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Encyclopedia > Georgian Jews
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Gruzim
Total population: 100,000 (est.)
Significant populations in: Georgia: 10,000-20,000 (est.)

Israel: 60,000 (est.)
United States: 5,000 (est.)
Russia: nn
Belgium: nn

Language: Judæo-Georgian, Georgian, Russian, local languages of the countries in which they live
Religion: Judaism
Related ethnic groups: Related by tradition and ancestry:

Jews
  Gruzim
Jump to: navigation, search Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ...


Related by language:
Georgians

The Gruzim are Jews from the nation of Georgia, in the Caucasus. The word Gruzim comes from the Russian term Грузинские евреи (Gruzinskie Yevreyi, i.e., "Georgian Jews"). The Georgian name for the community is Huria (ჰურია) or Ebraeli. Jump to: navigation, search The Caucasus , a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ...

Contents


Population

The Gruzim have traditionally lived separately, not only from the surrounding Georgian people, but even from the Ashkenazi community in Tbilisi. Jump to: navigation, search Georgians (ქართველი ერი (Kartveli Eri) or ქართველები (Kartvelebi) in Georgian language) are a nation or ethnic group (ethnos), originating in the Caucasus, one of the most ancient peoples of the world. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tbilisi (Georgian თბილისი) — formerly known by its old Turkish name Tiflis — is the capital city of the country Georgia, located on the shore of Kura (Mtkvari) river, at 41°43′ N 44°47′ E. The city covers an area of 350 km² (135 square miles) and has...


The community, which numbered about 100,000 as recently as the 1970s, has largely emigrated to Israel, the United States, Russia and Belgium. As of 2004, only about 10-20,000 Gruzim remain in Georgia. Jump to: navigation, search The 1970s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1970 and 1979. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Language

