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Encyclopedia > Georgia (country)
საქართველო
Sakartvelo
Georgia
Flag of Georgia (country) Coat of arms of Georgia (country)
Flag Coat of arms
Mottoძალა ერთობაშია
"Strength is in Unity"
Anthem"თავისუფლება"
"Freedom"
Capital
(and largest city)
Tbilisi
41°43′N, 44°47′E
Official languages Georgian1
Demonym Georgian
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
 -  President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili
 -  Prime Minister Lado Gurgenidze
Consolidation
 -  Kingdom of Georgia 1008 
 -  Democratic Republic of Georgia May 26, 1918 
 -  Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic February 25, 1921 
 -  Independence from the Soviet Union
Declared
Finalized


April 9, 1991
December 25, 1991 
Area
 -  Total 69,700 km² (121st)
26,916 sq mi 
Population
 -  2005 estimate 4,774,4732 (117th)
 -  Density 66/km² (128)
166/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $20.67 billion (117th)
 -  Per capita $4,400 (112th)
HDI (2007) 0.755 (medium) (95th)
Currency Lari (ლ) (GEL)
Time zone UTC (UTC+4)
Internet TLD .ge
Calling code +995
1 Also Abkhaz within the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
2 From CIA World Factbook.[1] Population figure excludes those parts of Abkhazia and South Ossetia that are not controlled by the Government of Georgia.

Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო, transliterated as Sakartvelo) is a Eurasian country, chiefly located in the South Caucasus, at the juncture of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. Georgia borders four countries: Turkey to the southwest, Russia to the north, Armenia to the south, and Azerbaijan to the east. In addition, there is a western coastline on the Black Sea. Georgia’s population is over 4.3 million, nearly 84% of which are ethnic Georgians (2002).[2] Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The official flag of Georgia is the five-cross flag, restored to official use on January 14, 2004 after a break of some 500 years. ... Georgias coat of arms was adopted on 1 October 2004. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Dzala ertobashia (Georgian: ძალა ერთობაშია, Strength is in Unity) is an official motto of Georgia. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Tavisupleba (in Georgian თავისუფლება) is the new national anthem of Georgia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (810x769, 66 KB) My work based on an original image by User:David Liuzzo. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Demographics of Georgia Population: 4,693,892 (July 2004 est. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The President of Georgia (ge: საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი) is the head of the state and commander-in-chief of Georgia. ... Mikheil Saakashvili (Georgian: ) (born December 21, 1967) is a Georgian politician and the current President of Georgia. ... The Prime Minister of Georgia is the most senior minister within the Cabinet of the Republic of Georgia. ... Vladimer Lado Gurgenidze (Georgian: ) (born 17 December 1970) is the Prime Minister of Georgia. ... Georgia has one of the world’s richest and oldest history, stretching back to the prehistoric times. ... Georgia has one of the world’s richest and oldest histories, stretching back to the prehistoric times. ... Anthem Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 (Georgia was the only Soviet republic to have an official language) Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km2 -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... The lari (Georgian: ლარი ; ISO 4217:GEL) is the national currency of the Republic of Georgia. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .ge is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Georgia. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Abkhaz is an agglutinative Georgia (in the autonomous republic of Abkhazia) and Turkey. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... South Caucasus: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan South Caucasus (also referred sometimes as Transcaucasus) is a name to the transitional region between Europe and Asia extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian seas. ... A transcontinental country is a country belonging to more than one continent. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


Ancient Georgia was the site of the kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia. The latter, one of the first countries in the world to adopt Christianity as an official religion early in the 4th century, subsequently provided a nucleus around which the medieval Kingdom of Georgia was formed in the 11th century. After a period of political, economic and cultural flourishing, this kingdom went in decline in the 13th century and eventually fragmentized into several kingdoms and principalities in the 16th century. The three subsequent centuries of Ottoman and Persian hegemony over these entities were followed by a piecemeal absorption into the Russian Empire in the course of the 19th century. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Georgia had a brief period of independence as a Democratic Republic (1918-1921), which was terminated by the Red Army invasion of Georgia. Georgia became part of the Soviet Union in 1922 and regained its independence in 1991. Early post-Soviet years was marked by a civil unrest and economic crisis. Georgia began to gradually stabilize in 1995, and achieved more effective functioning of state institutions following a bloodless change of power in the so-called Rose Revolution of 2003.[3] However, Georgia continues to suffer from the unresolved secessionist conflicts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The relations with Russia remain tense over these issues as well as Georgia’s aspiration of NATO membership.[4] In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolchis (Georgian/Laz: კოლხეთი, kolkheti; Greek: , Kolchís) was an ancient Georgian [1][2][3], state[4] [5]kingdom and region[6] in the Western Georgia (Caucasus region), which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation and its subgroups. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... A state religion (also called an established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... Georgia has one of the world’s richest and oldest histories, stretching back to the prehistoric times. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Persia redirects here. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Anthem Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... Combatants •  Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic •  Republic of Turkey •  Georgian SSR •  Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders •  Anatoli Gekker • Mikhail Velikanov • Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze •  Kazım Karabekir • Giorgi Kvinitadze • Giorgi Mazniashvili • Valiko Jugheli Strength ~50,000 (Red Army) ~35,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 5,500 Soviet soldiers Unknown, dead estimated... The Post-Soviet states, also commonly known as former Soviet republics, are the independent nations which split off from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991. ... The Georgian Civil War consisted of inter-ethnic conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1991-1992) and Abkhazia (1992-1993), as well as the overthrow of President Zviad Gamsakhurdia and his subsequent uprising in an attempt to regain power (1991-1993). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ...  NATO member states  Partnership for Peace countries  Mediterranean Dialogue countries On February 14, 2005, the agreement on the appointment of Partnership for Peace (PfP) liaison officer between Georgia and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization came into force, whereby a liaison officer for the South Caucasus was assigned to Georgia. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


Georgia is a representative democracy, organized as a secular, unitary, semi-presidential republic. It is currently a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the World Trade Organization, the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, and GUAM. The country seeks to join NATO and, in the longer term, accession to the European Union.[5] Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... UN redirects here. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... -1... The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation is an organization created on June 25, 1992, to promote cooperation between its members, hoping to transform the BSEC into a regional economic organization. ... For GUAM, an eastern European international organization, see GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development. ...

Contents

Etymology

St George slaying the Dragon. 15th century cloisonné enamel on gold. (National Art Museum of Georgia)

Georgians call themselves Kartvelebi (ქართველები), their land Sakartvelo (საქართველო), and their language Kartuli (ქართული). According to legend, the ancestor of the Kartvelian people was Kartlos, the great grandson of the Biblical Japheth. Ancient Greeks (Strabo, Herodotus, Plutarch, Homer, etc.) and Romans (Titus Livius, Cornelius Tacitus, etc.) referred to early eastern Georgians as Iberians (Iberoi in some Greek sources) and western Georgians as Colchians.[6] Image File history File linksMetadata St_George_(15th_cent,_Georgia). ... Image File history File linksMetadata St_George_(15th_cent,_Georgia). ... For alternate uses, see Saint George (disambiguation) Saint George on horseback rides alongside a wounded dragon being led by a princess, late 19th century engraving. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... Cloisonné is a multi-step enamel process used to produce jewelry, vases, and other decorative items. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Languages Georgian Religions Georgian Orthodox Christianity, Georgian Catholicism, Islam[7] Related ethnic groups Laz Abkhaz Chechens Ingushs The Georgians (Georgian: , Kartveli Eri) or ქართველები (Kartvelebi) in the Georgian language) are a nation and an ethnic group, originating in the Caucasus. ... Kartlos (Georgian: ქართლოს) was the legendary establisher and eponymous father of Georgia, namely its nucleus Kartli (cf. ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... Japheth (Hebrew. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek_speaking world in ancient times. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Titus Livius (around 59 BC - 17 AD), known as Livy in English, wrote a monumental history of Rome, Ab Urbe Condita, from its founding (traditionally dated to 753 BC). ... This article is about the historian Tacitus. ... The Caucasian Iberians were an ancient Ibero-Caucasian people (South Caucasian or Kartvelians) who inhabited the east and southeast of the Transcaucasus region in prehistoric and historic times. ... Colchians were the residents of Colchis, the westernmost part of the Republic of Georgia, bordering the Euxinus Pontus (Black Sea). ...


The origin of the name Georgia is still disputed and has been explained in the following ways:


1. Linking it semantically to Greek and Latin roots (respectively, γεωργος "tiller of the land" and georgicus "agricultural")[7]
2. Its derivation from the name of St. George. At least, popularity of the cult of Saint George in Georgia influenced the spread of the term.
3. Under various Persian empires (536 BC-AD 638), Georgians were called Gurjhān (Gurzhan/Gurjan), or "Gurj/Gurzh people." The early Islamic/Arabic sources spelled the name Kurz/Gurz and the country Gurjistan (see Baladhuri, Tabari, Jayhani, Istakhri, Ibn Hawqal, etc.). This also could evolve or at least contribute to the later name of Georgia.[8] For alternate uses, see Saint George (disambiguation) Saint George on horseback rides alongside a wounded dragon being led by a princess, late 19th century engraving. ...


The terms Georgia and Georgians appeared in Western Europe in numerous medieval annals including that of Crusaders and later in the official documents and letters of the Florentine de’Medici family.[9] Jacques de Vitry and English traveler, Sir John Mandeville, stated that Georgians are called Georgian because they especially revere and worship Saint George. Notably, the country recently adopted the five-cross flag, featuring the Saint George's Cross; it has been argued that the flag was used in Georgia since the 5th century.[10][11] The Crusaders (formerly the Canterbury Crusaders) are a New Zealand Rugby Union team based in Christchurch, New Zealand that competes in the Super 14 (formerly the Super 12). ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Jacopo Pontormo: posthumous portrait of Cosimo de Medici, 1518-1519: the laurel branch, il Broncone, was an impresa used also by his heirs. ... Jacques de Vitry (c. ... Full-page portrait of Sir John Mandeville. ... The St Georges cross, a red cross on a white background, is the national flag of England and has been since about 1277. ...


History

The territory of modern-day Georgia has been continuously inhabited since the early Stone Age. The classic period saw the rise of the early Georgian states of Colchis and Iberia. The proto-Georgian tribes first appear in written history in the 12th century BC.[12] Archaeological finds and references in ancient sources reveal elements of early political and state formations characterized by advanced metallurgy and goldsmith techniques that date back to the 7th century BC and beyond.[13] In the 4th century BC a unified kingdom of Georgia - an early example of advanced state organization under one king and the hierarchy of aristocracy, was established.[14] Georgia has one of the world’s richest and oldest history, stretching back to the prehistoric times. ... The prehistory of Georgia is the period between the first human habitation of the territory of modern-day nation of Georgia and the time when Assyrian and Urartian, and more firmly, the Classical accounts, brought the proto-Georgian tribes into the scope of recoded history. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolchis (Georgian/Laz: კოლხეთი, kolkheti; Greek: , Kolchís) was an ancient Georgian [1][2][3], state[4] [5]kingdom and region[6] in the Western Georgia (Caucasus region), which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation and its subgroups. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ...

Tondo depicting Saint Mamas from the Gelati Monastery, 14th–15th centuries
Tondo depicting Saint Mamas from the Gelati Monastery, 14th–15th centuries

Christianity was declared the state religion as early as AD 337 proving a great stimulus to literature, arts and the unification of the country. As a crossroad between Christian and Islamic traditions, Georgia experienced the dynamic exchange between these two worlds which culminated in a true renaissance around 12-13th centuries AD.[15] Image File history File links St_Mamas_tondo,_Georgia. ... Image File history File links St_Mamas_tondo,_Georgia. ... St Mamas, the lamb and the lion: icon in the church at Morphou Saint Mamas was a Christian martyr who died c. ... Gelati Monastery The Monastery of the Virgin - Gelati near Kutaisi (Imereti region of Western Georgia) was founded by the King of Georgia David the Builder (1089-1125) in 1106. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


This early Georgian renaissance, which preceded its European analogue, was characterized by the flourishing of romantic- chivalric tradition, breakthroughs in philosophy, and an array of political innovations in society and state organization, including religious and ethnic tolerance. The Golden age of Georgia left a legacy of great cathedrals, romantic poetry and literature, and the epic poem "The Knight in the Panther's Skin". This Golden Age was interrupted at its peak by the Mongol Invasion in the 13th century AD. Throughout the next six centuries, Georgia experienced repeated invasions by Persians and Turks, resulting in the disintegration of the state into several small kingdoms. Under this climate of insecurity, in 1783 Georgia signed the Treaty of Georgievsk with the Russian Empire, placing the eastern Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti under the Russian patronage. Despite Russia's commitment to defend Georgia, it rendered no assistance when the Turks invaded in 1785 and again in 1795. This period culminated in the 1801 Russian annexation of remaining Georgian lands and the deposing of the Bagrationi dynasty. King Rostevan and Avtandil go hunting. ... The medieval kingdom of Georgia first clashed with the advancing Mongol armies in 1220. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Treaty of Georgievsk established the protectorate of the Russian Empire on the Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti (in the eastern Georgia) and an alliance between the two countries in 1783. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Kartli and Kakheti under Erekle II The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti was created in 1762 by unification of two eastern Georgian kingdoms, which existed independently since the disintegration of Georgian Kingdom in the 15th century. ... The Bagratuni or Bagrationi or Bagratid royal dynasty (Armenian: Բագրատունյաց Ô±Ö€Ö„Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm, Georgian: ბაგრატიონთა სამეფო დინასტია or Bagrationta Samepo Dinastia) is a royal family whose ascendancy in Transcaucasia lasted for more than a millenium, since the 8th century until the early 19th century. ...


A few decades later, Georgian society produced a modernist nationalistic elite which united Georgian society around the dream of the restoration of their once glorious state. In 1918, this dream was fulfilled as the Democratic Republic of Georgia was established. The republic was short-lived, as in 1921 Georgia was invaded and occupied by Bolsheviks eventually being incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1922. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Georgia declared its independence in 1991, soon to be embroiled in a civil war and subsequent severe economic hardships.The bloodless Rose Revolution of 2003 installed a new, pro-Western reformist government that aspired to join NATO and attempted to bring the secessionist territories (Abkhazia and South Ossetia lost in the civil war and de facto independent ever since) back under Georgia's control. These efforts resulted in severe deterioration of relations with Russia, fuelled also by Russia's open assistance and support to the two secessionists areas. Russian military bases (dating back to Soviet era) in Georgia were evacuated, with the last remaining base in Batumi handed over to Georgia in 2007.[16] Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Anthem Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants •  Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic •  Republic of Turkey •  Georgian SSR •  Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders •  Anatoli Gekker • Mikhail Velikanov • Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze •  Kazım Karabekir • Giorgi Kvinitadze • Giorgi Mazniashvili • Valiko Jugheli Strength ~50,000 (Red Army) ~35,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 5,500 Soviet soldiers Unknown, dead estimated... CCCP redirects here. ... The Georgian Civil War consisted of inter-ethnic conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1991-1992) and Abkhazia (1992-1993), as well as the overthrow of President Zviad Gamsakhurdia and his subsequent uprising in an attempt to regain power (1991-1993). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Occident redirects here. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ...


