heating to Canadian residential and commercial buildings) reports a test geothermal-electrical site in the Meager Mountain-Pebble Creek area of British Columbia, where a 100 MW facility could be developed. Etnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... Mount Meager (sometimes mistakenly spelled Meagre or Meagher) is a potentially active complex volcano in the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains of British Columbia, Canada, above the west flank of the Lillooet River and just south of the Lillooet Icecap. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944...


Africa

Geothermal power is very cost-effective in the Rift area of Africa. Kenya was the first African country to build geothermal energy sources. Kenya's KenGen has built two plants, Olkaria I (45 MW) and Olkaria II (65 MW), with a third private plant Olkaria III (48 MW). Plans are to increase production capacity by another 576 MW by 2017, covering 25% of Kenya's electricity needs, and correspondingly reducing dependency on imported oil. Hot spots have been found across the continent, especially in the Great Rift Valley. Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources. ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ...


Australia

Main article: Geothermal energy exploration in Central Australia

Geothermal energy exploration in Central Australia is an area of considerable activity, which involves finding vast blocks of hot rocks with fracture systems that could generate electricity through water being injected, circulated through the fractures, and being returned to surface as steam. ...

Chile

Chile currently has no geothermal power plants but has a geothermal capacity of 16,000 MW for at least 50 years. The thermal spring areas are located in quaternary volcanic zones in the Andes such as El Tatio, Liquiñe and Cordón Caulle.[15] This article is about the mountain range in South America. ... Geyser of El-Tatio El Tatio Geyser Field (locally known as Los Géiseres del Tatio) is located within the Andes Mountains of northern Chile at 4,200 meters above mean sea level. ... Liquiñe is small village carved in a andean valley in Panguipullis municality at Valdivias Province, Chile. ... Cordón Caulle is a fissure vents system located in Los Lagos Region of Chile. ...


Iceland

Iceland is situated in an area with a high concentration of volcanoes, making it an ideal location for generating geothermal energy. 19.1% of Iceland's electrical energy is generated from geothermal sources[16]. In addition, geothermal heating is used to heat 87% of homes in Iceland. Icelanders plan to be 100% non-fossil fuel in the near future.[17] The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Plant Because of the special geological situation in Iceland with the high concentration of volcanoes, geothermal energy is very often used for heating and production of electricity. ... Geothermal heating is a method of heating and cooling a building. ...


Mexico

Mexico has the third greatest geothermal energy production with an installed capacity of 959.50 MW by December 2007, this represents 3.24% of its total electricity generated.[18][19][20]


New Zealand

New Zealand has operated geothermal power stations since the 1950s. First developments were at Wairakei and Kawerau (direct heat and power). Other stations are Ohaaki,Rotokawa,Poihipi, Nagwha and Mokai.


See: Geothermal power in New Zealand
See: Kawerau geothermal power station
See: Wairakei geothermal power The Kawerau geothermal power station is a 90-megawatt geothermal power plant now under construction in New Zealand. ... Wairakei is just a few miles south of Taupo, in the central North Island of New Zealand, on the Waikato River. ...

Geothermal power plant in Valencia, Negros Oriental, Philippines
Geothermal power plant in Valencia, Negros Oriental, Philippines

New Zealand geothermal fields [2] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 143 KB) Summary Geothermal power plant in Valencia, Negros Oriental. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 143 KB) Summary Geothermal power plant in Valencia, Negros Oriental. ... Valencia is a municipality in the province of Negros Oriental, Philippines. ...


North Dominica

North Dominica recently installed a geothermal power plant near the city of Opravy.


Portugal

Portugal has a geothermal power plant on São Miguel Island, in the Azores islands. NASA satellite photo (North to the top) Eastern São Miguel landscape Sete Cidades twin lakes, with the town of Sete Cidades to the left Mosteiros, a village on the northwestern coast Furnas São Miguel Island (pron. ... Motto:  (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem:  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Ethnic groups  Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,346 km² (n/a...