Jewish religion (Judaism)
Jewish principles of faith
Etymology of "Jew"  · Who is a Jew?
Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture
Jewish ethnic divisions
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Reconstructionist  · Karaite  · Other
Jewish political movements
Zionism: (Labor / General / Revisionist)
The Bund Union · Kibbutz movement
Jewish history
Jewish history timeline  · Schisms
Ancient Israel and Judah
Temples in Jerusalem
Babylonian captivity
Hasmoneans and Greece
Jewish-Roman wars · Era of Pharisees
Diaspora · The Talmudic Era
Middle Ages · Muslim Lands
Enlightenment/Haskalah · Hasidism
The Holocaust · Modern Israel
Persecution of Jews
Anti-Semitism: (History / "New")
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The traditional language of the Gruzim is Gruzinic (also called Judæo-Georgian), a variant of Georgian, characterized by a large number of Hebrew loanwords, and written using either the Georgian alphabet or Hebrew alphabet. Besides speaking Judæo-Georgian, the Gruzim speak the languages of the peoples surrounding them. In Georgia, these include Georgian and Russian. In Belgium, French, in the United States, English, and in Israel, Hebrew. Download high resolution version (1024x1180, 21 KB)Created from Image:Wikipedia blue star of david. ... Jump to: navigation, search Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Jump to: navigation, search Judaism affirms a number of basic principles of faith that one is expected to uphold in order to be said to be in consonance with the Jewish faith. ... Look up Jew on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jump to: navigation, search Who is a Jew? (Hebrew: מיהו יהודי?; transliterated as mihu yehudi) can be a complicated question because Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, and a culture, making the definition of who is a Jew vary depending on whether a religious, sociological... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... Jewish ethnic divisions: The most commonly used terms to describe ethnic divisions among Jews presently are: Ashkenazi (meaning German in Hebrew, denoting the Central European base of Jewry); and Sephardi (meaning Spanish in Hebrew, denoting their Spanish and North African location). ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Sephardim (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew SÉ™fardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazim and/or . ... This article deals with those Jewish communities indigenous to the Middle East and North Africa. ... Yemenite Jews (תֵּימָנִי, Standard Hebrew Temani, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānî; plural תֵּימָנִים, Standard Hebrew Temanim, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānîm) are those Jews who live, or whose recent ancestors lived, in Yemen (תֵּימָן far south, Standard Hebrew Teman, Tiberian Hebrew Têmān), on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. ... The Bene Israel (Sons of Israel) are a group of Jews who, in the mid-twentieth century, lived primarily in Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and parts of Pakistan. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Beta Israel (or House of Israel), known by outsiders by the term Falasha or Falash Mura (exiles or strangers), a term that they consider to be pejorative, are Jews of Ethiopian origin. ... Jump to: navigation, search The number of Jews in the world is difficult to calculate, especially given the constant debates of the definition of Jew. ... Jump to: navigation, search // Early History Tradition places Jews in southern Russia, Armenia, and Georgia since before the days of the First Temple, and records exist from the fourth century showing that there were Armenian cities possessing Jewish populations ranging from 10,000 to 30,000 along with substantial Jewish... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the history of the Jewish people in England. ... History of the Jews in Latin America. ... Jump to: navigation, search Main article: List of Jews. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... Jump to: navigation, search Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by 6 million people mainly in Israel, parts of the Palestinian territories, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Jump to: navigation, search Yiddish (Yid. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ... Jump to: navigation, search Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ... Jewish denominations: Over time, the Jewish community has become divided into a number of religious denominations, also called branches or movements. Each denomination has a different understanding of what principles of belief a Jew should hold, and how one should live as a Jew. ... Jump to: navigation, search Orthodox Judaism is the stream of Judaism which adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmud (The Oral Law) and later codified in the Shulkhan Arukh (Code of Jewish Law). It is governed by these works... Conservative Judaism (or Masorti Judaism) is a denomination of Judaism characterized by: A positive attitude toward modern culture The belief that traditional rabbinic modes of study, and modern scholarship and critical text study, are both valid ways to learn about and from Jewish religious texts. ... Reform Judaism is the first modern branch of Judaism; it developed in Germany and is now international, and the largest in North America. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a denomination of Judaism with a relatively liberal set of beliefs: an individuals personal autonomy should generally override traditional Jewish law and custom, yet also take into account communal consensus, modern culture is accepted, traditional rabbinic modes of study, as well as modern scholarship and critical... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... Jump to: navigation, search For other meanings, please see Zionism (disambiguation) Zionism is Jewish patriotism that supports the Jewish homeland in the Land of Israel where the Jewish nation originated and where Jewish kingdoms and self governing states existed at various times. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... Revisionist Zionism is a right wing tendency within the Zionist movement. ... Jump to: navigation, search A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between... Jump to: navigation, search Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (plural: kibbutzim) is an Israeli collective community. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith (Judaism) and culture. ... This entry contains a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Schisms among the Jews: // First Temple era Based on the historical narrative in the Bible and archeology, Levantine civilization at the time of Solomons Temple was prone to idol worship, astrology, worship of reigning kings, and paganism. ... Jump to: navigation, search In compiling the history of ancient Israel and Judah, there are many available sources, including the Jewish Tanakh (the Old Testament) and other Jewish texts such as the Talmud, the Ethiopian book of history known as the Kebra Nagast, the writings of historians such as Nicolaus... Jump to: navigation, search The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Beit HaMikdash בית המקדש in Hebrew) was built in ancient Jerusalem and was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ... Jump to: navigation, search Babylonian captivity, or Babylonian exile, is the name generally given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (pronunciation) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BC to 37 BC was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BC. Origin of the Hasmonean dynasty The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is... Jewish-Roman War can refer to several revolts by the Jews of Judea against the Roman Empire: The First Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the First Jewish Revolt. ... The Pharisees (from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate) were, depending on the time, a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought among Jews that flourished during the Second Temple Era (536 BCE–70 CE). ... Jump to: navigation, search Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, or Galut, exile) refers to the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout the world. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Talmud (תלמוד) is considered an authoritative record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, customs, legends and stories. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia == Jews in the Middle Ages : The history of Jews in the Middle Ages (approximately 500 CE to 1750 CE) can be divided into two categories. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, intellect, from sekhel, common sense) was a religious movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Jump to: navigation, search Hasidic Judaism (from the Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות, meaning pious, from the Hebrew root word chesed חסד meaning loving kindness) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Jump to: navigation, search Children survivors of the Holocaust before their liberation The Holocaust is the name applied to the systematic state-sponsored persecution and genocide of various ethnic, religious and political groups during World War II by Nazi Germany and its collaborators. ... Main article: Israel. ... Jump to: navigation, search Related articles: anti-Semitism; history of anti-Semitism; modern anti-Semitism This article deals with various persecutions that the Jewish people have experienced throughout history. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... This is a partial chronology of hostilities towards or discrimination against the Jews as a religious or ethnic group. ... Jump to: navigation, search The new anti-Semitism refers to the contemporary international resurgence of anti-Jewish incidents and attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of anti-Semitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse. ... Gruzinic (also known as Kivruli and Judæo-Georgian) is the traditional language spoken by the Gruzim, the ancient Jewish community of the Caucasus nation of Georgia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by 6 million people mainly in Israel, parts of the Palestinian territories, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken into by one language from another. ... The Georgian alphabet is the script currently used to write the Georgian language and occasionally other languages of the Caucasus. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


History

The Gruzim are among the most ancient communities of the Jewish diaspora, although the exact dates of their arrival are the subject of some disagreement. The various claims are that they arrived: Jump to: navigation, search Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, or Galut, exile) refers to the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout the world. ...

Some other sources give other dates, but none later than the second century C.E. It is entirely possible that the community is an amalgam of refugees from all of these historical calamities. Assyria in earliest historical times referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the city of Ashur. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew: מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʼel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʼēl) was the Kingdom proclaimed by the Israelite nation around 1050 BCE. The nation itself was formed as the Israelites left the Land of Goshen, Egypt during the Exodus at... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC - 770s BC - 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC Events and Trends 778 BC - Agamestor, King of Athens dies after a reign of 17 years and... Nebuchadnezzar (or Nebudchadrezzar) II (ca. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC - 588s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC Events and trends 589 BC - Apries succeeds Psammetichus II as king of Egypt 588 BC - Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon... Drawing of Herod the Greats Second Temple in Jerusalem A stone (2. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100. ... // Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ...


External link

  • Jewish life in Georgia from Canadian Jewish News
  • Jewish Community of Tbilisi

Resource


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gruzim - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (312 words)
The Gruzim are Jews from the nation of Georgia, in the Caucasus.
The Georgian name for the community is Huria (ჰურია) or Ebraeli.
The traditional language of the Gruzim is Gruzinic (also called Judæo-Georgian), a variant of Georgian, characterized by a large number of Hebrew loanwords, and written using either the Georgian alphabet or Hebrew alphabet.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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