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Encyclopedia > Georgian Revival
A Georgian house in Salisbury

Georgian architecture is the name given in English-speaking countries to the architectural styles current between about 1720 and 1840, named after the four British monarchs named George. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (926x1066, 285 KB) House at 57 The Close, Salisbury, England. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (926x1066, 285 KB) House at 57 The Close, Salisbury, England. ... Salisbury (IPA: , or — moving from RP to local dialect) is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, England. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics - in terms of form, techniques, materials, etc. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom and in the British overseas territories. ... King George has referred to many kings throughout history. ...


It succeeded the English Baroque of Sir Christopher Wren, Sir John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor. Among the first architects to promote the change in direction from baroque were Colen Campbell and the engravings in Vitruvius Britannicus, Lord Burlington and his protegé William Kent, Thomas Archer and the Venetian Giacomo Leoni, who passed his career in England. Greenwich Hospital: Sir Christopher Wren, 1694. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... Sir John Vanbrugh in Godfrey Knellers Kit-cat portrait, considered one of Knellers finest portraits. ... The career of Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 - 25 March 1736) formed the brilliant middle link in Britains trio of great baroque architects. ... Palladian revival: Stourhead House, South facade, designed by Colen Campbell and completed in 1720. ... Palladian revival: Stourhead House, South facade, designed by Colen Campbell and completed in 1720. ... Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and 4th Earl of Cork (April 25, 1694 – 1753) , born in Yorkshire, was a descendant of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork. ... William Kent William Kent (born in Bridlington, Yorkshire, c. ... Thomas Archer (1668-1743) was an English baroque architect. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Lyme Park, Cheshire designed by Giacomo Leoni. ...


The styles that resulted fall within several categories. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both Palladian architecture— and its whimsical alternatives, Gothic and Chinoiserie, which were the English-speaking world's equivalent of European Rococo. From the mid-1760s a range of Neoclassical modes were fashionable, associated with the British architects Robert Adam, James Gibbs, Sir William Chambers, James Wyatt, Henry Holland and Sir John Soane. Greek Revival was added to the design repertory, after about 1800. See also: Adam style, Georgian Dublin. Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from the designs of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580). ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... Chinoiserie refers to an artistic style which reflects Chinese influence and is characterized through the use of elaborate decoration and intricate patterns. ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... The neoclassical movement that produced Neoclassical architecture began in the mid-18th century, both as a reaction against the Rococo style of anti-tectonic naturalistic ornament, and an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque. ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... St Martins-in-the-Fields, London, is the prototype of many New England churches. ... The central courtyard of Chambers Somerset House in London. ... Fonthill Abbey. ... Henry Holland ( July 20, 1745 - June 17, 1806) was an architect to the English nobility who trained under Capability Brown and later married his daughter. ... Sir John Soane (10 September 1753 - 20 January 1837) was a British architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical tradition. ... Personal residence of Catherine the Great Greek Revival was a style of classical architecture which became fashionable in Europe in the 18th century, and in the United Kingdom and United States in the early 19th century. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... The Adam style (or Adamesque) is a style of neoclassical architecture and design as practised by Scottish architect Robert Adam (1728_ 1792) and his brothers. ... Georgian Dublin is a phrase used that has two interwoven meanings, to describe a historic period in the development of the city of Dublin from 1714 (the beginning of the reign of King George I of Great Britain and of Ireland) to the death in 1830 of King George IV...

Contents

Distinguishing Characteristics

Georgian architecture is characterized by its proportion and balance; simple mathematical ratios were used to determine the height of a window in relation to its width or the shape of a room as a double cube. "Regular" was a term of approval, implying symmetry and adherence to classical rules: the lack of symmetry, where Georgian additions were added to earlier structures, was deeply felt as a flaw. Regularity of housefronts along a street was a desirable feature of Georgian town planning. Georgian designs usually lay within the Classical orders of architecture and employed a decorative vocabulary derived from ancient Rome or Greece. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

Georgian architecture at Royal Crescent, Bath, showing the contrast between the architectural style of the public front and the private rear of this famous terrace

Georgian style was equally suited to brick and stone, usually defined by reddish brick walls that contrasted with white used for window trimming and cornices. The entrances were often emphasized by a portico. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1372, 510 KB) Royal Crescent (Bath, England) viewed from a hot air balloon, on a dull September evening. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1372, 510 KB) Royal Crescent (Bath, England) viewed from a hot air balloon, on a dull September evening. ... A hot air balloon launching in front of the Royal Crescent. ... Bath is a city in South West England most famous for its baths fed by three hot springs. ...

Provincial Georgian architecture, c. 1760. Northwold, Norfolk.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Northwold is a parish and village in Norfolk County, England, 4. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ...

