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Encyclopedia > Geostrategy
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Geostrategy is a subfield of geopolitics. As with all strategies, geostrategy is concerned with matching means to ends—in this case, a country's resources with its geopolitical objectives. Geostrategists, as distinct from geopoliticians, advocate proactive strategies, and approach geopolitics from a nationalist point-of-view. Many geostrategists are also geographers, specializing in subfields of geography, such as "human geography", "political geography", "economic geography", "cultural geography", "military geography", and "strategic geography". Geostrategy is most closely related to strategic geography. Geopolitics analyses politics, history and social science with reference to geography. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, as differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Human geography, also known as anthropogeography, is the most boring subject devised by mankind. ... Political Geography is the scientific study of power relations in space and space implications on them. ... Economic geography is the study of the widely varying economic conditions across the earth. ... Cultural Geography is the study of natural and man-made representations on our society. ... Military geography is an attempt to understand the geo-political sphere within a military context. ... Strategic geography is concerned with the control of, or access to, spatial areas that have an impact on the security and prosperity of nations. ...

Contents


Defining geostrategy

Academics, theorists, and practitioners of geopolitics have agreed upon no standard definition for "geostrategy." Most all definitions, however, emphasize the merger of strategic considerations with geopolitical factors. While geopolitics is ostensibly neutral, examining the geographic and political features of different regions, especially the impact of geography on politics, geostrategy involves comprehensive planning, assigning means for achieving national goals or securing assets of military or political significance. A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, as differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand. ...


History of geostrategy

Precursors

Herodotus talks about a Greek plan to gain the "empire of the sea." Jump to: navigation, search Bust of Herodotus Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: ΗΡΟΔΟΤΟΣ, Herodotos) was an ancient historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... An empire (also known technically, abstractly or disparagingly as an imperium, and with powers known among Romans as imperium) comprises a set of regions locally ruled by governors, viceroys or client kings in the name of an emperor. ... Sunset at sea Look up Sea on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Look up maritime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Alexander Hamilton was a geostrategic thinker. Thomas Jefferson understood the balance of power, although he did not design a good navy with which to preserve it. Jump to: navigation, search A portrait of Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792. ... Jump to: navigation, search Thomas Jefferson (April 13 (April 2 O.S.), 1743 – July 4, 1826) was the third (1801–1809) President of the United States, second (1797–1801) Vice President, first (1789–1795) United States Secretary of State, and an American statesman, ambassador to France, political philosopher, revolutionary, agriculturalist... Balance of power is a central concept of realist theories of international relations. ... U.S. Navy supercarrier USS Nimitz on November 3, 2003. ...


Golden Age

Between 1890 and 1919 the world became a geostrategist's paradise. The international system featured rising and falling great powers, many with global reach. There were no new frontiers for the great powers to explore or colonize. From this point forward, international politics would feature the struggles of state against state. 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Look up Paradise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The word paradise is derived from the Avestan word of pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek peri-, and -diz (to create, make). ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... In the United States and Canada, the frontier was the term applied until the end of the 19th century to the zone of unsettled land outside the region of existing settlements of European immigrants and their descendants. ... Jump to: navigation, search Exploration is the act of searching or traveling for the purpose of discovery, e. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ...


World War Two

After the second world war, the term "geopolitics" fell into disrepute, because of its association with Nazi geopolitik. Virtually no books published between the end of WWII and the mid-1970's used the word "geopolitics" or "geostrategy" in their titles, and geopoliticians did not label themselves or their works as such. Jump to: navigation, search World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that... Look up Nazi in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Geopolitik is the German branch of Geopolitics. ...