Philippines

The Geothermal Education Office and a 1980 article entitled "The Philippines geothermal success story" by Rudolph J. Birsic published in the journal Geothermal Energy (vol. 8, Aug.-Sept. 1980, p. 35-44) note the remarkable geothermal resources of the Philippines. [21][22] During the World Geothermal Congress 2000 held in Beppu, Ōita Prefecture of Japan (May-June 2000), it was reported that the Philippines is the largest consumer of electricity from geothermal sources and highlighted the potential role of geothermal energy in providing energy needs for developing countries.[23] Map showing location of Beppu in Oita Prefecture (as of 2006). ...


According to the International Geothermal Association (IGA), worldwide, the Philippines ranks second to the United States in producing geothermal energy. As of the end of 2003, the US has a capacity of 2020 megawatts of geothermal power, while the Philippines can generate 1930 megawatts. (Mexico is third with 953 MW according to IGA). [24] Early statistics from the Institute for Green Resources and Environment stated that Philippine geothermal energy provides 16% of the country's electricity.[25] By 2005, geothermal energy accounted for 17.5% of the country's electricity production. [26]. More recent statistics from the IGA show that combined energy from geothermal power plants in the islands of Luzon, Leyte, Negros and Mindanao account for approximately 27% of the country's electricity generation. Leyte is one of the islands in the Philippines where the first geothermal power plant started operations in July 1977.[22]


Russia

There is a geothermal plant on the north slope of Mutnovsky volcano in Kamchatka, presumably supplying power to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Mutnovsky is a volcano located in the southern part of Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. ... Kamchatka Oblast, an oblast in Russia. ... Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Russian: ) is the city and the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Krai (Russia). ...


Saint Kitts and Nevis

The island of Nevis, long known for its numerous hot springs, commenced drilling for the construction of a geothermal powerplant at Spring Hill, Nevis, in January 2008. When completed (estimated 2010), the plant will supply 50 megawatts of electricity, enough to fulfill all of Nevis' demand (approximately 10 megawatts), and also enough to export to neighbouring Saint Kitts as well as other nearby islands via submarine electrical transmission cables. The project, being undertaken by West Indies Power, will make Saint Kitts and Nevis the first country in the Caribbean to utilize large-scale Geothermal energy, and, when complete, will make Saint Kitts and Nevis one of the least dependent nations in the world on fossil-fuels.[27] For other uses, see Nevis (disambiguation). ... Country Saint Kitts and Nevis Archipelago Leeward Islands Region Caribbean Area 65 sq. ...


United Kingdom

The potential for exploiting geothermal energy in the United Kingdom on a commercial basis was initially examined by the Department of Energy in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis. ...

Turkey

Main article: Geothermal power in Turkey

Turkey currently has the 5th highest direct utilization and capacity of geothermal energy in the world.[28]

The West Ford Flat power plant is one of 21 power plants at The Geysers
The West Ford Flat power plant is one of 21 power plants at The Geysers

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2136 × 2848 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2136 × 2848 pixel, file size: 1. ... The West Ford Flat power plant is one of 21 power plants at The Geysers The Geysers, a geothermal power field located 72 miles (116 km) north of San Francisco, California, is the largest geothermal development in the world. ...

United States

Main article: Geothermal energy in the United States

The United States of America is the country with the greatest geothermal energy production.[29] Geothermal energy in the United States continues to be an area of considerable activity. ...


The largest dry steam field in the world is The Geysers, 72 miles (116 km) north of San Francisco. The Geysers began in 1960, has 1360 MW of installed capacity and produces over 750 MW net. Calpine Corporation now owns 19 of the 21 plants in The Geysers and is currently the United States' largest producer of renewable geothermal energy. The other two plants are owned jointly by the Northern California Power Agency and the City of Santa Clara's municipal Electric Utility (now called Silicon Valley Power). Since the activities of one geothermal plant affects those nearby, the consolidation plant ownership at The Geysers has been beneficial because the plants operate cooperatively instead of in their own short-term interest. The Geysers is now recharged by injecting treated sewage effluent from the City of Santa Rosa and the Lake County sewage treatment plant. This sewage effluent used to be dumped into rivers and streams and is now piped to the geothermal field where it replenishes the steam produced for power generation. The West Ford Flat power plant is one of 21 power plants at The Geysers The Geysers, a geothermal power field located 72 miles (116 km) north of San Francisco, California, is the largest geothermal development in the world. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The megawatt (symbol: MW) is a unit for measuring power corresponding to one million (106) watts. ... Calpine Corporation is a power company founded in 1984. ... Location of Santa Clara within Santa Clara County, California. ... Silicon Valley Power (SVP) is a municipal electric utility owned and operated by the city of Santa Clara, California. ... Santa Rosa is the Spanish name for Saint Rose. ... Lake County is a county located in the north central portion of the U.S. state of California, north of the San Francisco Bay Area. ...