Georgia in antiquity

Ancient Georgian Kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia
Ancient Georgian Kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia

The two early Georgian kingdoms of late antiquity, known to ancient Greeks and Romans as Iberia (Georgian: იბერია) (in the east of the country) and Colchis (Georgian: კოლხეთი) (in the west), were among the first nations in the region to adopt Christianity (in AD 337, or in AD 319 as recent research suggests.). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1312x894, 314 KB) Kingdom of Cholchis and Iberia Copyright© Andrew Andersen Source: Atlas of Conflicts File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tbilisi Georgia (country) Colchis Caucasian Iberia... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1312x894, 314 KB) Kingdom of Cholchis and Iberia Copyright© Andrew Andersen Source: Atlas of Conflicts File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tbilisi Georgia (country) Colchis Caucasian Iberia... In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolchis (Georgian/Laz: კოლხეთი, kolkheti; Greek: , Kolchís) was an ancient Georgian [1][2][3], state[4] [5]kingdom and region[6] in the Western Georgia (Caucasus region), which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation and its subgroups. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolchis (Georgian/Laz: კოლხეთი, kolkheti; Greek: , Kolchís) was an ancient Georgian [1][2][3], state[4] [5]kingdom and region[6] in the Western Georgia (Caucasus region), which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation and its subgroups. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


In Greek Mythology, Colchis was the location of the Golden Fleece sought by Jason and the Argonauts in Apollonius Rhodius' epic tale Argonautica. The incorporation of the Golden Fleece into the myth may have derived from the local practice of using fleeces to sift gold dust from rivers.In the last centuries of the pre-Christian era, the area, in the form of the kingdom of Kartli-Iberia, was strongly influenced by Greece to the west and Persia to the east.[17] After the Roman Empire completed its conquest of the Caucasus region in 66 B.C., the kingdom was a Roman client state and ally for nearly 400 years.[17] In AD 330, King Marian III's acceptance of Christianity ultimately tied the kingdom to the neighboring Byzantine Empire, which exerted a strong cultural influence for several centuries.[17] The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Jason returns with the golden Fleece on an Apulian red-figure calyx krater, ca. ... This article is about the hero from Greek mythology. ... The Argo, by Lorenzo Costa In Greek mythology, the Argonauts (Ancient Greek: ) were a band of heroes who, in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest for the Golden Fleece. ... Apollonius of Rhodes (Apollonius Rhodius), librarian at Alexandria, was a poet, the author of Argonautica, a literary epic retelling of ancient material concerning Jason and the Argonauts quest for the Golden Fleece in the mythic land of Colchis. ... The Argonautica (Greek: ) is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC. The only surviving Hellenistic epic, the Argonautica tells the myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to retrieve the Golden Fleece from the mythical land of Colchis. ... Jason returns with the golden Fleece on an Apulian red-figure calyx krater, ca. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Known to its natives as Egrisi or Lazica, Colchis was often the battlefield and buffer-zone between the rival powers of Persia and Byzantine Empire, with the control of the region shifting hands back and forth several times. The early kingdoms disintegrated into various feudal regions by the early Middle Ages. This made it easy for Arabs to conquer Georgia in the 7th century. The rebellious regions were liberated and united into a unified Georgian Kingdom at the beginning of the 11th century. Starting in the 12th century AD, the rule of Georgia extended over a significant part of the Southern Caucasus, including the northeastern parts and almost the entire northern coast of what is now Turkey. Egrisi (Georgian: ) known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Lazica and to Persians as Lazistan was an early western Georgian [1]kingdom in South Caucasus, which flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered the territory of the former kingdom Kolkha (Colchis) and the... Egrisi (or Kolkheti) was a kingdom in the western part of Georgia, which flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It was covered the territory of the former kingdom Kolkha (Colchis) and the territory of modern Abkhazia). ... The Lazic War, or Egrisi Great War as it is known in Georgian historiography, refers to the twenty-year war between Byzantium and Iran Sassanid Empire for controlling the western Georgian Kingdom of Egrisi/ Lazica in 542-562. ... Motto: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1 Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian, Constitutional status for regional languages such as Azeri and Kurdish [1] Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


Although Arabs captured the capital city of Tbilisi in AD 645, Kartli-Iberia retained considerable independence under local Arab rulers.[17] In AD 813, the prince Ashot I also known as Ashot Kurapalat became the first of the Bagrationi family to rule the kingdom: Ashot's reign began a period of nearly 1,000 years during which the Bagrationi, as the house was known, ruled at least part of what is now the republic.


Western and eastern Georgia were united under Bagrat V (r. 1027-72). In the next century, David IV (called the Builder, r. 1099-1125) initiated the Georgian golden age by driving the Turks from the country and expanding Georgian cultural and political influence southward into Armenia and eastward to the Caspian Sea.[17]

Kingdom of Georgia at peak of its military dominance, 1184-1225

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x1205, 79 KB) Kingdom of Georgia under Queen Thamar, 12th century Copyright©2004 Andrew Andersen Source: Atlas of Conflicts File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x1205, 79 KB) Kingdom of Georgia under Queen Thamar, 12th century Copyright©2004 Andrew Andersen Source: Atlas of Conflicts File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Medieval Georgia

The Georgian Kingdom reached its zenith in the 12th to early 13th centuries. This period has been widely termed as Georgia's Golden Age or Georgian Renaissance. The revival of the Georgian Kingdom was short-lived however, in 1226 Tblisi was captured by Mingburnu and the Kingdom was eventually subjugated by the Mongols in 1236. Thereafter, different local rulers fought for their independence from central Georgian rule, until the total disintegration of the Kingdom in the 15th century. Neighbouring kingdoms exploited the situation and from the 16th century, the Persian Empire and the Ottoman Empire subjugated the eastern and western regions of Georgia, respectively. View of Tiflis from the Grounds of Saint David Church, ca. ... Jalal ad-Din Manguberdi (also جلال الدین منکبرنی Jalāl al-DÄ«n MenguberdÄ« or Mankburny) was the last ruler of the Khwarezmid Empire. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Persia redirects here. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


The rulers of regions which remained partly autonomous organized rebellions on various occasions. Subsequent Persian and Ottoman invasions further weakened local kingdoms and regions. As a result of wars the population of Georgia was reduced to 250,000 inhabitants at one point. An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ...


Within the Russian Empire

Ilia Chavchavadze, leader of the 1860s national revival
Ilia Chavchavadze, leader of the 1860s national revival

In 1783, Russia and the eastern Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti signed the Treaty of Georgievsk, according to which Kartli-Kakheti received protection by Russia. This, however, did not prevent Tbilisi from being sacked by the Persians in 1795. Between 1801 and 1918 the country of Georgia was part of the Russian Empire. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Prince Ilia Chavchavadze, known as Saint Ilia the Righteous, (October 27, 1837-August 30, 1907) was a prominent figure of new Georgian literature, famous public benefactor, jurist, leader of the Georgias National-liberation movement in 1861-1907. ... Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Kartli and Kakheti under Erekle II The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti was created in 1762 by unification of two eastern Georgian kingdoms, which existed independently since the disintegration of Georgian Kingdom in the 15th century. ... The Treaty of Georgievsk established the protectorate of the Russian Empire on the Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti (in the eastern Georgia) and an alliance between the two countries in 1783. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... The Battle of Krtsanisi was fought between Persian and Georgian troops at the place of Krtsanisi near Tbilisi on September 8-September 11, 1795. ...


On December 22, 1800, Tsar Paul I of Russia, at the alleged request of the Georgian King George XII, signed the proclamation on the incorporation of Georgia (Kartli-Kakheti) within the Russian Empire, which was finalized by a decree on January 8, 1801,[18][19] and confirmed by Tsar Alexander I on September 12, 1801.[20][21] The Georgian envoy in Saint Petersburg reacted with a note of protest that was presented to the Russian vice-chancellor Prince Kurakin.[22] In May 1801, Russian General Carl Heinrich Knorring dethroned the Georgian heir to the throne David Batonishvili and instituted a government headed by General Ivan Petrovich Lasarev.[23] is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Alexander I of Russia (Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich) (December 23, 1777 – December 1?, 1825) served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... The Bagratuni or Bagrationi or Bagratid royal dynasty (Armenian: Բագրատունյաց Ô±Ö€Ö„Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm, Georgian: ბაგრატიონთა სამეფო დინასტია or Bagrationta Samepo Dinastia) is a royal family whose ascendancy in Transcaucasia lasted for more than a millenium, since the 8th century until the early 19th century. ...


The Georgian nobility did not accept the decree until April 1802 when General Knorring compassed the nobility in Tbilisi's Sioni Cathedral and forced them to take an oath on the Imperial Crown of Russia. Those who disagreed were arrested temporarily.[24] The Tbilisi Sioni Cathedral at night. ... The Imperial Crown of Russia is the crown that was used to crown Emperors of Russia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1917. ...


In the summer of 1805, Russian troops on the Askerani River near Zagam defeated the Persian army and saved Tbilisi from conquest. Sparfloxacin (spar FLOX a sin), trade names Zagam® and Zagam Respipac, is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial infections. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ...

Democratic Republic of Georgia, 1918-1921
Democratic Republic of Georgia, 1918-1921

In 1810, after a brief war,[25] the western Georgian kingdom of Imereti was annexed by Tsar Alexander I of Russia. The last Imeretian king and the last Georgian Bagrationi ruler Solomon II died in exile in 1815. From 1803 to 1878, as a result of numerous Russian wars against Turkey and Iran, several territories were annexed to Georgia. These areas (Batumi, Akhaltsikhe, Poti, and Abkhazia) now represent a large part of the territory of Georgia. The principality of Guria was abolished in 1828, and that of Samegrelo (Mingrelia) in 1857. The region of Svaneti was gradually annexed in 1857–59. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x1123, 725 KB)The Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x1123, 725 KB)The Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... The Kingdom of Imereti was established in 1455 by a member of the house of Bagration when the Kingdom of Georgia was dissolved into rival kingdoms. ... Alexander I of Russia (Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich) (December 23, 1777 – December 1?, 1825) served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... The Bagratuni or Bagrationi or Bagratid royal dynasty (Armenian: Բագրատունյաց Ô±Ö€Ö„Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm, Georgian: ბაგრატიონთა სამეფო დინასტია or Bagrationta Samepo Dinastia) is a royal family whose ascendancy in Transcaucasia lasted for more than a millenium, since the 8th century until the early 19th century. ... Solomon II (1772-1815) was the last king of Imereti from 1789 to 1810 and the last Georgian ruler from the Bagrationi dynasty. ... A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... Akhaltsikhe (old name - Lomsia and Ahıska) is a small city in southwestern Georgia, Mkhare (Province) of Samtskhe-Javakheti. ... Poti (Georgian: ფოთი, Poti) is a city in the Samegrelo province in the west of Republic of Georgia. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Guria is a region in Georgia (Caucasus), in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea. ... Samegrelo (Mingrelia) is a historic province in the western part of the republic of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi. ... Svaneti (სვანეთი. Also known as Svanetia or Svania in Russian and Western languages) is a historic province in Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country. ...


Brief independence period and Soviet era

Declaration of independence by the Georgian parliament, 1918
Declaration of independence by the Georgian parliament, 1918

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Georgia declared independence on May 26, 1918 in the midst of the Russian Civil War. The parliamentary election was won by the Georgian Social-Democratic Party, considered to be pro-Mensheviks, and its leader, Noe Zhordania, became prime minister. In 1918 a Georgian–Armenian war erupted over parts of Georgian provinces populated mostly by Armenians which ended due to British intervention. In 1918–19 Georgian general Giorgi Mazniashvili led a Georgian attack against the White Army led by Moiseev and Denikin in order to claim the Black Sea coastline from Tuapse to Sochi and Adler for independent Georgia. The country's independence did not last long, however. Georgia was under British protection from 1918-1920. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... Noe Zhordania Noe Zhordania (January 2, 1868 – January 11, 1953) was a Georgian journalist and politician. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Giorgi Mazniashvili (in Georgian: გიორგი მაზნიაშვილი) (1872-1937) was a Georgian general and one of the most prominent military figures in the Democratic Republic of Georgia. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Tuapse (Russian: , Adyghe: ТIуапсэ) is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, situated on the northeast shores of the Black Sea. ... Sochi (Russian: , IPA: [soʨɪ]) is a Russian resort city, situated in Krasnodar Krai just north of the southern Russian border. ... The term Adler, the German word for the bird of prey eagle, is both the last name of many people and an emblematic bird (notably in heraldry, bannistics, numismatics etc. ...

Prince Kakutsa Cholokashvili leader of the anti-Bolshevik uprising in August of 1924, venerated as national hero of Georgia
Prince Kakutsa Cholokashvili leader of the anti-Bolshevik uprising in August of 1924, venerated as national hero of Georgia

In February 1921 Georgia was attacked by the Red Army. Georgian army was defeated and the Social-Democrat government fled the country. On February 25, 1921 the Red Army entered capital Tbilisi and installed a puppet communist government led by Georgian Bolshevik Filipp Makharadze. Nevertheless the Soviet rule was firmly established only after the 1924 revolt was brutally suppressed. Georgia was incorporated into the Transcaucasian SFSR uniting Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The TFSSR was disaggregated into its component elements in 1936 and Georgia became the Georgian SSR. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Kakutsa Cholokashvili (right) and Gen. ... August Uprising in Georgia was an unsuccessful popular uprising against the Bolshevik occupation in the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic in August 1924. ... Sir Galahad, a hero of Arthurian legend In many myths and folk tales, a hero is a man or woman (the latter often called a heroine), traditionally the protagonist of a story, legend or saga, commonly possessed of abilities or character far greater than that of a typical person, which... Combatants •  Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic •  Republic of Turkey •  Georgian SSR •  Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders •  Anatoli Gekker • Mikhail Velikanov • Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze •  Kazım Karabekir • Giorgi Kvinitadze • Giorgi Mazniashvili • Valiko Jugheli Strength ~50,000 (Red Army) ~35,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 5,500 Soviet soldiers Unknown, dead estimated... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... Prime Minister of Georgian SSR: 1923-1928 President of Georgian SSR: 1938-1941 Categories: Georgia (country) geography stubs | Soviet Union stubs ... August Uprising in Georgia was an unsuccessful popular uprising against the Bolshevik occupation in the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic in August 1924. ... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked...


The Georgian-born communist radical Ioseb Jughashvili, better known by his nom de guerre Stalin (from the Russian word for steel: сталь) was prominent among the Russian Bolsheviks, who came to power in the Russian Empire after the October Revolution in 1917. Stalin was to rise to the highest position of the Soviet state. Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... A pseudonym or allonym is a name (sometimes legally adopted, sometimes purely fictitious) used by an individual as an alternative to their birth name. ... This article is about the Bolshevik faction in the RSDLP 1903-1912. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Soviet redirects here. ...


From 1941 to 1945, during World War II, almost 700,000 Georgians fought as Red Army soldiers against Nazi Germany. (A number also fought with the German army). About 350,000 Georgians died in the battlefields of the Eastern Front. As during this period the Chechen, Ingush, Karachay and the Balkarian peoples from the Northern Caucasus, were deported to Siberia for alleged collaboration with the Nazis and their respective autonomous republics were abolished, the Georgian SSR was briefly granted some of their territory, until 1957. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Georgian officers on horseback lead one of the Georgische Infanterie Bataillons. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... The Ingush are a people of the northern Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia. ... Karachays are Turkic people of Karachay-Cherkessia. ... The Balkarians are a Sunni Muslim Turkic people of the northern Caucasus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked...