The most prominent German geopolitician was General Karl Haushofer. After WWII, during the Allied occupation of Germany, the United States investigated many officials and public figures to determine if they should face charges of war crimes at the Nuremberg trials. Haushofer, an academic primarily, was interrogated by Father Edmund A. Walsh, a professor of geopolitics from the Georgetown School of Foreign Service, at the request of the U.S. authorities. Despite his involvement in crafting one of the justifications for Nazi aggression, Fr. Walsh determined that Haushofer ought not stand trial. General Karl Haushofer General Karl Haushofer (August 27, 1869-March 13, 1946) popularised German geopolitics, notably during Weimar Republic and the Third Reich. ... The Control Council headquarters The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, was a military occupation governing body of Germany after the end of World War II in Europe; the members were the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. ... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The Nuremberg Trials is the general name for two sets of trials of Nazis involved in World War II and the Holocaust. ... Father Walsh with General Douglas MacArthur in Tokyo, 1948 Edmund Aloysius Walsh S.J. (1885 - 1956) was a Jesuit professor of geopolitics and founder of the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service. ... Jump to: navigation, search Note: This institution should not be confused with Georgetown College Georgetown University is a major research university in the United States. ... Father Edmund A. Walsh, S.J. - Founder and first dean The Bunn Intercultural Center, Washington, D.C. - Home of the School of Foreign Service The Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service (commonly abbreviated SFS) is a school within Georgetown University in Washington, DC, United States. ...


As the Cold War began, N.J. Spykman and George F. Kennan laid down the foundations for the U.S. policy of containment, which would dominate Western geostrategic thought for the next forty years. Jump to: navigation, search For the generic term for a high-tension rivalry between countries, see cold war (war). ... Nicholas John Spykman (b. ... Jump to: navigation, search George Frost Kennan (February 16, 1904 – March 17, 2005) was an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as the father of containment and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. ... Containment refers to the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War. ... The West can refer to : The U.S. West or the American West The Western world, or Western Civilization. ...


Post-Cold War

To be written... One of Wikipedias rules to consider: Please make omissions explicit when creating or editing an article. ...


Notable geostrategists

The below geostrategists were instrumental in founding and developing the major geostrategic doctrines in the discipline's history. While there have been many other geostrategists, these have been the most influential in shaping and developing the field as a whole. Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ...


Alfred Thayer Mahan

Alfred Thayer Mahan Jump to: navigation, search Alfred Thayer Mahan Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan (27 September 1840 - 1 December 1914) was a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator, widely considered the worlds foremost theorist of military sea power. ...


Halford J. Mackinder

Halford J. Mackinder Halford John Mackinder Sir Halford John Mackinder PC (February 15, 1861 - March 6, 1947), was an English geographer. ...


Friedrich Ratzel

Influenced by the works of Alfred Thayer Mahan, as well as the German geographers Karl Ritter and Alexander von Humboldt, Friedrich Ratzel would lay the foundations for geopolitik, Germany's unique strain of geopolitics. Carl Ritter (August 7, 1779, Quedlinburg – September 28, 1859, Berlin) was, along with his fellow German Alexander von Humboldt, one of the founders of modern geography (and of the Berlin Geographical Society). ... Friedrich Heinrich Alexander, Baron von Humboldt, (September 14, 1769, Berlin–May 6, 1859, Berlin), was a German naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt. ... Friedrich Ratzels photograph from the University of Leipzig Friedrich Ratzel (August 30, 1844, Karlsruhe, Baden – August 9, 1904, Ammerland) was a German geographer and ethnographer, notable for coining the term Lebensraum (living space). // Ratzels Life Ratzels father was the head of the household staff of the Grand... Geopolitik is the German branch of Geopolitics. ... Geopolitics analyses politics, history and social science with reference to geography. ...


Ratzel wrote on the natural division between land powers and sea powers, agreeing with Mahan that sea power was self-sustaining, as the profit from trade would support the development of a merchant marine. However, his key contribution were the development of the concepts of raum and organic state theory. He theorized that states were organic and growing, and that borders were only temporary, representing pauses in their natural movement. Raum was the land, spiritually connected to a nation (in this case, the German peoples), from which the people could draw sustenance, find adjacent inferior nations which would support them, and which would be fertilized by their kultur (culture). Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries. ... Jump to: navigation, search Lebensraum (from the German for living space) is an idea that is most commonly known for being one of Nazi Germanys main justifications of its expansionist policies. ... Organic has several meanings and related topics. ... Border has several different, but related meanings: // Generic borders A border can consist of a margin around the edge of something, such as a lawn, garden, photograph, or sheet of paper. ... See: Spirituality Spiritual music Spiritual dance The Age of Spiritual Machines Spiritual possession This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ...