Another major geothermal area is located in south central California, on the southeast side of the Salton Sea, near the cities of Niland and Calipatria, California. As of 2001, there were 15 geothermal plants producing electricity in the area. CalEnergy owns about half of them and the rest are owned by various companies. Combined the plants have a capacity of about 570 megawatts. This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the film, see The Salton Sea. ... Niland is a census-designated place located in Imperial County, California. ... Calipatria Post Office Calipatria is a city in Imperial County, California, United States. ...


The Basin and Range geologic province in Nevada, southeastern Oregon, southwestern Idaho, Arizona and western Utah is now an area of rapid geothermal development. Several small power plants were built during the late 1980s during times of high power prices. Rising energy costs have spurred new development. Plants in Nevada at Steamboat near Reno, Brady/Desert Peak, Dixie Valley, Soda Lake, Stillwater and Beowawe now produce about 235 MW. Full extent of the Basin and Range The Basin and Range Province is a particular type of topography that covers much of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico that is typified by elongate north-south trending arid valleys bounded by mountain ranges which also bound adjacent valleys. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... -1... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Reno redirects here. ... Dixie Valley, Nevada was a ranching community in Churchill County, Nevada. ... Beowawe, Nevada is an unincorporated area and ghost town in Eureka County, Nevada in the United States. ...


See also

Look up geothermal in
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Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... The Inter American Center of Tax Administrations - CIAT is an international organization based in Panama City, and has as members 36 Tax Administration Bodies from American, Caribbean and European counries. ... Hot-Dry-Rock (HDR) is a type of geothermal power production that utilises the very high temperatures that can be found in rocks just a few kilometres below ground. ... The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Plant Because of the special geological situation in Iceland with the high concentration of volcanoes, geothermal energy is very often used for heating and production of electricity. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... A geothermal exchange heat pump, also known as a ground source heat pump (GSHP), is a heat pump that uses the Earth as either a heat source, when operating in heating mode, or a heat sink, when operating in cooling mode. ... Geothermal desalination is an experimental process under development for the production of fresh water using heat energy extracted from underground rocks. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... // Renewable heat is an application of renewable energy, namely the generation of heat from renewable sources. ... The West Ford Flat power plant is one of 21 power plants at The Geysers The Geysers, a geothermal power field located 72 miles (116 km) north of San Francisco, California, is the largest geothermal development in the world. ... This is a List of renewable energy topics by country: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...