The Dissidential movement for restoration of Georgian statehood started to gain popularity in the 1960s.[26] Among the Georgian dissidents, two of the most prominent activists were Merab Kostava and Zviad Gamsakhurdia. Dissidents were heavily persecuted by Soviet government and their activities were harshly suppressed. Merab Kostava (May 26, 1939–October 13, 1989) was a Georgian dissident, musician and poet; one of the leaders of the National-Liberation movement in Georgia. ... Zviad Konstantines dze Gamsakhurdia[1] (Georgian: ზვიად კონსტანტინეს ძე გამსახურდია, IPA: ) (March 31, 1939 — December 31, 1993) was a dissident, scientist and writer, who became the first democratically elected President of the Republic of Georgia in the post-Soviet era. ...


Post-Soviet independence

Georgian Statehood
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On April 9, 1989, a peaceful demonstration in the Georgian capital Tbilisi ended in a massacre in which several people were killed by Soviet troops. Before the October 1990 elections to the national assembly, the Umaghlesi Sabcho (Supreme Council) — the first polls in the USSR held on a formal multi-party basis — the political landscape was reshaped again. While the more radical groups boycotted the elections and convened an alternative forum (National Congress), another part of the anticommunist opposition united into the Round Table—Free Georgia (RT-FG) around the former dissidents like Merab Kostava and Zviad Gamsakhurdia. The latter won the elections by a clear margin, with 155 out of 250 parliamentary seats, whereas the ruling Communist Party (CP) received only 64 seats. All other parties failed to get over the 5%-threshold and were thus allotted only some single-member constituency seats. Image File history File links Bagrationgerbial75674. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolchis (Georgian/Laz: კოლხეთი, kolkheti; Greek: , Kolchís) was an ancient Georgian [1][2][3], state[4] [5]kingdom and region[6] in the Western Georgia (Caucasus region), which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation and its subgroups. ... Egrisi (Georgian: ) known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Lazica and to Persians as Lazistan was an early western Georgian [1]kingdom in South Caucasus, which flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered the territory of the former kingdom Kolkha (Colchis) and the... Georgia has one of the world’s richest and oldest history, stretching back to the prehistoric times. ... Tao-Klarjeti is the term conventionally used in modern history writing to describe the historic south-western Georgian principalities, now forming part of north-eastern Turkey and divided among the provinces of Erzurum, Artvin, Ardahan and Kars. ... Hereti was a historic province in eastern Georgia. ... Categories: Caucasus geography stubs | Georgia (country) ... Kartli is the largest and most populated province of Eastern Georgia. ... Imereti is a historic province in Western Georgia, situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni river. ... Anthem Dideba Zetsit Kurtheuls (Praise Be To The Heavenly Bestower of Blessings) Map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from November 1918 to May 1920. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The April 9 Tragedy (or the Tbilisi Massacre of 9 April 1989) refers to the bloody events in Tbilisi, Georgia on April 9, 1989, when peaceful anti-Soviet and pro-independence demonstrations were brutally dispersed by the Soviet army using entrenching spades and toxic gas. ... Merab Kostava (May 26, 1939–October 13, 1989) was a Georgian dissident, musician and poet; one of the leaders of the National-Liberation movement in Georgia. ... Zviad Konstantines dze Gamsakhurdia[1] (Georgian: ზვიად კონსტანტინეს ძე გამსახურდია, IPA: ) (March 31, 1939 — December 31, 1993) was a dissident, scientist and writer, who became the first democratically elected President of the Republic of Georgia in the post-Soviet era. ...


On April 9, 1991, shortly before the collapse of the USSR, Georgia declared independence. On May 26, 1991, Zviad Gamsakhurdia was elected as a first President of independent Georgia. However, he was soon deposed in a bloody coup d'état, from December 22, 1991 to January 6, 1992. The coup was instigated by part of the National Guards and a paramilitary organization called "Mkhedrioni". The country became embroiled in a bitter civil war which lasted almost until 1995. Eduard Shevardnadze returned to Georgia in 1992 and joined the leaders of the coup — Kitovani and Ioseliani — to head a triumvirate called the "State Council". is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Zviad Konstantines dze Gamsakhurdia[1] (Georgian: ზვიად კონსტანტინეს ძე გამსახურდია, IPA: ) (March 31, 1939 — December 31, 1993) was a dissident, scientist and writer, who became the first democratically elected President of the Republic of Georgia in the post-Soviet era. ... Coup redirects here. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Mkhedrioni is a paramilitary group and political organisation in the Republic of Georgia, outlawed since 1995 but subsequently reconstituted as the Union of Patriots political party. ... The Georgian Civil War consisted of inter-ethnic conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1991-1992) and Abkhazia (1992-1993), as well as the overthrow of President Zviad Gamsakhurdia and his subsequent uprising in an attempt to regain power (1991-1993). ...


In 1995, Shevardnadze was officially elected as a president of Georgia. At the same time, two regions of Georgia, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, quickly became embroiled in disputes with local separatists that led to widespread inter-ethnic violence and wars. Supported by Russia, Abkhazia and South Ossetia achieved de facto independence from Georgia. More than 250,000 Georgians were ethnically cleansed from Abkhazia by Abkhaz separatists and North Caucasians volunteers, (including Chechens) in 1992-1993. More than 25,000 Georgians were expelled from Tskhinvali as well, and many Ossetian families were forced to abandon their homes in the Borjomi region and move to Russia. Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... Dead Georgian civilian with his dog on the streets of Sukhumi, September 27, 1993 The Ethnic Cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia, also known as the Genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia (Georgian: , Russian: ) or the Massacre of Georgians in Abkhazia [1][2] — refers to the massacres [3] and forced mass expulsion... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Monument to the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin in Tskhinvali Tskhinvali (also spelled Cchinvali) (ge. ... Spa in Borjomi, before 1915 Borjomi (Georgian: ) is a town and a resort in Kartli province of Eastern Georgia with a population of 32,422. ...


In 2003, Shevardnadze (who won reelection in 2000) was deposed by the Rose Revolution, after Georgian opposition and international monitors asserted that the November 2 parliamentary elections were marred by fraud.[27] The revolution was led by Mikheil Saakashvili, Zurab Zhvania and Nino Burjanadze, former members and leaders of Shavarnadze's ruling party. Mikheil Saakashvili was elected as President of Georgia in 2004. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mikheil Saakashvili (Georgian: ) (born December 21, 1967) is a Georgian politician and the current President of Georgia. ... Zurab Zhvania Zurab Zhvania (Georgian: ზურაბ ჟვანია) (December 9, 1963 – February 3, 2005) was a prominent Georgian politician and former Speaker of the Georgian Parliament. ... Nino Burjanadze (IPA: , Georgian: ნინო ბურჯანაძე) (surname sometimes transliterated in English as Burdzhanadze or Burdjanadze), (b. ...


Following the Rose Revolution, a series of reforms was launched to strengthen the country's military and economic capabilities. The new government's efforts to reassert the Georgian authority in the southwestern autonomous republic of Ajaria led to a major crisis early in 2004. Success in Ajaria encouraged Saakashvili to intensify his efforts, but without success, in the breakaway South Ossetia. Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... The Ajaria crisis refers to a political crisis in Georgia’s Ajarian Autonomous Republic led by a local strongman Aslan Abashidze, who refused to obey the central authorities after President Eduard Shevardnadze’s was ousted during the Rose Revolution of November 2003. ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ...


Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Georgia This article describes the Politics of Georgia Georgia (საქართველო (Sakartvelo) in Georgian) has been a democratic republic since the first multiparty, democratic parliamentary elections of October 28, 1990. ...

Georgian troops in Iraq, 26 May 2006
Georgian troops in Iraq, 26 May 2006

Following a crisis involving allegations of ballot fraud in the 2003 parliamentary elections, Eduard Shevardnadze resigned as president on November 23, 2003, in the bloodless Rose Revolution. The interim president was the speaker of the outgoing parliament (whose replacement was annulled), Nino Burjanadze. On January 4, 2004 Mikheil Saakashvili, leader of the United National Movement won the country's presidential election and was inaugurated on January 25. Fresh parliamentary elections were held on March 28 where NMD secured the vast majority of the seats (with ca. 75% of the votes) with only one other party reaching the 7% threshold (the Rightist Opposition with ca. 7.5%). The vote is believed to have been one of the freest ever held in independent Georgia although an upsurge of tension between the central government and the Ajarian leader Aslan Abashidze affected the elections in this region. Despite recognizing progress the OSCE noted the tendency to misuse state administration resources in favor of the ruling party.[4] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 570 pixelsFull resolution (1756 × 1251 pixel, file size: 447 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 570 pixelsFull resolution (1756 × 1251 pixel, file size: 447 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nino Burjanadze (IPA: , Georgian: ნინო ბურჯანაძე) (surname sometimes transliterated in English as Burdzhanadze or Burdjanadze), (b. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mikheil Saakashvili (Georgian: ) (born December 21, 1967) is a Georgian politician and the current President of Georgia. ... Politics of Georgia Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberal parties | Georgian political parties ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Rightist Opposition (Georgian: მემარჯვენე ოპოზიცია, Memaryvene Opozicya) is an alliance of Georgias New Rights and Industrialists Parties. ... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... Aslan Abashidze Aslan Abashidze (Georgian: ასლან აბაშიძე) (born July 20, 1938) was the leader of the Ajarian Autonomous Republic in western Georgia from 1991 to May 5, 2004. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...


The tension between the Georgian government and that of Ajaria grew increasingly after the elections until late April. Climaxing on May 1 when Abashidze responded to military maneuvers held by Georgia near the region with having the three bridges connecting Ajaria and the rest of Georgia over the Choloki River blown up. On May 5, Abashidze was forced to flee Georgia as mass demonstrations in Batumi called for his resignation and Russia increased their pressure by deploying Security Council secretary Igor Ivanov. is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Choloki River in Georgia forms the border between the autonomous province of Adzharia and the province of Guria. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... Igor Sergeyevich Ivanov (Russian: ) (b. ...


On February 3, 2005, Prime Minister Zurab Zhvania allegedly died of carbon monoxide poisoning in an apparent gas leak at the home of Raul Usupov, deputy governor of Kvemo Kartli region. Later, Zhvania's close friend and a long-time ally, Finance Minister Zurab Nogaideli was appointed for the post by President Saakashvili. is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zurab Zhvania Zurab Zhvania (Georgian: ზურაბ ჟვანია) (December 9, 1963 – February 3, 2005) was a prominent Georgian politician and former Speaker of the Georgian Parliament. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Raul Usupov (1980-2005) was a Georgian politician and deputy governor of Kvemo Kartli region. ... Kvemo Kartli (i. ... Zurab Nogaideli (Georgian: ზურაბ ნოღაიდელი; born October 22, 1964) is a Georgian politician, the Prime Minister of Georgia. ...


Since coming to power in 2003, Saakashvili has boosted spending on the country's armed forces and increased its overall size to around 45,000. Of that figure, 12,000 have been trained in advanced techniques by U.S. military instructors.[28] Some of these troops have been stationed in Iraq as part of the international coalition in the region, serving in Baqubah and the Green Zone of Baghdad. In May 2005, the 13th "Shavnabada" Light Infantry Battalion became the first full battalion to serve outside of Georgia. This unit was responsible for two checkpoints to the Green Zone, and provided security for the Iraqi Parliament. In October 2005, the unit was replaced by the 21st Infantry Battalion. Soldiers of the 13th "Shavnabada" Light Infantry Battalion wear the "combat patches" of the American unit they served under, the Third Infantry Division. Baqubah (Arabic: ‎; BGN: Ba‘qūbah; also spelled Baquba and Baqouba) is the capital of Iraqs Diyala Governorate. ... Baghdad International Airport and the Green Zone. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The 3d Infantry Division (Mechanized) —nicknamed the Rock of the Marne— is a United States Army infantry division based at Fort Stewart, Georgia. ...


The Georgian government claims to have restored "constitutional order" in the Upper Kodori Gorge - The sole Georgia-controlled part of breakaway region Abkhazia.[29] The Kodori Gorge The Kodori Valley (also known as the Kodori Gorge) is a river valley in Abkhazia, Georgias breakaway autonomous republic which serves as the de facto boundary between the Georgian government and the secessionist-controlled territories. ...


Georgia has in the past few years significantly reduced corruption. Transparency International ranked Georgia at 79th in the world in its 2007 Corruption Perceptions Index, giving it a score of 2.8 (with number 10 being considered the best possible score).[30] This is a significant improvement on Georgia's 2005 and 2006 Corruption Perceptions Index, where it was rated joint 130th and joint 99th, respectively. On November 7, 2007, during a period of mass protests, President Saakashvili declared Tbilisi to be in a state of emergency. There had been massive demonstrations and protests by the civil opposition. The opposition has been demanding the resignation of President Saakashvili. The Georgian police used teargas, batons, water cannons and high tech acoustic weapons to clear the streets of Tbilisi. Later the same day, the President declared a state of emergency in the whole country of Georgia lasting for 15 days. The Russian government denies accusations of being involved or of interfering in the situation. President Saakashvili has rejected all demands that he resign his position, but has announced early presidential elections in January 2008, effectively cutting his term in office by a year. Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The 2007 Georgian demonstrations were a series of anti-government protests in Georgia. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... Look up Opposition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... Baton is the name of one of two leaders of the Illyrian uprising against the Romans in Pannonia in 6 AD. The term baton refers to any of several types of cylindrical or tapered instruments composed of a wide variety of materials, and of differing functions: A baton (billy, billy... Sonic and ultrasonic weapons (USW) are weapons of various types that use sound to injure, incapacitate, or kill an opponent. ...


On November 16, 2007, Prime Minister of Georgia Zurab Noghaideli announced his resignation due to poor health conditions. Noghaideli underwent heart operation in April 2007 at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital in Houston, USA which was led by the leading US surgeon Dr. Charles Frazier. is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Prime Minister of Georgia is the most senior minister within the Cabinet of the Republic of Georgia. ... Zurab Noghaideli (Georgian: ზურაბ ნოღაიდელი) (born October 22, 1964) is a Georgian politician and the current Prime Minister of the nation. ... Houston redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... This article is about the medical specialty. ...