Ratzel's ideas would influence the works of his student Rudolf Kjellén, as well as those of General Karl Haushofer.


Rudolf Kjellén

Rudolf Kjellén was a Swedish political scientist and student of Friedrich Ratzel. He first coined the term "geopolitics." His writings would play a decisive role in influencing General Karl Haushofer's geopolitik, and indirectly the future Nazi foreign policy. Johan Rudolf Kjellén Johan Rudolf Kjellén (13 June 1864, Torsö – 14 November 1922, Uppsala) was a Swedish political scientist and politician who first coined the term geopolitics. His work was influenced by Friedrich Ratzel. ... General Karl Haushofer General Karl Haushofer (August 27, 1869-March 13, 1946) popularised German geopolitics, notably during Weimar Republic and the Third Reich. ... Look up Nazi in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


His writings focused on five central concepts that would underlie German geopolitik:

  1. Reich was a territorial concept that was comprised of Raum (Lebensraum), and strategic military shape;
  2. Volk was a racial conception of the state;
  3. Haushalt was a call for autarky based on land, formulated in reaction to the vicissitudes of international markets;
  4. Geselleschaft was the social aspect of a nation’s organization and cultural appeal, Kjellén anthropomorphizing inter-state relations more than Ratzel had; and,
  5. Regierung was the form of government whose bureaucracy and army would contribute to the people’s pacification and coordination.

Jump to: navigation, search Lebensraum (from the German for living space) is an idea that is most commonly known for being one of Nazi Germanys main justifications of its expansionist policies. ... Volk is a German language word meaning people or folk. ... An autarky is an economy that does no trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from its outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries. ... This dog has been dressed in human accessories for humorous effect. ... Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science. ... Army (from French armée) can, in some countries, refer to any armed force (for example, the Peoples Liberation Army of China consists of ground force, navy and air force branches). ...

General Karl Haushofer

Karl Haushofer General Karl Haushofer General Karl Ernst Haushofer (August 27, 1869, Munich - March 13, 1946, Pähl) popularised German geopolitics, notably during Weimar Republic and the Third Reich. ...


Nicholas J. Spykman

Nicholas J. Spykman was an Dutch-American geostrategist, known as the "godfather of containment." His geostrategic work, The Geography of the Peace (1944), argued that the balance of power in Eurasia directly affected United States security. Nicholas John Spykman (b. ... Containment refers to the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War. ... African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the landmass composed of the continents of Europe and Asia. ...


N.J. Spykman based his geostrategic ideas on those of Sir Halford Mackinder's Heartland theory. Spykman's key contribution was to alter the strategic valuation of the Heartland vs. the "Rimland" (a geographic area analogous to Mackinder's "Inner or Marginal Crescent"). Spykman does not see the heartland as a region which will be unified by powerful transport or communication infrastructure in the near future. As such, it won't be in a position to compete with the United States' sea power, despite its uniquely defensive position. The rimland possessed all of the key resources and populations—its domination was key to the control of Eurasia. His strategy was for Offshore powers, and perhaps Russia as well, to resist the consolidation of control over the rimland by any one power. Balanced power would lead to peace. Jump to: navigation, search Communication is the process of exchanging information usually via a common system of symbols. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ...


George F. Kennan

George F. Kennan, U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union, laid out the seminal Cold War geostrategy in his Long Telegram and The Sources of Soviet Conduct. He coined the term "containment", which would become the guiding idea for U.S. grand strategy over the next forty years, although the term would come to mean something significantly different from Kennan's original formulation. Jump to: navigation, search George Frost Kennan (February 16, 1904 – March 17, 2005) was an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as the father of containment and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. ... The X Article, formally titled The Sources of Soviet Conduct, was published in Foreign Affairs in 1947. ... Containment refers to the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War. ...