References

  1. ^ THE CELEBRATION OF THE CENTENARY OF THE GEOTHERMAL-ELECTRIC INDUSTRY WAS CONCLUDED IN FLORENCE ON DECEMBER 10th, 2005 in IGA News #64, April - June 2006. Publication of UGI/Italian Geothermal Union.
  2. ^ [1] Calpine Corporation page on The Geysers
  3. ^ January 2007 IEA Fact sheet: "Renewables in Global Energy Supply"
  4. ^ Geothermal Energy
  5. ^ Kenya Looks Underground for Power
  6. ^ Overview, U.S. Department of Energy
  7. ^ a b Geothermal Energy
  8. ^ "Energy search goes underground", Yahoo! News, Associated Press, 2007-08-06. Retrieved on 2007-09-11. 
  9. ^ Golob, Richard & Brus, Eric. (1993) The Almanac of Renewable Energy. New York: Henry Holt & Co. ISBN 0-8050-1948-0
  10. ^ Sverrisdottir, Valgerdur. Energy in Iceland: The Resource, its Utilisation and the Energy Policy. Presentation at the Iceland National Hydrogen Association's 11th Annual U.S. Hydrogen Meeting and Exposition, 1 March 2000. Retrieved on 31 October 2007
  11. ^ a b c d The Future of Geothermal Energy, Idaho National Laboratory
  12. ^ Geothermal Energy Association - Washington, DC (http). Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  13. ^ Tiwari, G. N.; Ghosal, M. K. Renewable Energy Resources: Basic Principles and Applications. Alpha Science Int'l Ltd., 2005 ISBN 1842651250
  14. ^ a b A History of Geothermal Energy in the United States. U.S. Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Program. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
  15. ^ Present Status of Geothermal Exploration in Chile. Retrieved on 2008-05-30.
  16. ^ International Energy Agency, Energy Statistic - Electricity/Heat in Iceland in 2005. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  17. ^ Energy Statistics in Iceland. Orkustofnun (Iceland Energy Authority). Retrieved on 2006-09-20.
  18. ^ Federal Comission of Electricity of Mexico/Geothermal-electric production 2007
  19. ^ Main aspects of geothermal energy in Mexico
  20. ^ IGA electricity generation for Mexico
  21. ^ Geothermal Education Office - The Philippines
  22. ^ a b Birsic, R.J. The Philippines geothermal success story Geothermal Energy (vol. 8, Aug.-Sept. 1980, p. 35-44)
  23. ^ World Geothermal Congress 2000
  24. ^ IGA electricity generation for Mexico
  25. ^ Institute for Green Resources and Environment: Asian Geothermal Symposium
  26. ^ International Energy Agency, Energy Statistic - Electricity/Heat in Philippines in 2005. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  27. ^ Geothermal Development Drilling Begins on Nevis
  28. ^ Lund, J. W., Freeston, D. H., & Boyd, T. L. (2005). Direct application of geothermal energy: 2005 Worldwide review. Geothermics, 34, 691-727. http://dx.doi.org/ doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2005.09.003
  29. ^ All About Geothermal Energy - Current Use. Geothermal Energy Association. Retrieved on 2007-01-25.

IEA Logo Map of members The International Energy Agency (IEA, or AIE in Romance languages) is a Paris-based intergovernmental organization founded by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the oil crisis. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Valgerður Sverrisdóttir (born March 23, 1950) has been the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Iceland since June 15, 2006. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Australian National University - Hot Rock Energy
  • Bassfeld Technology Transfer - Introduction to Geothermal Power Generation (3.6 MB PDF file)
  • Chevron Corporation Geothermal Production
  • Energy and Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah
  • Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy - Geothermal Technologies Program
  • Enhanced Geothermal Resources
  • Geothermal Education Office
  • Geothermal Energy Association
  • Geothermal Energy-Renewable energy resource
  • Geothermal Resources Council
  • Idaho National Laboratory - Geothermal Program
  • International Geothermal Association
  • Los Alamos National Laboratory - Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Technology
  • MIT - The Future of Geothermal Energy (14 MB PDF file)
  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory - Geothermal Technologies Program
  • Oregon Institute of Technology - Geo-Heat Center
  • Southern Methodist University - Geothermal Lab
  • Info on other types of energy
  • Geothermal Energy Research Center


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Geothermal power - Encyclopedia Article (229 words)
Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources.
Geothermal power is generally harnessed in one of three ways.
Geothermal power is generated over 20 countries around the world including Iceland, United States, Italy, France, New Zealand, Mexico, the Philippines, Indonesia and Japan.
Geothermal power - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1386 words)
Geothermal power is the use of geothermal heat for electricity generation.
Geothermal power is very cost-effective in the Rift area of Africa.
Geothermal power is generated in over 20 countries around the world including Iceland (producing 17% of its electricity from geothermal sources), the United States, Italy, France, New Zealand, Mexico, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Russia, the Philippines (production output of 1931MW (2nd to US, 27% of electricity), Indonesia and Japan.
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