President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili invited Vladimer Gurgenidze, MBA holder from Emory University, USA and former business executive, to succeed Noghaideli on the position of the PM on the same day. Lado Gurgenidze was formally approved on the position and granted the trust of the Parliament of Georgia on 22 November 2007. Gurgenidze implemented only two changes in the Cabinet of Georgia so far, replacing Alexandre Lomaia, the former Minister for Education and Science and new Secretary of National Security Council with Maia Miminoshvili, former Head of the National Assessment and Examination Centre (NAEC). Prime Minister also invited Koba Subeliani, former Head of Municipal Accomplishment Service to succeed Giorgi Kheviashvili, former Minister for Refugees and Accommodation. New Prime Minister and two Ministers Koba Subeliani and Maia Miminoshvili were approved on their positions on 22 November 2007 by a confidence vote of the Parliament of Georgia. The President of Georgia (ge: საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი) is the head of the state and commander-in-chief of Georgia. ... Mikheil Saakashvili (Georgian: ) (born December 21, 1967) is a Georgian politician and the current President of Georgia. ... Vladimer Lado Gurgenidze (Georgian: ) (born December 17, 1970) is the Prime Minister of Georgia. ... Master of Business Administration (MBA) is a tertiary degree in business management. ... Emory University is a private university located in the metropolitan area of the city of Atlanta and in western unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... While Executive officer literally refers to a person responsible for the performance of duties involved in running an organization, the exact meaning of the role is highly variable, depending on the organization. ... Vladimer Lado Gurgenidze (Georgian: ) (born 17 December 1970) is the Prime Minister of Georgia. ... For other uses, see Trust. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Cabinet of Georgia consists of four State Ministers and thirteen Ministers. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament to give members of parliament a chance to register their confidence for a government by means of a parliamentary vote. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Mikheil Saakashvili resigned from the position of the President on 25 November 2007 as the Constitution of Georgia requires the president stands down at least 45 days before the next election in order to be eligible for retaking part him/herself. According to Ivane Noniashvili, Head of President's Press Office President Saakashvili will re-run in Georgian presidential election, 2008.[5]. Current Speaker of the Parliament of Georgia Mrs. Nino Burjanadze took over the position until 5 January 2008 when a new President of Georgia will be announced. Mikheil Saakashvili (Georgian: ) (born December 21, 1967) is a Georgian politician and the current President of Georgia. ... The President of Georgia (ge: საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი) is the head of the state and commander-in-chief of Georgia. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The term Constitution of Georgia can refer to one of two documents: The Constitution of Georgia (country), the governing document of Georgia, a nation in the Caucasus region of eastern Europe and western Asia. ... This article is about the political process. ... A press secretary is a senior advisor (usually to a politician) who provides advice on how to deal with the media and, using news management techniques, helps them to maintain a positive public image and avoid negative media coverage. ... Presidential elections will be held in Georgia on 5 January 2008,[1] having been brought forward by President Mikhail Saakashvili after the 2007 Georgian demonstrations from the original date in autumn 2008. ... The Speaker of the Georgian Parliament is the Speaker of the House in the parliament of the Republic of Georgia. ... Mrs (or Mrs. ... Nino Burjanadze (IPA: , Georgian: ნინო ბურჯანაძე) (surname sometimes transliterated in English as Burdzhanadze or Burdjanadze), (b. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


The registration for presidential elections was officially closed on 27 November. 22 people, including the most recent president Mikheil Saakashvili, approved candidate of the united opposition Levan Gachechiladze, influential businessman Badri Patarkatsishvili, Leader of the New Right Party David Gamkrelidze, the Leader of the Georgian Labour Party Shalva Natelashvili, the Leader of Hope Party Irina Sarishvili-Chanturia and Giorgi Maisashvili put forward themselves for forthcoming elections. is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mikheil Saakashvili (Georgian: ) (born December 21, 1967) is a Georgian politician and the current President of Georgia. ... Levan Gachechiladze (Georgian: ) (born July 20, 1964) is a Georgian businessmen and Member of Parliament, and a candidate in the January 2008 Georgian presidential election. ... Badri Patarkatsishvili Badri Patarkatsishvili (Georgian: , Russian: ; born October 31, 1955 in Tbilisi) is a Georgian businessman, one of the richest men in Georgia, billionaire who started out his political career and made his important future contacts in the communist youth organisation, the Komsomol. ... David Gamkrelidze (born April 2, 1965) is the Chairman of Georgia’s Rightist Opposition, the only opposition political party to surpass the seven percent barrier necessary to enter Parliament during the March 28, 2004, elections. ... The Georgian Labour Party (Sakartvelos Leoboristuli Partia, საქართველოს ლეიბორისტული პარტია) is a political party in Georgia. ... Shalva Natelashvili (born 1958 February 17) is chairman and founder of Georgian Labour Party. ...


On 27 November it was announced that a NATO membership referendum and election date referendum will also be held on the election day together with presidential elections. [6] is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A nonbinding, advisory referendum on whether to bring forward the 2008 legislative election from October 2008 to April 2008[1] will be held in Georgia on 5 January 2008, together with an early presidential election. ...


Mikhail Saakashvili on May 22, 2008 announced his confident victory for his ruling party in parliamentary polls amid fears of political unrest, and rising tensions between Georgia and Russia. Early official results indicated his United National Movement had 63% of the votes against the opposition's 13%, with about a quarter of the 3,664 precincts.[31] Mikhail Saakashvili briefing the press at UN headquarters Mikhail Saakashvili (Georgian: მიხეილ სააკაშვილი) (born December 21, 1967, in Tbilisi) is a Georgian jurist and politician and the current President of Georgia. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Politics of Georgia Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberal parties | Georgian political parties ...


Foreign relations

Main articles: Georgia and the European Union, Georgian-Ukrainian relations, and Georgian-Russian relations
Mikheil Saakashvili (right) with George W. Bush
Mikheil Saakashvili (right) with George W. Bush

Georgia maintains good relations with its direct neighbours Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkey and participates actively in regional organizations, such as the Black Sea Economic Council and the GUAM.[32] Georgia also maintains close political, economic and military relations with Ukraine. With Georgia having recently undergone substantial reforms, President Mikhail Saakashvili has expressed his desire to see membership of the European Union as a long term priority. ... Georgian-Ukrainian relations are the relations between Georgia and Ukraine and between the Georgian and Ukrainian people in particular which lasts from the Middle Ages. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... President George W. Bush and Georgian President Mikhail Saakashvili meet in Tbilisi Tuesday, May 10, 2005. ... President George W. Bush and Georgian President Mikhail Saakashvili meet in Tbilisi Tuesday, May 10, 2005. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For GUAM, an eastern European international organization, see GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development. ...


The growing US and European Union influence in Georgia, notably through the Train and Equip military assistance programme and the construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline, have frequently strained Tbilisi’s relations with Russia. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline (sometimes abbreviated as BTC pipeline) transports crude petroleum 1,776 km from the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Georgia is currently working to become a full member of NATO. In August of 2004, the Individual Partnership Action Plan of Georgia was submitted officially to NATO. On October 29, 2004, the North Atlantic Council of NATO approved the Individual Partnership Action Plan (IPAP) of Georgia and Georgia moved on to the second stage of Euro-Atlantic Integration. In 2005, by the decision of the President of Georgia, a state commission was set up to implement the Individual Partnership Action Plan, which presents an interdepartmental group headed by the Prime Minister. The Commission was tasked with coordinating and controlling the implementation of the Individual Partnership Action Plan. On February 14, 2005, the agreement on the appointment of Partnership for Peace (PfP) liaison officer between Georgia and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization came into force, whereby a liaison officer for the South Caucasus was assigned to Georgia. On March 2, 2005, the agreement was signed on the provision of the host nation support to and transit of NATO forces and NATO personnel. On March 6-9, 2006, the IPAP implementation interim assessment team arrived in Tbilisi. On April 13, 2006, the discussion of the assessment report on implementation of the Individual Partnership Action Plan was held at NATO Headquarters, within 26+1 format.[33] In 2006, the Georgian parliament voted unanimously for the bill which calls for integration of Georgian into NATO. The majority of Georgians and politicians in Georgia support the push for NATO membership. Currently, it is expected that Georgia will join NATO in 2009. This article is about the military alliance. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... North Atlantic Council is the most senior political governing body of NATO. The NAC can be held at the Permanent Representative Level (PermReps), or can be comprised of member states Ministers of State, Defense, or Heads of State. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The President of Georgia (ge: საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი) is the head of the state and commander-in-chief of Georgia. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... -1... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


George W. Bush became the first sitting U.S. president to visit the country.[34] The street leading to Tbilisi International Airport has since been dubbed George W. Bush Avenue.[35] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Tbilisi International Airport (Georgian: ) (IATA: TBS, ICAO: UGTB) is a main international airport in Georgia located near the capital Tbilisi. ...


From the European commission website: President Saakashvili views membership of the EU and NATO as a long term priority. As he does not want Georgia to become an arena of Russia-US confrontation he seeks to maintain close relations with the United States and European Union, at the same time underlining his ambitions to advance co-operation with Russia.[36] Mikhail Saakashvili briefing the press at UN headquarters Mikhail Saakashvili (Georgian: მიხეილ სააკაშვილი) (born Thursday, December 21, 1967), Georgian jurist and politician, is the President of Georgia. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


On October 2, 2006, Georgian and the European Union signed a joint statement on the agreed text of the Georgia-European Union Action Plan within the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The Action Plan was formally approved at the EU-Georgia Cooperation Council session on November 14, 2006 in Brussels.[37] is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Neighbourhood is the region beyond the frontier of the European Union. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ...


On February 2, 2007, Georgia officially became the most recent regional member of the Asian Development Bank. They currently hold 12,081 shares in the bank, 0.341 percent of the total. is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established in 1966 to promote economic and social development in Asian and Pacific countries through loans and technical assistance. ...

See also: Georgia and NATO

 NATO member states  Partnership for Peace countries  Mediterranean Dialogue countries On February 14, 2005, the agreement on the appointment of Partnership for Peace (PfP) liaison officer between Georgia and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization came into force, whereby a liaison officer for the South Caucasus was assigned to Georgia. ...

Regions, republics, and districts

Georgia is divided into two autonomous republics (Georgian: ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა) and nine regions (Georgian: მხარე, mkhare). ...

Mtskheta-
Mtianeti
Racha-Lechkhumi
and Kvemo Svaneti
Samegrelo-
Zemo Svaneti
Samtskhe-
Javakheti

Georgia is divided into nine regions, two autonomous republics (avtonomiuri respublika), and one city (k'alak'i). The regions are further subdivided into 69 districts (raioni). Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... Guria is a region in Georgia (Caucasus), in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea. ... Imereti is a historic province in Western Georgia, situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni river. ... Categories: Caucasus geography stubs | Georgia (country) ... Kvemo Kartli (i. ... Mtskheta-Mtianeti is a region in eastern Georgia (country) comprising the town of Mtskheta, which serves as a regional capital, together with its district and the adjoining mountainous areas. ... Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti is a region in northwestern Georgia which includes the historical provinces of Racha, Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti (i. ... Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti is a region in western Georgia (country) which includes the historical Georgian provinces of Samegrelo (Mingrelia) and Zemo Svaneti (i. ... Samtskhe-Javakheti (Georgian: ) is a region in southern Georgia, with Akhaltsikhe as its capital. ... Shida Kartli is a region of Eastern Georgia. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Armenia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country in Eurasia. ... Anthem Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages Russian official throughout nation; thirty others co-official in various regions Government Semi-presidential federal republic  -  President Vladimir Putin  -  Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Formation  -  Declared June 12, 1990   -  Finalized December 25, 1991  Area  -  Total 17,075,400... This article is about the Republic of Turkey. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... Georgia is divided into two autonomous republics (Georgian: ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა) and ten regions (Georgian: მხარე). The autonomous republics (Abkhazia and Ajaria) were established during the soviet regime and are recognized by the modern Georgian Constitution. ...

Currently, the status of South Ossetia, a former autonomous administrative district, also known as the Tskhinvali region, is being negotiated with the Russian-supported separatist government. Recently these negotiations have more or less broken down in light of Russian decisions to reinforce the region militarily and grant South Ossetians Russian passports. The government of Georgia has expressed that it views these moves as attempts by Russia to effectively annex the region. The Georgian government levels the same criticism against Russian involvement in another of its breakaway regions, Abkhazia. Abkhazia has the status of an autonomous republic, but operates as a defacto state. This condition follows the ethnic cleansing of at least 200,000 Georgians in the War in Abkhazia in 1992-1993. Upper Kodori Gorge is the only part of Abkhazia that remains under effective Georgian control. Ajaria gained autonomy unilaterally under local strongman Aslan Abashidze with help from a Russian military brigade located on a base in Ajaria. Current Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili restored the region to Georgian control after a local uprising against Abashidze's perceived corruption.