Kennan advocated what was called "strongpoint containment." In his view, the United States and its allies needed to protect the productive industrial areas of the world from Soviet domination. He noted that of the five centers of industrial strength in the world—the United States, Britain, Japan, Germany, and Russia—the only contested area was that of Germany. Kennan was concerned about maintaining the balance of power between the U.S. and the USSR, and in his view, only these few industrialized areas mattered. Balance of power is a central concept of realist theories of international relations. ...


Here Kennan differed from Paul Nitze, whose seminal Cold War document, NSC-68, called for "undifferentiated or global containment," along with a massive military buildup. Kennan saw the Soviet Union as an ideological and political challenger rather than a true military threat. There was no reason to fight the Soviets throughout Eurasia, because those regions were not productive, and the Soviet Union was already exhausted from WWII, limiting its ability to project power abroad. Therefore, Kennan disapproved of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, and later spoke out critically against Reagan's military buildup. Paul Henry Nitze (January 16, 1907 – October 19, 2004) was a high-ranking United States government official who helped shape Cold War defense policy over the course of numerous presidential administrations. ... NSC 68 was a policy paper written by the National Security Council for President Harry Truman providing a comprehensive analysis of the capabilities of the Soviet Union and of the United States of America from military, economic, political and psychological standpoints. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the landmass composed of the continents of Europe and Asia. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ronald Wilson Reagan, GCB, (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ...


Henry Kissinger

Henry Kissinger Jump to: navigation, search Henry Kissinger Henry Alfred Kissinger (born May 27, 1923 as Heinz Alfred Kissinger) is a German-born American diplomat and statesman. ...


Zbigniew Brzezinski

Zbigniew Brzezinski laid out his most significant contribution to post-Cold War geostrategy in his 1997 book The Grand Chessboard. He defined four regions of Eurasia, and in which ways the United States ought to design its policy toward each region in order to maintain its global primacy. The four regions (echoing Mackinder and Spykman) are: Jump to: navigation, search Zbigniew Brzezinski Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, statesman and prominent russophobe. ... Jump to: navigation, search For the generic term for a high-tension rivalry between countries, see cold war (war). ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the landmass composed of the continents of Europe and Asia. ...

  • Europe, the Democratic Bridgehead
  • Russia, the Black Hole
  • The Middle East, the Eurasian Balkans
  • Asia, the Far Eastern Anchor

In his subsequent book, The Choice, Brzezinski updates his geostrategy in light of globalization, 9/11 and the intervening six years between the two books. Jump to: navigation, search Globalization (or globalisation) is a modern term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that result from dramatically increased international trade and cultural exchange. ... Jump to: navigation, search The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of suicide attacks against the United States conducted on Tuesday, September 11, 2001. ...


Criticisms of geostrategy

To be written... One of Wikipedias rules to consider: Please make omissions explicit when creating or editing an article. ...


Related topics

Other geostrategists

Listed below are other geostrategists whose works, while not developing the foundations of geostrategy as a discipline for their respective eras, were important for their insights of influence nonetheless:

Brooks Adams (1848 - 1927) was a U.S. historian and political scientist. ... Aleksandr Gelevich Dugin (Russian: Александр Гельевич Дугин) (1962 - ) is a Russian scholar, political activist, and founder of the contemporary Russian school of geopolitics often known as Eurasianism. He is often seen to be an advocate of National Bolshevism. ... Homer Lea (1876 – November 1, 1912), was a general in the army of Sun Yat-sen and a writer of several books of geopolitics. ... Jump to: navigation, search Otto Maull (1887-1957) was a German geographer and geopolitician. ...