Colonial Georgian architecture

Georgian Architecture was widely disseminated in the English colonies of the time. In the American colonies, colonial Georgian blended with the neo-Palladian style to become known more broadly as 'Federal' building styles. In the American colonies, Georgian buildings were also built of wood with clapboards; even columns were built of timber, framed up and turned on an oversized lathe. The College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, is an excellent example of Georgian architecture. Unlike the Baroque style that it replaced, a style which was generated almost solely in the context of palaces and churches, this style had wide currency in the upper and middle classes. Within the residential context, the best remaining example is the pristine Hammond-Harwood House (1774) in Annapolis, Maryland. This house was designed by colonial architect William Buckland and modeled on the Villa Pisani at Montagnana, Italy as depicted in Andrea Palladio's Four Books Of Architecture. The establishment of Georgian architecture was to a large degree aided by the fact that unlike earlier styles, which were disseminated among craftsmen through the direct experience of the apprenticeship system, Georgian architecture was also disseminated to builders through the new medium of inexpensive suites of engravings. From the mid-18th century, Georgian styles were assimilated into an architectural vernacular that became part and parcel of the training of every carpenter, mason and plasterer, from Edinburgh to Maryland. Betsy Ross purportedly sewed the first American flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes representing each of the 13 colonies. ... Colonial house Henry M. Jacksons home Everett, Washington A colonial house, also called Georgian, is a style of house that was popular in America from 1690 to 1830. ... Federal style architecture occurred in the United States between 1780 and 1830, particularly from 1785 to 1815. ... The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... Nickname: The Burg Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Exterior view of the Hammond-Harwood House Ornamental fireplace in the main salon The Hammond-Harwood House in Annapolis, Maryland, U.S.A. is one of the premier colonial houses remaining in America from the British colonial period (1607-1776). ... William Buckland (12 March 1784 - 24 August 1856) was a prominent English geologist and palaeontologist who wrote the first full account of a fossil dinosaur, a proponent of Old Earth creationism and Flood geology who later became convinced by the glaciation theory of Louis Agassiz. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ...


Post-Georgian developments

After about 1840 Georgian conventions were slowly abandoned as a number of Revival styles, including Gothic revival, enlarged the design repertoire. In the United States this style declined in popularity after the revolution, due to its association with the colonial regime; but later in the early decades of the twentieth century when there was a growing nostalgia for its sense of order, the style was revived and came to be known as the Colonial Revival. In Canada the United Empire Loyalists embraced Georgian architecture as a sign of their fealty to Britain, and the Georgian style was dominant in that country for most of the first half of the 19th century. The Grange, for example, a manor built in Toronto, was built in 1817. Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics - in terms of form, techniques, materials, etc. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... The Colonial Revival was a nationalistic architectural style. ... The name United Empire Loyalists is given to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War. ... The Grange The Grange is a historic manor in downtown Toronto, Canada. ...


Modern Georgian developments

In the late 1980's, Leslie Wexner, founder of Limited Brands began development on a $47 million, Georgian inspired estate, situated on nearly 1000 acres (4 km²) in New Albany. New Albany is an old village outside of Columbus dating from the pioneer era, which he developed with the "New Albany Company" into a mixed Georgian / Federalist inspired community. Leslie H. Wexner (born September 8, 1937, in Dayton, Ohio) is a famous businessman from Columbus, Ohio, and currently chairman and CEO of the Limited Brands corporation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... New Albany is the name of several places in the United States of America: New Albany, Indiana New Albany, Mississippi New Albany, Kansas New Albany, Ohio New Albany, Pennsylvania (See also Albany. ...


Notes

See also

John Nash For other people of the same name, see John Nash. ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... Sir Christopher Wren, (20 October 1632–25 February 1723) was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time. ... Manchester Town Hall is an example of Victorian architecture found in Manchester, UK. The Carson Mansion is an example of a Victorian home in Eureka, California, USA The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of architectural styles predominantly in the Victorian era. ... // Articles with similar titles include Golden mean (philosophy), the felicitous middle between two extremes, and Golden numbers, an indicator of years in astronomy and calendar studies. ...

References

Further reading

  • Howard Colvin, A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 3rd ed. 1995.
  • John Cornforth, Early Georgian Interiors, (Paul Mellon Centre) 2005.
  • James Stevens Curl, Georgian Architecture.
  • Christopher Hussey, Early Georgian Houses,, Mid-Georgian Houses,, Late Georgian House,. Reissued in paperback, Antique Collectors Club, 1986.
  • Frank Jenkins, Architect and Patron 1961.
  • Barrington Kaye, The Development of the Architectural Profession in Britain 1960.
  • Sir John Summerson, Georgian London, (1945). Revised edition, edited by Howard Colvin, 2003.
  • Sir John Summerson, Architecture in Britain (series: Pelican History of Art) Reissued in paperback 1970

Christopher Hussey (1899 - 1970) was one of the chief authorities on British domestic architecture of the generation that also included Dorothy Stroud and Sir John Summerson. ... Sir John Newenham Summerson (1904-1992) was one of the leading British architectural historians of the 20th century. ... Sir Howard Montagu Colvin is the author of A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600-1840 ISBN 0300072074 published the Yale University Press in 1997. ...

External links

  • Georgian Architecture

  Results from FactBites:
 
Antique American Architecture- Georgian style (814 words)
New England Georgian style is adapted to its immediate surroundings and climate as well as the puritan influence, which resulted in an less ornamentation and a smaller scale than Georgian style in other colonies.
During the late 1800's Georgian style was revived and builders modified the style to accommodate the more modern lifestyle and taste of the new century.
Now we have examples of original Georgian and Georgian "revival" homes and buildings as well to consider, With time and practice you will be able to spot the original from the revival.
::Antique Homes Magazine:: (842 words)
This early example of the Colonial Revival was built around the turn of the century in the Massachusetts Avenue Historic District of Worcester, MA.
The roof and dormers are drawn from Georgian sources; the bowed facade walls, porch and door belong to the Federal period.
When the Colonial Revival style is used to directly evoke high-style 18th century designs, it is known as Georgian Revival.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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