The Districts of Georgia are: Abasha, Adigeni, Akhalgori, Akhalkalaki, Akhaltsikhe, Akhmeta, Ambrolauri, Aspindza, Baghdati, Batumi, Bolnisi, Borjomi, Chiatura, Chkhorotsku, Chokhatauri, Dedoplistskaro, Dmanisi, Dusheti, Gagra, Gali, Gardabani, Gori, Gudauta, Gulripshi, Gurjaani, Java, Kareli, Kaspi, Kedi, Kharagauli, Khashuri, Khelvachauri, Khobi, Khoni, Khulo, Kobuleti, Kutaisi, Kvareli, Lagodekhi, Lanchkhuti, Lentekhi, Marneuli, Martvili, Mestia, Mtskheta, Ninotsminda, Oni, Ozurgeti, Poti, Rustavi, Sachkhere, Sagarejo, Samtredia, Senaki, Shuakhevi, Sighnaghi, Sukhumi, Stepantsminda, Telavi, Terjola, Tetritskaro, Tianeti, Tkibuli, Tsageri, Tskhinvali, Tsalenjikha, Tsalka, Tskaltubo, Vani, Zestaponi, and Zugdidi. Guria is a region in Georgia (Caucasus), in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea. ... Imereti is a historic province in Western Georgia, situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni river. ... Categories: Caucasus geography stubs | Georgia (country) ... Kvemo Kartli (i. ... Mtskheta-Mtianeti is a region in eastern Georgia (country) comprising the town of Mtskheta, which serves as a regional capital, together with its district and the adjoining mountainous areas. ... Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti is a region in northwestern Georgia which includes the historical provinces of Racha, Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti (i. ... Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti is a region in western Georgia (country) which includes the historical Georgian provinces of Samegrelo (Mingrelia) and Zemo Svaneti (i. ... Samtskhe-Javakheti (Georgian: ) is a region in southern Georgia, with Akhaltsikhe as its capital. ... Shida Kartli is a region of Eastern Georgia. ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... Monument to the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin in Tskhinvali Tskhinvali (also spelled Cchinvali) (ge. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Combatants Abkhaz separatists Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus Russian Cossacks Russian Forces1 Georgian Interior and Defense Ministry forces Paramilitary groups and volunteer battalions Commanders Iysuph Soslanbekov, Musa Shanibov, Shamil Basaev, Beslan Barghandjia, Anri Djergenia Geno Adamia, Guram Gubelashvili, Gia Kharkharashvili, Davit Tevzadze, Soso Akhalaia Casualties ~2,500-4... The Kodori Gorge The Kodori Valley (also known as the Kodori Gorge) is a river valley in Abkhazia, Georgias breakaway autonomous republic which serves as the de facto boundary between the Georgian government and the secessionist-controlled territories. ... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... Aslan Abashidze Aslan Abashidze (Georgian: ასლან აბაშიძე) (born July 20, 1938) was the leader of the Ajarian Autonomous Republic in western Georgia from 1991 to May 5, 2004. ... Mikheil Saakashvili (Georgian: ) (born December 21, 1967) is a Georgian politician and the current President of Georgia. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... Absaha can refer to: Abasha - district in Georgia Abasha - town in Georgia, center of district Abasha This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Adigeni (Georgian:ადიგენი) is a county district of south-western Georgia covering an area of about 800 km². As of 2002 it had a population of 20,752 people Categories: | ... Map of South Ossetia showing Akhalgori in the south-east of the unrecognized republic Akhalgori is a district of Georgia controlled by the Post-Soviet internationally unrecognized republic of South Ossetia, which still denominates the place by their former Russian name — Leninogorsk. ... Akhalkalaki (Georgian for New City) is a small Armenian (and old) city in the Georgias southern region of Javakheti. ... Akhaltsikhe (old name - Lomsia and Ahıska) is a small city in southwestern Georgia, Mkhare (Province) of Samtskhe-Javakheti. ... Alaverdi Akhmeta is a very old village in the Kakheti province of Georgia. ... Ambrolauri is a town in western Georgia which serves as a regional capital of Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti. ... Aspindza is a town in southern Georgia, in the Caucasus Mountains. ... Baghdati is a town of 31,000 people in the Imereti region of western Georgia, at the edge of the Ajameti forest. ... A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... Bolnisi is a city in the country of Georgia. ... Spa in Borjomi, before 1915 Borjomi (Georgian: ) is a town and a resort in Kartli province of Eastern Georgia with a population of 32,422. ... Chiatura is a city in Imereti region of Western Georgia. ... Chokhatauri (Georgian: ) is a town in Georgia’s Guria region, 310 km west to the nation’s capital of Tbilisi. ... Dmanisi is a site in eastern Georgia approximately 85 km southwest of Tbilisi in the Mashavera River Valley. ... Dusheti is a small town in the Mtskheta-Mtianeti province in central Georgia. ... Gagra, View from the Black Sea Gagra is a city in the Abkhazia region of western Georgia, sprawling for 5 km on the northeast coast of the Black Sea, at the foot of the Caucasus Mountains. ... Gali is a town in Abkhazia, Georgia’s breakaway region 77 km southeast to Sokhumi and bordering with the rest of Georgia. ... Gardabani (Georgian: ) is a city in the Georgian province of Kvemo Kartli, and the centre of the Garbabani raioni. ... Gori (Georgian: გორი) is a district (Raioni) in Georgias Shida Kartli region. ... Gudauta is a town in Georgia’s breakaway region Abkhazia. ... Gulripshi (, Georgian: , Russian: ) is an urban settlement in Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic within the internationally recognised borders of Georgia. ... Gurjaani (Georgian: ) is a town in Georgia, located in the region of Kakheti and serving as a center of the Gurjaani district. ... Java (Georgian: ჯავა) is a district (Raioni) in Georgias Shida Kartli region. ... Kareli (Georgian: ქარელი) is a district (Raioni) in Georgias Shida Kartli region. ... Kaspi (Georgian: კასპი) is a district (Raioni) in Georgias Shida Kartli region. ... Kedi (2006) is a Tamil film directed by debutant Jyothi Krishna. ... Kharagauli is a village in Western Georgian region of Imereti. ... Khashuri (Georgian: ხაშური) is a district (Raioni) in Georgias Shida Kartli region. ... Khelvachauri (Georgian: ) is a small town in Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia, 8 km southeast to the regional capital Batumi. ... Khobi is a town in the Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti region, Georgia Khobi is a river on which the town of Khobi is situated This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Khoni is a town in the Western Georgian province of Imereti. ... Khulo (Georgian: ) is a small town in Ajaria, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia, 88 km east to the regional capital Batumi. ... Kobuleti is a town in Georgias southwestern region of Ajaria. ... Kutaisi (Georgian: ; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kutatisi, Kutaïssi ) is Georgias second largest city in the western province of Imereti. ... Kvareli is a town in northeastern in Kakheti Province, Georgia. ... Lagodekhi, a small town and district in eastern Georgia, bordering Azerbaijan. ... Lanchkhuti is a town in Western Georgian region of Guria. ... Lentekhi is a small town and Lentekhi District’s (Raion) capital in Georgia’s western region of Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, 323 km northwest to the nation’s capital Tbilisi. ... Marneuli is a small city in southern Georgia. ... Martvili is a village in Samegrelo province of Western Georgia. ... The town of Mestia. ... Mtskheta is one of oldest cities of the republic of Georgia (in Kartli province of Eastern Georgia), near Tbilisi. ... Ninotsminda is located in Georgias southern district of Samtskhe-Javakheti. ... Oni is a town in the Western part of the Republic of Georgia. ... Ozurgeti is a town and the regional capital of Western Georgian province of Guria. ... Poti (Georgian: ფოთი, Poti) is a city in the Samegrelo province in the west of Republic of Georgia. ... Rustavi (Georgian: ) is a city in the southeast of Georgia, in the province of Kvemo Kartli, situated 16 miles (25 km) southeast of the capital Tbilisi. ... Sachkhere is a village at the northern edge of the Imereti region in Western Georgia. ... Samtredia was at first (in the second half of 19th century) a major rail junction in the Western Georgian region of Imereti. ... Akaki Khorava State Theater in Senaki. ... Shuakhevi is a small town in Georgia’s autonomous region of Ajaria, 67 km east to the regional capital Batumi. ... Sighnaghi (Signagi) (Georgian: ) is a town in Georgia’s easternmost region of Kakheti and the administrative center of the Sighnaghi District. ... Destroyed shop in Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... The Gergeti Trinity Church, the main cultural landmark of Stepantsminda. ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tetritsqaro is a village in southern Georgia, the name of which translates as White Spring. Categories: | ... Tianeti is a town in east-central Georgia, in the Caucasus Mountains. ... Tkibuli is a town in west-central Georgia, Imereti Region. ... Monument to the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin in Tskhinvali Tskhinvali (also spelled Cchinvali) (ge. ... Tsalenjikha (Georgian: , also transliterated as Tsalendjikha and Tzalenjikha) is a town in Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti region of western Georgia with the population of c. ... Tsalka is a city in southern Georgia, with a population of 22,000, predominantly ethnic Armenians and Greeks, with around 2,000 Azerbaijanis. ... Tskaltubo is a town in west-central Georgia. ... Vani is one of the most ancient cities of the Republic of Georgia and the administrative center of Vani district in the Imereti region of Georgia. ... Location of Zestaponi district in Georgia. ... Zugdidi is a city in the Western Georgian historical province of Mingrelia (Samegrelo). ...


The main cities of Georgia are:

Other major cities include Chiatura, Gagra, Gori, Poti, Rustavi, Sukhumi, Tkibuli, Tskaltubo, and Tskhinvali. Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... Kutaisi (Georgian: ; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kutatisi, Kutaïssi ) is Georgias second largest city in the western province of Imereti. ... A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... Chiatura is a city in Imereti region of Western Georgia. ... Gagra, View from the Black Sea Gagra is a city in the Abkhazia region of western Georgia, sprawling for 5 km on the northeast coast of the Black Sea, at the foot of the Caucasus Mountains. ... Gori Fortress as of 1642, by an Italian missionary Cristoforo di Castelli Statue of Stalin outside the Town Hall, Gori Gori (Georgian: ) is an industrial city in the Shida Kartli province of Georgia. ... Poti (Georgian: ფოთი, Poti) is a city in the Samegrelo province in the west of Republic of Georgia. ... Rustavi (Georgian: ) is a city in the southeast of Georgia, in the province of Kvemo Kartli, situated 16 miles (25 km) southeast of the capital Tbilisi. ... Destroyed shop in Sukhumi Sukhumi (Georgian: , Sokhumi; Abkhaz: , Aqwa; Russian: , Sukhumi) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent republic, which is internationally recognized as being an autonomous republic within Georgia. ... Tkibuli is a town in west-central Georgia, Imereti Region. ... Tskaltubo is a town in west-central Georgia. ... Monument to the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin in Tskhinvali Tskhinvali (also spelled Cchinvali) (ge. ...


Geography and climate

Main article: Geography of Georgia (country)
Main article: Glaciers of Georgia
Svaneti region, North-Western Georgia
Northern Georgia, Kazbegi region
Northern Georgia, Kazbegi region

In the north, Georgia has a 723 km common border with Russia, specifically with the Northern Caucasus federal district. The following Russian republics/subdivisions — from west to east — border Georgia: Krasnodar Krai, Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia-Alania, Ingushetia, Chechnya, Dagestan. Georgia also shares borders with Azerbaijan (322 km) to the south-east, Armenia (164 km.) to the south, and Turkey (252 km.) to the south-west. Map of Georgia Georgia is situated in Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia. ... Svaneti (სვანეთი. Also known as Svanetia or Svania in Russian and Western languages) is a historic province in Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Southern Federal District (Northern Caucasus) is one of the seven federal districts of Russia. ... Krasnodar Krai (Russian: , Krasnodarsky kray) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the Southern Federal District. ... Karachay-Cherkess Republic (Russian: , or, less formal, Karachay-Cherkessia ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Capital Nalchik Area - total - % water Ranked 83rd - 12,500 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 60th - est. ... The Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (Russian: ; Ossetic: Цгат Ирыстоны Аланийы Республик) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Republic of Ingushetia (Russian: ; Ingush: ГӀалгӀай Мохк) is a federal subject of Russia. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ...


Mountains are the dominant geographic feature of Georgia. The Likhi Range divides the country into eastern and western halves. Historically, the western portion of Georgia was known as Colchis while the eastern plateau was called Iberia. Due to a complex geographic setting, mountains also isolate the northern region of Svaneti from the rest of Georgia. Likhi Range or Surami Range is a mountain range in Georgia, a part of the Caucasus mountains. ... In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolchis (Georgian/Laz: კოლხეთი, kolkheti; Greek: , Kolchís) was an ancient Georgian [1][2][3], state[4] [5]kingdom and region[6] in the Western Georgia (Caucasus region), which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation and its subgroups. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... Svaneti (სვანეთი. Also known as Svanetia or Svania in Russian and Western languages) is a historic province in Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country. ...


The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range separates Georgia from the North Caucasian Republics of Russia. The southern portion of the country is bounded by the Lesser Caucasus Mountains. The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range is much higher in elevation than the Lesser Caucasus Mountains, with the highest peaks rising more than 5,000 meters (16,400 ft) above sea level. North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ...

The highest mountain in Georgia is Mount Shkhara at 5,201 meters (17,059 ft), and the second highest is Mount Janga (Jangi-Tau) at 5,051 meters (16,572 ft) above sea level. Other prominent peaks include Kazbegi (Kazbek) at 5,047 meters (16,554 ft), Tetnuldi (4,974 m./16,319ft.), Shota Rustaveli (4,960 m./16,273ft.), Mt. Ushba (4,710 m./15,453ft.), and Ailama (4,525 m./14,842ft.). Out of the abovementioned peaks, only Kazbegi is of volcanic origin. The region between Kazbegi and Shkhara (a distance of about 200 km. along the Main Caucasus Range) is dominated by numerous glaciers. Out of the 2,100 glaciers that exist in the Caucasus today, approximately 30% are located within Georgia. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mount Kazbek, one of the chief mountains of the Caucasus, is located in modern-day Georgia, dominating the town of Kazbegi near the border with North Ossetia. ... Kazbek in the Khokh Range The Khokh Range is a mountain range in the Caucasus of Georgia. ... Shkhara is the highest point in Georgia (the country) at 17,060 feet/5,201 meters. ... Janga (or Jangi-Tau) is a summit in the central part of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range. ... Janga or Jangi-Tau is a summit in the central part of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range. ... Mount Kazbek, one of the chief mountains of the Caucasus, is located in modern-day Georgia, dominating the town of Kazbegi near the border with North Ossetia. ... Mount Kazbek, one of the chief mountains of the Caucasus, is located in modern-day Georgia, dominating the town of Kazbegi near the border with North Ossetia. ... Mt. ... Mount Kazbek, one of the chief mountains of the Caucasus, is located in modern-day Georgia, dominating the town of Kazbegi near the border with North Ossetia. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Mount Kazbek, one of the chief mountains of the Caucasus, is located in modern-day Georgia, dominating the town of Kazbegi near the border with North Ossetia. ... Shkhara is the highest point in Georgia (the country) at 17,060 feet/5,201 meters. ...


The term, Lesser Caucasus Mountains is often used to describe the mountainous (highland) areas of southern Georgia that are connected to the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range by the Likhi Range. The area can be split into two separate sub-regions; the Lesser Caucasus Mountains, which run parallel to the Greater Caucasus Range, and the Southern Georgia Volcanic Highland, which lies immediately to the south of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains. The overall region can be characterized as being made up of various, interconnected mountain ranges (largely of volcanic origin) and plateaus that do not exceed 3,400 meters (approximately 11,000 ft) in elevation. Prominent features of the area include the Javakheti Volcanic Plateau, lakes, including Tabatskuri and Paravani, as well as mineral water and hot springs. The Southern Georgia Volcanic Highland is a young and unstable geologic region with high seismic activity and has experienced some of the most significant earthquakes that have been recorded in Georgia. The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Javalkheti Plateau is a volcanic plateau within the Caucasus Mountains that covers the Samtskhe-Javakheti region of Georgia, along the border with Turkey and Armenia. ...


The Voronya Cave (aka Krubera-Voronia Cave) is the deepest known cave in the world. It is located in the Arabika Massif of the Gagra Range, in Abkhazia, Georgia, Caucasus. The height difference in the cave is 2,140 (± 9) metres. The same cave set the previous record for depth at 1,710 metres in 2001 by a Russian–Ukrainian team. In 2004 the penetrated depth was increased on each of three expeditions. At that point the Ukrainian team crossed the –2000 m mark for the first time in the history of speleology. In October 2005, a new, unexplored part was found by CAVEX team, and the cave became even deeper. This expedition confirmed the depth of the cave which is now – 2,140 (± 9) metres deep. The Voronya Cave (aka Krubera-Voronia Cave) is the deepest known cave in the world. ... For other uses, see Cave (disambiguation). ... Arabika Massif is a massif of the Gagra Range, Abkhazia in the West Caucasus, by the city of Gagra. ... Gagra Range (Russian: ) is a mountain range in Abkhazia, a part of the Southern slopes of the Caucasus Major. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Grotte des Faux-Monnayeurs, Switzerland Speleology is the scientific study of caves and other karst features, their make-up, structure, physical properties, history, life forms, and the processes by which they form (speleogenesis) and change over time (speleomorphology). ...


Two major rivers in Georgia are the Rioni and the Mtkvari. The Rioni River (Georgian რიონი) is the principal river of western Georgia. ... Kura (Georgian Mtkvari, Azerbaijani Kür) is a river in the Caucasus Mountains. ...


Landscape

Tsminda Sameba church, 2200 m high, Caucasus mountains in the back, rising more than 4000 m above sea level.
Tsminda Sameba church, 2200 m high, Caucasus mountains in the back, rising more than 4000 m above sea level.

The landscape within the nation's boundaries is quite varied. Western Georgia's landscape ranges from low-land marsh-forests, cow swamps, and temperate rain forests to eternal snows and glaciers, while the eastern part of the country even contains a small segment of semi-arid plains characteristic of Central Asia. Forests cover around 40% of Georgia's territory while the alpine/subalpine zone accounts for roughly around 10% of the land. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Temperate rain forests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the mid-latitudes in areas of high rainfall. ... For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see climate) for a region above the tree-line. ... // Summary The subalpine Biome is a geographic and altitudinal region found below Tree-line and above the montane. ...