Geostrategy by country

The following articles discuss geostrategy from the sole perspective and history of a single country, taking into account each respective country's unique strategic goals:

  • British geostrategy
  • Chinese geostrategy
  • French geostrategy
  • German geostrategy
  • Russian geostrategy
  • United States geostrategy

Geopolitik is the German branch of Geopolitics. ...

Geostrategy by region

These articles discuss geostrategy in regions of the world. They discuss the various historical and current strategic interests that competing outside states have had in each region. (They do not discuss strategy from a specific point-of-view, see above.)

Central Asia has long been a geostrategic location merely because of its proximity to several great powers on the Eurasian landmass. ...

Geostrategy by topic

These articles discuss geostrategy as it relates to a specific strategic means or resource:

See also: Geoeconomics.

Geostrategy in space deals with the strategic considerations of location and resources in outer space territory. ...

Geostrategic places

Listed here are geographic features that are of enduring strategic value:

Straits Passes Islands Regions

Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, the eastmost point of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point of the American continent, approximately 85 km (58 mi) in width, with a... Jump to: navigation, search 1888 Map of the Cape of Good Hope The Cape of Good Hope is a headland in South Africa, near Cape Town, traditionally— and incorrectly — regarded as marking the turning point between the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean (Technically, the division between the two oceans... The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı), formerly Hellespont, is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara. ... Categories: Stub | Straits ... The Gulf of Aden is located in the Indian Ocean between Yemen on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula and Somalia in Africa. ... The Baltic Sea The Kattegat, or Kattegatt, is a bay of the North Sea and a continuation of the Skagerrak, bounded by Denmark and Sweden. ... Satellite image of the Panama Canal NASA image of the Panama canal The Pnama Canal is a canal 82 km (51 mi) long that cuts through the isthmus of Panama, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in Central America. ... The Strait of Dover (Fr. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... Map Of Strait of Hormuz Satellite image Map Of Iran The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز in Persian) is a relatively narrow stretch of ocean between the Gulf of Oman in the southeast and the Persian Gulf in the southwest. ... 1881 drawing of the Suez Canal The Suez Canal (Arabic, Qanā al-Suways), west of the Sinai Peninsula, is a 163-km maritime canal in Egypt between Port Said (BÅ«r SaÄ«d) on the Mediterranean Sea and Suez (al-Suways) on the Red Sea. ... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Taiwan Strait Area The Taiwan Strait or Formosa Strait is a 180km-wide Strait between mainland China and the island of Taiwan. ... Location of Tsushima Straits about the Tsushima Islands and West (Korea Strait) The Tsushima Strait (対馬海峡, also known as the Tsu Shima Strait or Tsu-Shima Strait) is the eastern channel of the Korea Strait between Kyushu, the westernmost and largest of the four main islands of Japan, or Iki... The Bolan Pass The Bolan Pass is a gap through the Toba Kakar Range of mountains on the border of Pakistan. ... The Brenner Pass (Italian Passo del Brennero) is a mountain pass that creates a link through the Tyrolean Alps along the current border between the nations of Austria and Italy, one of the principal passes of the Alps. ... The Cumberland Gap was the chief passageway through the Appalachian Mountains in early American history. ... The Fulda Gap is a section of territory between the former East German border and Frankfurt, (West) Germany. ... Hospice at the Great St Bernard, with ancient road in foreground. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Jelepla Pass (also spelt Jelep La) is an all weather pass between India and Tibet. ... Khunjerab Pass (sometimes Khunerjab Pass) is a high pass on the northern border of Pakistan with China. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Khyber Pass (also called the Khaiber Pass in old documents) is the most important pass connecting Pakistan with Afghanistan. ... Nathula Pass (also spelt Ntula, Natu La, Nathu la, Natula) is a pass on the Indo-China(Tibet) border in the state of Sikkim. ... The modern concrete span of the Devils bridge (Teufelsbrücke) across the SchÇ’llenen Gorge replaces the older bridge below St. ... The Torugart Pass is a pass in the Tian Shan mountain range. ... The Wakhan Corridor (also spelt as Vakhan; وخان in Persian) is a narrow (in some places less than 10 mi. ... The Antilles now generally refers to the islands of the Caribbean or West Indies, except the Bahamas. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official languages Catalan and Castilian Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4 992 km²  1,0% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 14th  916 968  2,2%  183,69/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Catalan  â€“ Spanish Balearic balear balear Statute of Autonomy March 1, 1983 ISO 3166... Greece and Crete Crete, sometimes spelled Krete (Greek Κρήτη / Kriti; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ... Location of Ryukyu Islands Flag of same The Ryukyu Islands (琉球列島 RyÅ«kyÅ«-rettō), also known as the Nansei-shoto (南西諸島 Nansei-shotō, which translates literally as the Southwest Islands), are an island chain stretching southwestward from the island of Kyushu in Japan. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... The Philippines is composed of 7,107 islands and these make up the archipelago. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea or Mazandaran Sea is a landlocked sea between Asia and Europe (European Russia). ... Jump to: navigation, search The Caucasus , a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... The Fergana Valley (also Ferghana Valley) is a region of Central Asia spreading across Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. ... Flanders (Flemish, Fleming) (Dutch: Vlaanderen (Vlaams, Vlaming), French: Flandre(s), (flamand, flamand), German: Flandern, (flämisch, Flame) has two main designations: a constituent community of the federal Belgian state through its social and political organisations, and through the institutions of the Flemish Community (with its own Flemish government and Flemish... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... To the natives of the state of Mississippi the Mississippi Delta is the distinct northwest section of the state, generally between the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers. ... Mitteleuropa is a German term approximately equal to Central Europe. ... Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian principality, originally created in the Middle Ages, now divided between Romania, Moldovan Republic and Ukraine. ... The Nile Delta is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the River Nile spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... Jump to: navigation, search Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (One defends and the other conquers) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant Governor Myra Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Area 55,283 km² (12th) • Land 53,338 km² • Water 1,946 km² (3. ... ... Provence is a former Roman province and is now a region of southeastern France, located on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Frances border with Italy. ... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ... Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area (German Ruhrgebiet or, colloquially, Ruhrpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to the west, and Lippe to the north. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (from Russian step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are... Transoxiana (sometimes spelled Transoxania) is the largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ...