Much of the natural habitat in the low-lying areas of Western Georgia has disappeared over the last 100 years due to the agricultural development of the land and urbanization. The large majority of the forests that covered the Colchis plain are now virtually non-existent with the exception of the regions that are included in the national parks and reserves (i.e. Paleostomi Lake area). At present, the forest cover generally remains outside of the low-lying areas and is mainly located along the foothills and the mountains. Western Georgia's forests consist mainly of deciduous trees below 600 meters (1,968 ft) above sea level and comprise of species such as oak, hornbeam, beech, elm, ash, and chestnut. Evergreen species such as box may also be found in many areas. Ca. 1000 of all 4000 higher plants of Georgia are endemic in this country[38]. The west-central slopes of the Meskheti Range in Ajaria as well as several locations in Samegrelo and Abkhazia are covered by temperate rain forests. Between 600–1,500 meters (1,968-4,920 ft) above sea level, the deciduous forest becomes mixed with both broad-leaf and coniferous species making up the plant life. The zone is made up mainly of beech, spruce, and fir forests. From 1,500-1,800 meters (4,920-5,904 ft), the forest becomes largely coniferous. The tree line generally ends at around 1,800 meters (5,904 ft) and the alpine zone takes over, which in most areas, extends up to an elevation of 3,000 meters (9,840 ft) above sea level. The eternal snow and glacier zone lies above the 3,000 meter line. In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolchis (Georgian/Laz: კოლხეთი, kolkheti; Greek: , Kolchís) was an ancient Georgian [1][2][3], state[4] [5]kingdom and region[6] in the Western Georgia (Caucasus region), which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation and its subgroups. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably... Species Carpinus betulus - European Hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana - American Hornbeam Carpinus cordata - Sawa Hornbeam Carpinus fargesii - Farges Hornbeam Carpinus laxiflora - Aka-shide Hornbeam Carpinus japonica - Japanese Hornbeam Carpinus orientalis - Oriental Hornbeam Carpinus tschonoskii - Chonowskis Hornbeam Carpinus turczaninowii - Turkzaninovs Hornbeam The hornbeams (Carpinus) are a genus of relatively small hardwood... Binomial name Fagus orientalis Lipsky The Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis) is a deciduous tree in the beech family Fagaceae. ... Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... Binomial name Mill. ... Species About 70 species; see text Buxus is a genus of about 70 species in the family Buxaceae. ... Meskheti Range (Meskh/Meskhet/Meskhetian Range Adzhar-Imereti Range, Adzhar-Akhaltsikh Range) is a part of the Lesser Caucasus mountain range. ... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... Samegrelo (Mingrelia) is a historic province in the western part of the republic of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Temperate rain forests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the mid-latitudes in areas of high rainfall. ... Binomial name Picea orientalis (L.) Link The Caucasian Spruce or Oriental Spruce (Picea orientalis) is a spruce native to the Caucasus and adjacent northeast Turkey. ... Binomial name Abies nordmanniana (Steven) Spach Nordmann Fir Abies nordmanniana is a fir native to the mountains south and east of the Black Sea, in Turkey, Georgia, Russian Caucasus and northern parts of Armenia. ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ...

Shatili village in Khevsureti
Shatili village in Khevsureti

Eastern Georgia's landscape (referring to the territory east of the Likhi Range) is considerably different from that of the west. Although, much like the Colchis plain in the west, nearly all of the low-lying areas of eastern Georgia including the Mtkvari and Alazani River plains have been deforested for agricultural purposes. In addition, due to the region's relatively drier climate, some of the low-lying plains (especially in Kartli and south-eastern Kakheti) were never covered by forests in the first place. The general landscape of eastern Georgia comprises numerous valleys and gorges that are separated by mountains. In contrast with western Georgia, nearly 85% of the forests of the region are deciduous. Coniferous forests only dominate in the Borjomi Gorge and in the extreme western areas. Out of the deciduous species of trees, beech, oak, and hornbeam dominate. Other deciduous species include several varieties of maple, aspen, ash, and hazelnut. The Upper Alazani River Valley contains yew forests. At higher elevations above 1,000 meters (3,280 ft) above sea level (particularly in the Tusheti, Khevsureti, and Khevi regions), pine and birch forests dominate. In general, the forests in eastern Georgia occur between 500–2,000 metres (1,640–6,560 ft) above sea level, with the alpine zone extending from 2,000/2,200–3,000/3,500 metres (roughly about 6,560–11,480 ft). The only remaining large, low-land forests remain in the Alazani Valley of Kakheti. The eternal snow and glacier zone lies above the 3,500 metre (11,480 ft) line in most areas of eastern Georgia. Shatili Shatili (Georgian: ) is a historic highland village in Georgia, near the border with Chechnya. ... Khevsureti mountains Fortress village Shatili Khevsureti is a historic province in eastern Georgia, located along both the northern and southern slopes of the Great Caucasus Mountains. ... Likhi Range or Surami Range is a mountain range in Georgia, a part of the Caucasus mountains. ... In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolchis (Georgian/Laz: კოლხეთი, kolkheti; Greek: , Kolchís) was an ancient Georgian [1][2][3], state[4] [5]kingdom and region[6] in the Western Georgia (Caucasus region), which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation and its subgroups. ... Kura (Georgian Mtkvari, Azerbaijani Kür) is a river in the Caucasus Mountains. ... The Alazani (Georgian: ალაზანი, Azeri Qanıx) is a river that flows through the Caucasus. ... Kartli is the largest and most populated province of Eastern Georgia. ... Categories: Caucasus geography stubs | Georgia (country) ... Borjomi Gorge is a picturuesque canyon of the Mtkvari (Kura) River in central Georgia. ... For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably... Species Carpinus betulus - European Hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana - American Hornbeam Carpinus cordata - Sawa Hornbeam Carpinus fargesii - Farges Hornbeam Carpinus laxiflora - Aka-shide Hornbeam Carpinus japonica - Japanese Hornbeam Carpinus orientalis - Oriental Hornbeam Carpinus tschonoskii - Chonowskis Hornbeam Carpinus turczaninowii - Turkzaninovs Hornbeam The hornbeams (Carpinus) are a genus of relatively small hardwood... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aspen (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Corylus avellana L. The Common Hazel (Corylus avellana) is a shrub native to Europe and Asia. ... The Alazani (Georgian: ალაზანი, Azeri Qanıx) is a river that flows through the Caucasus. ... Binomial name L. Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia. ... Tusheti, or Tushetia, is a historic region in northeast Georgia. ... Khevsureti mountains Fortress village Shatili Khevsureti is a historic province in eastern Georgia, located along both the northern and southern slopes of the Great Caucasus Mountains. ... Khevi (Georgian: ხევი) is a small historical-geographic area in northeastern Georgia. ... Binomial name L. Distribution The Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine native to Europe and Asia, ranging from Great Britain and Spain east to eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains, and as far north as Lapland. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... The Alazani (Georgian: ალაზანი, Azeri Qanıx) is a river that flows through the Caucasus. ... Categories: Caucasus geography stubs | Georgia (country) ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ...


Fauna

Due to its high landscape diversity and low latitude Georgia is home to a higher number of animal species, e. g. ca. 1000 species of vertebrates (330 birds, 160 fish, 48 reptiles, 11 amphibians). A number of large carnivores live in the forests, e. g. Persian leopard, Brown bear, wolf, and lynx. The species number of invertebrates is considered to be very high but data is distributed across a high number of publications. The spider checklist of Georgia, for example, includes 501 species[39]. Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... This article deals with meat-eating animals. ... Trinomial name Panthera pardus saxicolor Pocock, 1927 The Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), or Iranian leopard is one of the subspecies of leopards thats native to western Asia, The Persian leopard is endangered through out its distribution area in the Middle East. ... Bears are big and have big ass, thats why bears are hot, and thats why cats are not. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... For other uses, see Lynx (disambiguation). ... Invertebrate is a term coined by Chevalier de Lamarck to describe any animal without a backbone or vertebra, like insects, squids and worms. ... For other uses, see Spider (disambiguation). ...


Climate

The local climate is excellent for wine-making and there are 500 different kinds of wine in Georgia
The local climate is excellent for wine-making and there are 500 different kinds of wine in Georgia

The climate of Georgia is extremely diverse, considering the nation's small size. There are two main climatic zones, roughly separating Eastern and Western parts of the country. The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range plays an important role in moderating Georgia's climate and protects the nation from the penetration of colder air masses from the north. The Lesser Caucasus Mountains partially protect the region from the influence of dry and hot air masses from the south as well. Image File history File links GrapesGeorgia. ... Image File history File links GrapesGeorgia. ...


Much of western Georgia lies within the northern periphery of the humid subtropical zone with annual precipitation ranging from 1000–4000 mm. (39–157 inches). The precipitation tends to be uniformly distributed throughout the year, although the rainfall can be particularly heavy during the Autumn months. The climate of the region varies significantly with elevation and while much of the lowland areas of western Georgia are relatively warm throughout the year, the foothills and mountainous areas (including both the Greater and Lesser Caucasus Mountains) experience cool, wet summers and snowy winters (snow cover often exceeds 2 meters in many regions). Ajaria is the wettest region of the Caucasus, where the Mt. Mtirala rainforest, east of Kobuleti receives around 4500 mm (177 inches) of precipitation per year. Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... A map showing the areas where temperate rain forest can be found Temperate rain forest in the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, United States. ... Kobuleti is a town in Georgias southwestern region of Ajaria. ...


Eastern Georgia has a transitional climate from humid subtropical to continental. The region's weather patterns are influenced both by dry, Central Asian/Caspian air masses from the east and humid, Black Sea air masses from the west. The penetration of humid air masses from the Black Sea is often blocked by several mountain ranges (Likhi and Meskheti) that separate the eastern and western parts of the nation. Annual precipitation is considerably less than that of western Georgia and ranges from 400–1600 mm (16–63 inches). The wettest periods generally occur during Spring and Autumn while Winter and the Summer months tend to be the driest. Much of eastern Georgia experiences hot summers (especially in the low-lying areas) and relatively cold winters. As in the western parts of the nation, elevation plays an important role in eastern Georgia as well, and climatic conditions above 1500 metres (4920ft) above sea level are considerably cooler (even colder) than those of the low-lying areas. The regions that lie above 2000 meters (6560ft) above sea level frequently experience frost even during the summer months. Likhi Range or Surami Range is a mountain range in Georgia, a part of the Caucasus mountains. ... Meskheti is a mountainous area and a province in the South-West of Georgia. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Georgia
Georgian twenty lari bill portraying Ilia Chavchavadze, founder of National Bank of Georgia
Georgian twenty lari bill portraying Ilia Chavchavadze, founder of National Bank of Georgia

Archaeological research demonstrates that Georgia has been involved in commerce with many lands and empires since the ancient times, largely due its location on the Black Sea and later on the historical Silk Road. Gold, silver, copper and iron have been mined in the Caucasus Mountains. Wine making is a very old tradition. This article needs to be updated. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (850x427, 124 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (850x427, 124 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Prince Ilia Chavchavadze, known as Saint Ilia the Righteous, (October 27, 1837-August 30, 1907) was a prominent figure of new Georgian literature, famous public benefactor, jurist, leader of the Georgias National-liberation movement in 1861-1907. ... National Bank of Georgia ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Fe redirects here. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Grow and harvest grapes. ...


Throughout Georgia's modern history agriculture and tourism have been principal economic sectors, due to the country's climate and topography.[1] Tourist redirects here. ...


For much of the 20th century, Georgia's economy was within the Soviet model of command economy. Soviet redirects here. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ...


Since the fall of the USSR in 1991, Georgia embarked on a major structural reform designed to transition to a free market economy. However, as all other post-Soviet states, Georgia faced a severe economic collapse. The civil war and military conflicts in South Ossetia and Abkhazia aggravated the crisis. The agriculture and industry output diminished. By 1994 the gross domestic product had shrunk to a quarter of that of 1989.[40] State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... GDP redirects here. ...


The first financial help from the West came in 1995, when the World Bank and International Monetary Fund granted Georgia a credit of USD 206 million and Germany granted DM 50 million. The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... IMF redirects here. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... ISO 4217 Code DEM User(s) Germany, Montenegro, Kosovo ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 1. ...


As of 2001 54% of the population lived below the national poverty line but by 2006 poverty decreased to 34%. In 2005 average monthly income of a household was GEL 347 (about 200 USD).[41] Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...

Rkinis Rigi (iron row) in Old Tbilisi
Rkinis Rigi (iron row) in Old Tbilisi

Since early 2000s visible positive developments have been observed in the economy of Georgia. In 2006 Georgia's real GDP growth rate reached 8.8%, making Georgia one of the fastest growing economies in Eastern Europe.[1] The World Bank dubbed Georgia "the number one economic reformer in the world" because it has in one year improved from rank 112th to 18th in terms of ease of doing business.[42]However, the country has high unemployment rate of 12.6% and has fairly low median income compared to European countries. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 690 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 695 pixel, file size: 187 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Marko Petrovic Source: [1] The permission for use of this work has been archived in the Wikimedia OTRS system. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 690 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 695 pixel, file size: 187 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Marko Petrovic Source: [1] The permission for use of this work has been archived in the Wikimedia OTRS system. ... In economics, the gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of the amount of the economic production of a particular territory in financial capital terms during a specific time period. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... World map of the Ease of Doing Business Index. ... Unemployment rates in the United States. ... The median household income is commonly used to provide data about geographic areas and divides households into two equal segments with the first half of households earning less than the median household income and the other half earning more. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


IMF 2006 estimates place Georgia's nominal GDP at US$7.76 billion. Georgia's economy is becoming more devoted to services (now representing 54.8% of GDP), moving away from agricultural sector ( 17.7%).[1] World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ...


The country has sizable hydropower resources. Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower or hydraulic power is the force or energy of moving water. ...


The 2006 ban on imports of Georgian wine to Russia, one of Georgia's biggest trading partners, and break of financial links was described by the IMF Mission as an "external shock",[43] In addition, Russia increased the price of gas for Georgia. This was followed by the spike in the Georgian lari's rate of inflation.[citation needed] The National Bank of Georgia stated that the inflation was mainly triggered by external reasons, including Russia’s economic embargo.[44] The Georgian authorities expected that the current account deficit the embargo would cause in 2007 would be financed by "higher foreign exchange proceeds generated by the large inflow of foreign direct investment" and an increase in tourist revenues.[45] The country has also maintained a solid credit in international market securities.[46] The 2006 Russian import ban of Moldovan and Georgian wines began in late-March 2006 and created a diplomatic conflict between the Republic of Moldova and Georgia on the one hand and Russia on the other. ... Not to be confused with Georgia (U.S. state) wine. ... Georgian 1 lari Georgian 2 lari Georgian 5 lari Georgian 10 lari Georgian 50 lari Georgian 100 lari The lari (Georgian: ლარი ; ISO 4217:GEL) is the national currency of Georgia. ...


Georgia is becoming more integrated into the global trading network: its 2006 imports and exports account for 10% and 18% of GDP respectively.[1] Georgia's main imports are natural gas, oil products, machinery and parts, and transport equipment. Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Petro redirects here. ... A machine is any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ...


In 2004, a 12% flat income tax was introduced in Georgia.[47] Tax collection increased significantly, thereby reducing the government's formerly large budget deficits.[citation needed] A flat tax (short for flat rate tax or proportional tax) taxes all household income, and possibly corporate profits as well, at the same marginal rate. ... A budget deficit occurs when an entity (often a government) spends more money than it takes in. ...


Georgia is developing into an international transport corridor through Batumi and Poti ports, an oil pipeline from Baku through Tbilisi to Ceyhan, the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline (BTC) and a parallel gas pipeline, the South Caucasus Pipeline. A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... Poti (Georgian: ფოთი, Poti) is a city in the Samegrelo province in the west of Republic of Georgia. ... Location in Azerbaijan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - Total 260 km² (100. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... Ceyhan is the second most populous city of the Turkish province of Adana and is an important Mediterranean port. ... The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline (sometimes abbreviated as BTC pipeline) transports crude petroleum 1,776 km from the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. ... South Caucasus Pipeline (also: Baku-Tblisi-Erzerum Pipeline or Shah-Deniz Pipeline) is a natural gas pipeline to transport natural gas from the Shah Deniz gas field in the Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea to Turkey. ...


Tourism is an increasingly significant part of the Georgian economy. About a million tourists brought US$313 million to the country in 2006.[48] There are "over 12,000 historical and cultural monuments in Georgia, four listed by UNESCO as cultural heritage sites, 103 resorts, 182 potential resort places and more than 2000 mineral springs in Georgia". [49]


Demographics

Grapevine Cross of Saint Nino from the 4th century AD
Grapevine Cross of Saint Nino from the 4th century AD

Georgians (with Adjarians, Mingrelians, Svans) form a majority, about 83.8%, of Georgia's current population of 4,661,473 (July 2006 est.).[50] Other major ethnic groups include Azeris, who form 6.5% of the population, Armenians - 5.7%, Russians - 1.5%, Abkhazians, and Ossetians. Numerous smaller groups also live in the country, including Assyrians, Chechens, Chinese, Georgian Jews, Greeks, Kabardins, Kurds, Tatars, Turks and Ukrainians. Notably, Georgia's Jewish community is one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world. Demographics of Georgia Population: 4,693,892 (July 2004 est. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Samegrelo (Mingrelia) is a historic province in the western part of the republic of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi. ... Svans The Svans are an ethnographic group of Georgians that mostly live in Svaneti region of Georgia. ... Azerbaijanis or Azerbaijani Turks, are a Muslim people who number more than 25 million worldwide. ... Abkhazians - small ethnic group, which is distinct from Georgian. ... The Ossetians (oss. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. ... The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following: A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the Peoples Republic of China (including Hong Kong and Macau) or the Republic of China (Taiwan). ... The Gruzim are Jews from the nation of Georgia, in the Caucasus. ... Kabarda, Kabard or Kabarid are simply alternative ways of referring to the Kabar people of the northern Caucasus more commonly known by the plural term Kabardin (or Kebertei as they term themselves). ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... This article is about the people. ... The Gruzim are Jews from the nation of Georgia, in the Caucasus. ...


Georgia also exhibits significant linguistic diversity. Within the South Caucasian family, Georgian, Laz, Mingrelian, and Svan are spoken. Additionally, non-Georgian ethnic groups in the country often speak their native languages in addition to Georgian. The official languages of Georgia are Georgian and also Abkhaz within the autonomous region of Abkhazia. 71% of the population speaks the South Caucasian languages, 9% - Russian, 7% - Armenian, 6% - Azeri and 7% other.[citation needed] Georgia's literacy rate is 100%.[7] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Laz language (lazuri, ლაზური or lazuri nena, ლაზური ნენა in Laz; ლაზური, lazuri, or ჭანური, chanuri, in Georgian) is spoken by the Laz people on the Southeast shore of the Black Sea. ... The Megrelian language (Megruli ena in Georgian, Margaluri nina in Megrelian), sometimes called Mingrelian, is a language spoken in northwest Georgia. ... The Svan language (ლუშნუ ნინ/შკა̈ნ lušnu nin/šḳän in Svan; სვანური ენა, svanuri ena in Georgian) is a language spoken in Northwest Georgia. ... Abkhaz is an agglutinative Georgia (in the autonomous republic of Abkhazia) and Turkey. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ...


In the early 1990s, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, violent separatist conflicts broke out in the autonomous regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which resulted in ethnic cleansing of Georgians from Abkhazia, where ethnic Georgians previously had constituted the largest single ethnic group (46% of population in 1989). Many Ossetians living in Georgia also left the country, mainly to Russia's North Ossetia.[51] Of the Meskhetian Turks who were forcibly relocated in 1944 only a tiny fraction returned to Georgia as of 2007. “Separatists” redirects here. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... The Ossetians (oss. ... Languages Turkish, Russian, Georgian Religions Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Turks, Terekeme, other Muslims of Meskheti Meskhetian Turks are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (Georgia), along the border with Turkey. ... Not by Their Own Will. ...


Georgia's net migration rate is -4.54, excluding Georgian nationals who live abroad. Georgia has nonetheless been inhabited by immigrants from all over the world throughout its independence. According to 2006 statistics, Georgia gets most of its immigrants from Turkey and China.


Today most of the population practices Orthodox Christianity of the Georgian Orthodox Church (81.9%). The religious minorities are: Muslim (9.9%); Armenian Apostolic (3.9%); Russian Orthodox Church (2.0%); Roman Catholic (0.8%). 0.8% of those recorded in the 2002 census declared themselves to be adherents of other religions and 0.7% declared no religion at all.[1] Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church is one of the worlds most ancient Christian Churches, founded in the 1st century by the Apostle Andrew. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church is one of the original churches, having separated from the then-still-united Roman Catholic/Byzantine Orthodox church in 506, after the Council of Chalcedon (see Oriental Orthodoxy). ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in Georgia (country)
Svetitskhoveli Cathedral, one of the oldest Eastern Orthodox churches in Georgia.
Svetitskhoveli Cathedral, one of the oldest Eastern Orthodox churches in Georgia.[52]

According to the Constitution of Georgia, religious institutions are separate from government and every citizen has the right of religion. However, most of the population of Georgia (82%) practices Orthodox Christianity and Georgian Orthodox Church is an influential institution in the country. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1688x1133, 169 KB)[edit] Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1688x1133, 169 KB)[edit] Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Svetitskhoveli Cathedral (Georgian: ; literally, the Living Pillar Cathedral) is a Georgian Orthodox cathedral located in the historical town of Mtskheta, Georgia, 20 km (12. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church is one of the worlds most ancient Christian Churches, founded in the 1st century by the Apostle Andrew. ...


The Gospel was preached in Georgia by the Apostles, Andrew the First Called, Simon the Canaanite, and Matthias. Iberia was officially converted to Christinaity in 326 [53] by Saint Nino of Cappadocia, who is considered to be the Enlightener of Georgia and the Equal to Apostles by the Orthodox Church. The Georgian Orthodox Church, once being under the See of Antioch, gained an autocephalous status in the 4th century during the reign of King Vakhtang Gorgasali.[54] Saint Andrew (Greek: Ανδρέας, Andreas), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is a Christian Apostle and the elder brother of Saint Peter. ... The apostle Simon, called Simon the Zealot in Luke 6:15 and Acts 1:13; and Simon Kananaios (Simon signifying שמעון hearkening; listening, Standard Hebrew Å imÊ¿on, Tiberian Hebrew Å imʿôn), was one of the most obscure among the apostles of Jesus: little is recorded of him aside from his name. ... Matthias can refer to: Saint Matthias Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor Matthias Corvinus This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... Events September 14 - Discovery of the (alleged) True Cross by Vatican City, where St. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Antioch (disambiguation). ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... Saint King Vakhtang I Gorgasali (440 – 502) was the Georgian king (mepe) of Kartli (Iberia) in 452–502 who led a lengthy anti-Persian liberation war and founded Tbilisi, Georgia’s modern capital city. ...


Religious minorities of Georgia include Russian Orthodox (2%), Armenian Christians (3.9%), Muslims (9.9%), Roman Catholics (0.8%), as well as sizeable Jewish Communities and various Protestant minorities. [55] The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ...


Despite the long history of religious harmony in Georgia,[56] there have been couple of instances of religious discrimination in the past decade (i.e. Vasil Mkalavishvili Case[57] ).


Culture

Main article: Culture of Georgia
Ancient Georgian Asomtavruli Alphabet in David Gareja Monastery
Ancient Georgian Asomtavruli Alphabet in David Gareja Monastery

Georgian culture evolved over thousands of years with its foundations in Iberian and Colchian civilizations,[58] continuing into the rise of the unified Georgian Kingdom under the single monarchy of the Bagrationi. Georgian culture enjoyed a golden age and renaissance of classical literature, arts, philosophy, architecture and science in the 11th century.[59] The Georgian language, and the Classical Georgian literature of the poet Shota Rustaveli, were revived in the 19th century after a long period of turmoil, laying the foundations of the romantics and novelists of the modern era such as Grigol Orbeliani, Nikoloz Baratashvili, Ilia Chavchavadze, Akaki Tsereteli, Vazha Pshavela, and many others.[60] Georgian culture was influenced by Classical Greece, the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire, and later by the Russian Empire which contributed to the European elements of Georgian culture. A page from a rare 12th century Gelati Gospel depicting the Nativity from the Museum of Fine Arts in Tbilisi. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Georgian alphabet is the script currently used to write the Georgian language and occasionally other languages of the Caucasus. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolchis (Georgian/Laz: კოლხეთი, kolkheti; Greek: , Kolchís) was an ancient Georgian [1][2][3], state[4] [5]kingdom and region[6] in the Western Georgia (Caucasus region), which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation and its subgroups. ... The Bagratuni or Bagrationi or Bagratid royal dynasty (Armenian: Բագրատունյաց Արքայական Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm, Georgian: ბაგრატიონთა სამეფო დინასტია or Bagrationta Samepo Dinastia) is a royal family whose ascendancy in Transcaucasia lasted for more than a millenium, since the 8th century until the early 19th century. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article is about building architecture. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Georgian (, kartuli ena) is the official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus. ... Shota Rustaveli, an artistic notion of the poet by Sergo Kobuladze (1937). ... Romantics redirects here. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Grigol Orbeliani (1804-1883) was a Georgian soldier noted for his romantic poetry. ... Nikoloz Baratashvili (Georgian: ) (4 December 1817-21 October 1844) was a Georgian poet, whoose works are considered to be the high point of Georgian romanticism. ... Prince Ilia Chavchavadze, known as Saint Ilia the Righteous, (October 27, 1837-August 30, 1907) was a prominent figure of new Georgian literature, famous public benefactor, jurist, leader of the Georgias National-liberation movement in 1861-1907. ... Akaki Tsereteli, Prince (1840-1915) was a prominent Georgian poet and national liberation movement figure. ... Vazha-Pshavela Vazha-Pshavela (ვაჟა-ფშაველა in Georgian alphabet) (July 26, 1861-July 10, 1915) is the pen-name of one of the greatest Georgian poets and writers, classic of the new Georgian literature Luka P. Razikashvili. ... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...

Georgian singer Sopho Khalvashi on Eurovision 2007
Georgian singer Sopho Khalvashi on Eurovision 2007

Georgia is well known for its rich folklore, unique traditional music, theatre, cinema, and art. Georgians are renowned for their love of music, dance, theatre and cinema. In the 20th century there have been notable Georgian painters such as Niko Pirosmani, Lado Gudiashvili, Elene Akhvlediani; ballet choreographers such as George Balanchine, Vakhtang Chabukiani, and Nino Ananiashvili; poets such as Galaktion Tabidze, Lado Asatiani, and Mukhran Machavariani; and theatre and film directors such as Robert Sturua, Tengiz Abuladze, Giorgi Danelia and Otar Ioseliani.[61] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Performing at the ESC 2007 in Helsinki. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Feast with Organ-Grinder Datiko Zemel, 1906, State Museum of Fine Arts of Georgia. ... Lado Gudiashvili (1896–1980) was a 20th century Georgian painter. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... George Balanchine (January 9 (O.S.) = January 22 (N.S.), 1904–April 30, 1983) was one of the 20th centurys foremost choreographers, and one of the founders of American ballet. ... V. Chabukiani as Othello Vakhtang Chabukiani (Georgian: ) (February 27, 1910 – April 6, 1992) was a Georgian ballet dancer, choreographer and teacher highly regarded in his native country as well as abroad. ... A georgian ballerina who made her career in Russia. ... Galaktion Tabidze (Georgian: ) (November 17, 1891 – March 17, 1959) was a leading Georgian poet of the twentieth century whose writings profoundly influenced all subsequent generations of Georgian poets. ... Lado Asatiani (1917-1943) was a noted Georgian poet. ... Anzor Abulashvili, Zurab Leshqasheli, Mukhran Machavariani, Vaja Dadianidze, Mikheil Shabtoshvili, J.I. Mukhran Machavariani (Georgian: მუხრან მაჭავარიანი) (Born April 12, 1929) is a famous Georgian poet, and member of Georgian Parliament until 2004. ... Robert Sturua1938- (Russian: Роберт Стуруа) World renowned theatre, film and opera director, based at the Shota Rustaveli Dramatic Theater in Tbilisi, with productions staged throghout the world. ... Tengiz Abuladze (Georgian: ; Russian: ) (January 31, 1924 in Kutaisi — March 6, 1994 in Tbilisi) was a Georgian film director. ... Georgi Daneliya Georgi Daneliya Georgi Danelia (Georgian: გიორგი დანელია, Russian: ; born Tbilisi, 25 August 1930) is a Russian film director of Georgian descent, who became known throughout the Soviet Union for his sad comedies (as he styles them), bittersweet as the life itself. ... Otar Iosseliani (Georgian ოთარ იოსელიანი; born February 2, 1934 in Tbilisi, Georgia) is a Georgian-French film maker. ...


Architecture

Georgian architecture has been influenced by many civilizations. There are several different architectural styles for castles, towers, fortifications and churches. The Upper Svaneti fortifications, and the castle town of Shatili in Khevsureti, are some of the finest examples of medieval Georgian castle architecture. This article describes the fortified buildings. ... Towers was a Canadian discount retail chain, which actually contained smaller shops within the large store. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Svaneti (სვანეთი. Also known as Svanetia or Svania in Russian and Western languages) is a historic province in Georgia, in the northwestern part of the country. ... Shatili Shatili (Georgian: ) is a historic highland village in Georgia, near the border with Chechnya. ... Khevsureti mountains Fortress village Shatili Khevsureti is a historic province in eastern Georgia, located along both the northern and southern slopes of the Great Caucasus Mountains. ...


Georgian ecclesiastic art is one of the most fascinating aspects of Georgian Christian architecture, which combines classical dome style with original basilica style forming what is known as the Georgian cross-dome style. Cross-dome architecture developed in Georgia during the 9th century; before that, most Georgian churches were basilicas. Georgian culture strongly emphasizes individualism, and this is expressed through the allocation of interior space in Georgian churches. Other examples of Georgian ecclesiastic architecture can be found outside Georgia: Bachkovo Monastery in Bulgaria (built in 1083 by the Georgian military commander Grigorii Bakuriani), Iviron monastery in Greece (built by Georgians in the 10th century), and the Monastery of the Cross in Jerusalem (built by Georgians in the 9th century). For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... Look up basilica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For articles with similar names and topics, see Individual (disambiguation). ... Bachkovo Monastery in Bulgaria is one of the largest and oldest Orthodox Christian monasteries in Eastern Europe. ... Iviron monastery, as seen from the path that connects Iviron to Stavronikita monastery Iviron monastery (Greek: Μονή Ιβήρων, Georgian: ივერთა მონასტერი) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery at the monastic state of Mount Athos in Greece. ... The Monastery of the Cross is a monastery dating back to the crusader era, situated in the Valley of the Cross (Emeq HaMatzlevah) in Jerusalem. ...

Akaki Khorava State Theatre in Senaki, an example of neoclassicism style with elements of barocco in Georgia. Architect Vakhtang Gogoladze.
Akaki Khorava State Theatre in Senaki, an example of neoclassicism style with elements of barocco in Georgia. Architect Vakhtang Gogoladze.

Other architectural aspects of Georgia include Rustaveli avenue in Tbilisi in the Hausmann style, and the Old Town District. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 347 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Akaki Khorava State Theatre, Senaki, Georgia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 347 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Akaki Khorava State Theatre, Senaki, Georgia. ... Akaki Khorava State Theater in Senaki. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... Shota Rustaveli (by Professor Sergo Kobuladze (1937)) Shota Rustaveli (შოთა რუსთაველი) was a Georgian poet of the 12th century, considered by many to be one of the greatest representatives of the literature of the medieval world. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ...