Further reading

  • Brzezinski, Zbigniew. The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and its Geostrategic Imperatives. New York: Basic Books, 1997.
  • Gray, Colin S. and Geoffrey Sloan. Geopolitics, Geography and Stategy. Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 1999.
  • Mackinder, Halford J. Democratic Ideals and Reality. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1996.
  • Mahan, Alfred Thayer. The Problem of Asia: Its Effects Upon International Politics. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003.

External links

To be written... One of Wikipedias rules to consider: Please make omissions explicit when creating or editing an article. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
geostrategy: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (2813 words)
As with all political theories, geostrategies are relevant principally to the context in which they were devised: the nationality of the strategist, the strength of his or her country's resources, the scope of their country's goals, the political geography of the time period, and the technological factors that affect military, political, economic, and cultural engagement.
Critics of geostrategy have asserted that it is a pseudoscientific gloss used by dominant nations to justify imperialist or hegemonic aspirations, or that it has been rendered irrelevant because of technological advances, or that its essentialist focus on geography leads geostrategists to incorrect conclusions about the conduct of foreign policy.
While geopolitics is ostensibly neutral, examining the geographic and political features of different regions, especially the impact of geography on politics, geostrategy involves comprehensive planning, assigning means for achieving national goals or securing assets of military or political significance.
Center for Strategic and International Studies (444 words)
The first holder of the Zbigniew Brzezinski Chair in Global Security and Geostrategy is Simon Serfaty.
CSIS established the Brzezinski Chair in July 2003 to advance understanding in the fields of geostrategy, international security, European affairs, and global politics.
The activities of the Zbigniew Brzezinski Chair in Global Security and Geostrategy are made possible by generous support from the Richard M. Fairbanks Foundation.
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