Art

Impressionistic painting of Old Town district of Tbilisi by Elene Akhvlediani
Impressionistic painting of Old Town district of Tbilisi by Elene Akhvlediani

The art of Georgia spans the prehistoric, the ancient Greek, Roman, medieval, ecclesiastic, iconic and modern visual arts. One of the most famous late nineteenth/early twentieth century Georgian artists is the primitivist painter Niko Pirosmani. Pirosmani's works can also been seen as early impressionistic, due to the fact that his work inspired Lado Gudiashvili and Elene Akhvlediani, who represent the more mainstream impressionism of the twentieth century. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 795 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1810 × 1365 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)The art work depicting Old Tbilisi by Elene Akhvlediani. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 795 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1810 × 1365 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)The art work depicting Old Tbilisi by Elene Akhvlediani. ... See also Impressionist (entertainment): A girl with a watering can by Renoir, 1876 Impressionism was a 19th century art movement, which began as a private association of Paris-based artists who exhibited publicly in 1874. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Primitive communism, according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is the original society of humanity. ... Feast with Organ-Grinder Datiko Zemel, 1906, State Museum of Fine Arts of Georgia. ... Lado Gudiashvili (1896–1980) was a 20th century Georgian painter. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Cuisine

Main article: Georgian cuisine
Mtsvadi (Georgian Pork Barbecue) on the grill
Mtsvadi (Georgian Pork Barbecue) on the grill

Georgian cuisine and wine have evolved through the centuries, adapting traditions in each era. One of the most unusual traditions of dining is Supra, or Georgian table, which is also a way of socializing with friends and extended family. The head of Supra is known as Tamada. He also conducts the highly philosophical toasts, and makes sure that everyone is enjoying themselves. Various historical regions of Georgia are known for their particular dishes: for example, Khinkali (meat dumplings), from eastern mountainous Georgia, and Khachapuri, mainly from Imereti, Mingrelia and Adjara. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Not to be confused with Georgia (U.S. state) wine. ... The sculpture of a man holding a horn in Tbilisi modeled on an ancient Colchian statuette affectionately monikered as tamada. A tamada is the toastmaster at a Georgian supra or feast. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Khachapuri (Georgian ხაჭაპური xač’ap’uri) is a filled bread dish from Georgia (in the Caucasus). ... Imereti is a historic province in Western Georgia, situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Rioni river. ... Mingrelia (Samegrelo in Georgian) is a historic province in the western part of the republic of Georgia, formerly also known as Odishi. ... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ...


In addition to traditional Georgian dishes, the foods of other countries have been brought to Georgia by immigrants from Russia, Greece, and recently China.


Sport

Main article: Sport in Georgia (country)
Ancient Georgian iconic art depicting wrestling
Ancient Georgian iconic art depicting wrestling

Among the most popular sports in Georgia are football, basketball, rugby union, wrestling, hockey and weightlifting. Historically, Georgia has been famous for its physical education; it is known that the Romans were fascinated with Georgians' physical qualities after seeing the training techniques of ancient Iberia.[62] Wrestling remains a historically important sport of Georgia, and some historians think that the Greco-Roman style of wrestling incorporates many Georgian elements.[63] Within Georgia, one of the most popularized styles of wrestling is the Kakhetian style. However, there were a number of other styles in the past that are not as widely used today. For example, the Khevsureti region of Georgia has three different styles of wrestling. Other popular sports in 19th century Georgia were polo, and lelo, a traditional Georgian game later replaced by rugby union. Ancient Georgian iconic art depicting wrestling Historically, Georgia has been famous for its physical education; it is known that the Romans were fascinated with Georgians physical qualities after seeing the training techniques of ancient Iberia. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 496 pixelsFull resolution (1780 × 1104 pixel, file size: 734 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took the photo I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 496 pixelsFull resolution (1780 × 1104 pixel, file size: 734 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took the photo I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Savior Not Made By Hands (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) An icon (from Greek εικων, eikon, image) is an artistic visual representation or symbol of anything considered holy and divine, such as God, saints or deities. ... Soccer redirects here. ... This article is about the sport. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... Hockey is any of a family of sports in which two teams compete by trying to maneuver a ball, or a hard, round disc called a puck, into the opponents net or goal, using a hockey stick. ... -1... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... The Greco-Roman period of history refers to the culture of the peoples who were incorporated into the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... Khevsureti mountains Fortress village Shatili Khevsureti is a historic province in eastern Georgia, located along both the northern and southern slopes of the Great Caucasus Mountains. ... For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ... Lelo is a port-type wine made from the Tsitska and Tsolikauri grape varieties grown in Zestaphoni, Terdzhola, Mayakovski and Vani districts. ...


See also

Georgia (country) Portal

Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia_(bordered). ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Since the Rose Revolution, the peoples uprising of 2003, human rights in Georgia have drawn closer to acceptable standards. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 554,000 (1995) Telephones - mobile cellular: 150 (1995) Telephone system: domestic: Country has two cellular telephone networks of GSM 900/1800 standard: MagtiCom LTD (http://www. ... The Media in Georgia is relatively accessible and caters to a wide variety of audiences. ... The Georgians (ქართველი ერი (Kartveli Eri) or ქართველები (Kartvelebi) in the Georgian language) are a nation or an ethnic group, originating in the Caucasus. ... For the term Caucasian referring to all white people, see Caucasian race. ... The Georgian Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the Government generally respects this right in practice. ... // The Georgian armed forces comprise of 28,000 troops, about half are conscripts. ... Public holidays in Georgia include the following (Labour Code of Georgia, Article 64). ... State decorations are medals and orders granted by the Government of Georgia for meritorious achievements in national defense, state improvement, and development of democracy and human rights. ... The transport network in Georgia is in poor condition and disrupted by ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages; network lacks maintenance and repair (source: CIA World Factbook 2000). ...

Gallery of Georgia

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Georgia, from CIA World Factbook
  2. ^ Department of Statistics under Ministry of Economic Development of Georgia. Statistical Yearbook of Georgia: 2007, p. 22. Tbilisi, 2008.
  3. ^ Parsons, Robert (2008-01-11), "Mikheil Saakashvili’s bitter victory", openDemocracy.net. Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
  4. ^ Cutler, David & Balmforth, Richard (2008-05-21), "Timeline – Events leading to Georgia's election", Thomson Reuters. Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
  5. ^ Foreign Policy Strategy 2006-2009, pp. 9-10. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia. Retrieved on 2006-06-27.
  6. ^ Braund, David. Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC-AD 562, pp. 17-18
  7. ^ Wilson, Nigel Guy (2006). Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. Routledge, 320. ISBN 0415973341. 
  8. ^ A New Theory on the Etymology of the Designations of the Georgians
  9. ^ Hibbert, Christopher. The House of Medici: Its Rise and Fall.
  10. ^ David Marshall Lang, The Georgians, (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Inc., 1966), 17-18.
  11. ^ St. Nino And The Conversion Of Georgia
  12. ^ Phoenix: The Peoples of the Hills: Ancient Ararat and Caucasus by Charles Burney , David Marshall Lang, Phoenix Press; New Ed edition (December 31, 2001)
  13. ^ Phoenix: The Peoples of the Hills: Ancient Ararat and Caucasus by Charles Burney, David Marshall Lang, Phoenix Press; New Ed edition (December 31, 2001)
  14. ^ Lives and Legends of the Georgian Saints, St Vladimirs Seminary Pr; N.e.of 2r.e. edition (March 1997) by David Marshall Lang
  15. ^ Sketches of Georgian Church History by Theodore Edward Dowling
  16. ^ Russia Hands Over Batumi Military Base to Georgia. Civil Georgia, Tbilisi. 2007-11-13.
  17. ^ a b c d e "Christianity and the Georgian Empire" (early history) Library of Congress, March 1994, webpage: LCweb2-ge0015.
  18. ^ Gvosdev (2000), p. 85
  19. ^ Avalov (1906), p. 186
  20. ^ Gvosdev (2000), p. 86
  21. ^ Lang (1957), p. 249
  22. ^ Lang (1957), p. 251
  23. ^ Lang (1957), p. 247
  24. ^ Lang (1957), p. 252
  25. ^ Anchabadze (2005), p. 29
  26. ^ Socialism in Georgian Colors: The European Road to Social Democracy, 1883-1917 by Stephen F. Jones
  27. ^ EurasiaNet Eurasia Insight - Georgia’s Rose Revolution: Momentum and Consolidation
  28. ^ * http://www.kyivpost.com/bn/24927/ - "Georgian president proposes military reserve system for defense, disaster response"
  29. ^ Tbilisi prepares to send Abkhaz government-in-exile to Kodori, Zaal Anjaparidze
  30. ^ Corruption Perceptions Index 2007. Transparency International. Accessed on September 27, 2007
  31. ^ news.bbc.co.uk, Georgian leader set for poll win
  32. ^ redirect
  33. ^ Georgia's way to NATO
  34. ^ BBC NEWS | Europe | Bush praises Georgian democracy
  35. ^ Bush Heads to Europe for G - 8 Summit, The New York Times
  36. ^ redirect
  37. ^ EU, Georgia Sign ENP Action Plan, Civil Georgia, October 2, 2006.
  38. ^ Endemic Species of the Caucasus
  39. ^ Caucasian Spiders » CHECKLISTS & MAPS
  40. ^ The EBDR country factsheet - [1].
  41. ^ The World Bank's Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Program progress report - [2].
  42. ^ World Bank Economy Rankings.
  43. ^ IMF Mission Press Statement at the Conclusion of a Staff Visit to Georgia. June 1, 2007.
  44. ^ Central Bank Chief Reports on Inflation. Civil Georgia, Tbilisi. 2007-05-10.
  45. ^ Statement by IMF Staff Mission to Georgia, Press Release No. 06/276. December 15, 2006.
  46. ^ Sweet Georgia. The Financial Times - [3]
  47. ^ The Financial Times - Flat taxes could be a flash in the pan, IMF research says
  48. ^ UNTWO (June 2007). UNTWO World Tourism Barometer, Vol.5 No.2 (PDF). Retrieved on 2008-03-26.
  49. ^ Invest in Georgia
  50. ^ This figure includes the territories currently out of the Georgian government's control – Abkhazia and South Ossetia – whose total population, as of 2005, is estimated by the State Department of Statistics of Georgia at 227,200 (178,000 in Abkhazia plus 49,200 in South Ossetia). Statistical Yearbook of Georgia, 2005: Population (607kb, Microsoft Word Document).
  51. ^ Human Rights Watch/Helsinki, RUSSIA. THE INGUSH-OSSETIAN CONFLICT IN THE PRIGORODNYI REGION, May 1996.
  52. ^ The Early Church, Henry Chadwick, p. 34
  53. ^ Riassophore, Adrian monk. "A brief history of Orthodox Christian Georgia." Orthodox Word, 2006: p. 11.
  54. ^ Riassophore, Adrian monk. "A brief history of Orthodox Christian Georgia." Orthodox Word, 2006: p. 11.
  55. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Georgia
  56. ^ Spilling, Michael. Georgia (Cultures of the world). 1997
  57. ^ Memorandum to the U.S. Government on Religious Violence in the Republic of Georgia (Human Rights Watch August 2001)
  58. ^ Georgia : in the mountains of poetry 3rd rev. ed., Nasmyth, Peter
  59. ^ Studies in medieval Georgian historiography: early texts and European contexts, Rapp, Stephen
  60. ^ Lang David, Georgians
  61. ^ Lang David, Georgians
  62. ^ Romans erected the statue of the Iberian King Pharsman after he demonstrated Georgian training methods during his visit to Rome; Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXIX, 15.3
  63. ^ Williams, Douglas. Georgia in my Heart, 1999.

World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikinews has related news: Thomson Corporation and Reuters agree to merge Thomson-Reuters Corporation is the name of a media company that will be created when The Thomson Corporation and Reuters merge. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Founded in 1991, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) uses the tools of investment to help build market economies and democracies in 27 countries from central Europe to central Asia. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cabinet of Georgia was first formed by Noe Zhordania in terms of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in 1918. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ...

References

  • Anchabadze, George: History of Georgia: A Short Sketch, Tbilisi 2005 ISBN 99928-71-59-8
  • Avalov, Zurab: Prisoedinenie Gruzii k Rossii, Montvid, S.-Peterburg 1906
  • Gvosdev, Nikolas K.: Imperial policies and perspectives towards Georgia: 1760-1819, Macmillan, Basingstoke 2000, ISBN 0-312-22990-9
  • Lang, David M.: The last years of the Georgian Monarchy: 1658-1832, Columbia University Press, New York 1957
  • Suny, Ronald Grigor: The Making of the Georgian Nation, (2nd Edition), Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1994, ISBN 0-253-35579-6

Further reading

  • Bradt Guide: Georgia Tim Burford
  • Claws of the Crab: Georgia and Armenia in Crisis Stephen Brook
  • Enough!: The Rose Revolution in the Republic of Georgia 2003 Zurab Karumidze and James V. Wertshtor
  • Georgia: A Sovereign Country in the Caucasus Roger Rosen
  • Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BC–AD 562 Braund, David, 1994. Clarendon Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-814473-3
  • Georgia: In the Mountains of Poetry Peter Nasmyth
  • Please Don't Call It Soviet Georgia: A Journey Through a Troubled Paradise Mary Russell
  • The Georgian Feast: The Vibrant Culture and Savory Food of the Republic of Georgia Darra Goldstein
  • Lonely Planet World Guide: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan
  • Organized Crime and Corruption in Georgia Louise Shelley, Erik Scott, Anthony Latta, eds. Routledge: Oxford.
  • Stories I Stole Wendell Steavenson

External links

Georgia (country) Portal
Find more about Georgia (country) on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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  • President of Georgia
  • Government of Georgia
  • Department of Tourism and Resorts
  • Georgian Incoming Tour Operators’ Association
  • Wikimedia Atlas of Georgia
  • Georgia (country) travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Wikia has a wiki on this subject: Georgia
  • Georgia entry at The World Factbook
  • Georgia (country) at the Open Directory Project
  • Full information about (country) Georgia (In English, German, Russian and Georgian)
  • Georgia News

The Black Sea Naval Co-operation Task Group (BLACKSEAFOR), was created in early 2001 under the leadership of Turkey, with the participation of all other Black Sea littoral states, namely Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russia and Georgia. ... Structure of the Georgian Land Forces (click to enlarge) The Georgian armed forces were established in the early 1990s from former Soviet Army units on Georgian soil, irregular militias, and Georgian personnel returning from other posts within the former Soviet Armed Forces. ... GUAM redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Country profiles | Country profile: Georgia (1146 words)
Since independence, the people of Georgia have endured periods of civil war and unrest as well as violence related to the independence aspirations of the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
On becoming president Mr Saakashvili vowed to restore Georgia's territorial integrity by returning the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia to the fold.
Mr Saakashvili was born in Tbilisi in 1967.
Georgia travel guide - Wikitravel (0 words)
Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო, transliterated as Sakartvelo) [1] is a country in the Caucasus.
Georgia is a multi-ethnic state, the dominant ethnic group are the Kartveli, but other significant Georgian ethnic groups include the Mingreli, Laz, and Svan (all of whom speak Georgian languages distinct from the national language, Kartuli).
Georgia, on the periphery of the Soviet Union, also contributed greatly to the dissolution of the Soviet Union with nationalist calls for independence (and the Georgians have catalyzed the dissolution of empires before).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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