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Encyclopedia > George Westinghouse
George Westinghouse

Industrial entrepreneur
Born October 6, 1846(1846-10-06)
Flag of the United States Central Bridge, New York
Died March 14, 1914 (aged 67)
Flag of the United States New York, New York

George Westinghouse, Jr (6 October 184612 March 1914) was an American entrepreneur and engineer who invented the railroad air brake and was a pioneer of the electrical industry. Westinghouse was one of Thomas Edison's main rivals in the early implementation of the American electricity system. Westinghouse' system using alternating current ultimately prevailed over Edison's insistence on direct current. In 1911, he received the AIEE's Edison Medal 'For meritorious achievement in connection with the development of the alternating current system for light and power.' Image File history File links Size of this preview: 419 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1073 × 1536 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Esperance is a town in Schoharie County, New York, USA. The population was 2,043 at the 2000 census. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the sequel to the computer game Entrepreneur, which has no article of its own, see The Corporate Machine. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Edison” redirects here. ... The American Institute of Electrical Engineers was a United States based organization of electrical engineers that existed between 1884 and 1963 (when it merged with the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE)). The 1884 founders of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) included some of the most prominent inventors and... The IEEE Edison Medal is presented by the IEEE for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts. ...

Contents

Biography

Early years

Westinghouse was the son of a machine shop owner and was talented at machinery and business. He was only 19 years old when he created his first invention, the rotary steam engine.[1] At age 21 he invented a "car replacer", a device to guide derailed railroad cars back onto the tracks, and a reversible frog, a device used with a railroad switch to guide trains onto one of two tracks.[1] This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A railroad switch is a mechanical installation enabling trains to be guided from one set of rail tracks (or tramway tracks) to another. ...


At about this time he witnessed a train wreck where two engineers both saw each other but could not stop their trains in time using the brakes then available. Brakemen had to run from car to car, often on top of the cars, and apply the brakes by hand on each car. Westinghouse devoted several years of his life to railroad safety devices.


In 1869 at age 22 he invented a railroad braking system using compressed air. The Westinghouse system used a compressor on the locomotive, a reservoir and a special valve on each car, and a single pipe running the length of the train (with flexible connections) which both refilled the reservoirs and controlled the brakes, applying and releasing the brakes on all cars simultaneously. It is a failsafe system in that any rupture or disconnection in the train pipe will apply the brakes throughout the train. It was patented by Westinghouse on March 5, 1872. The Westinghouse Air Brake Company (WABCO) was subsequently organized to manufacture and sell Westinghouse's invention. It was in time nearly universally adopted. Modern trains use brakes in various forms all based upon this design.


Westinghouse pursued many improvements in railroad signals (then using oil lamps) and in 1881 he founded the Union Switch and Signal Company to manufacture his signaling and switching inventions. Union Switch and Signal (US&S) is a supplier of railway signaling equipment, systems and services in Pittsburgh, PA. Now a part of Ansaldo, US&S traces its history all the way back to its founding in 1881. ...


Electricity and the "War of Currents"

Main article: War of Currents

In 1875, Thomas Edison was still a relative unknown in the United States. He had achieved some success with a "multiplex telegraph" system that allowed multiple telegraph signals to be sent over a single wire, but had not yet obtained the recognition he wanted. He was working on a telephone system but was upstaged by Bell. Edison bounced back quickly from the setback to invent the phonograph, which was a public sensation nobody had dreamed possible and made him famous. // In the War of Currents era (sometimes, War of the Currents or Battle of Currents) in the late 1880s, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edisons promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the alternating current (AC) advocated by Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla. ... In telecommunications, multiplexing (also muxing or MUXing) is the combining of two or more information channels onto a common transmission medium using hardware called a multiplexer or (MUX). ... Telegraph and Telegram redirect here. ... “Tonearm” redirects here. ...


Edison's next step, in 1878, was to invent an improved incandescent light bulb, and more the point to consider the need for an electrical distribution system to provide power for light bulbs. On September 4 1882, Edison switched on the world's first electrical power distribution system, providing 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers in lower Manhattan, around his Pearl Street laboratory. Lewis Latimer received a patent for an improved process for manufacturing the carbon filaments in light bulbs. These improvements allowed for a reduction in time to produce and an increase in quality. During his life time he had worked with and for Alexander Bell, Hiram Maxim and Thomas Edison. Latimer was the only black member of an exclusive social group, the Edison Pioneers. “Light bulb” redirects here. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Pearl Street is a street in Lower Manhattan. ... Lewis Howard Latimer, 1882. ...


Westinghouse's interests in gas distribution and telephone switching logically led him to become interested in electrical power distribution. He investigated Edison's scheme, but decided that it was too inefficient to be scaled up to a large size. Edison's power network was based on low-voltage DC, which meant large currents and serious power losses. Several European inventors were working on "alternating current (AC)" power distribution. An AC power system allowed voltages to be "stepped up" by a transformer for distribution, reducing power losses, and then "stepped down" by a transformer for use. City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... Figure 1:Three-phase pole-mounted step-down transformer. ...


A power transformer developed by Lucien Gaulard of France and John Dixon Gibbs of England was demonstrated in London in 1881, and attracted the interest of Westinghouse. Transformers were nothing new, but the Gaulard-Gibbs design was one of the first that could handle large amounts of power and promised to be easy to manufacture. In 1885, Westinghouse imported a number of Gaulard-Gibbs transformers and a Siemens AC generator to begin experimenting with AC networks in Pittsburgh. Lucien Gaulard (1850 - November 26, 1888) invented devices for the transmission of alternating current electrical energy. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Siemens AG (ISIN: DE0007236101, FWB: SIE, NYSE: SI) is one of the worlds largest companies and Europes largest engineering firm. ... Generator redirects here. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ...


Assisted by William Stanley, and Franklin Leonard Pope, Westinghouse worked to refine the transformer design and build a practical AC power network. In 1886, Westinghouse and Stanley installed the first multiple-voltage AC power system in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. The network was driven by a hydropower generator that produced 500 volts AC. The voltage was stepped up to 3,000 volts for transmission, and then stepped back down to 100 volts to power electric lights. The problems inherent in the new AC system were highlighted when Mr. Pope was electrocuted by a malfunctioning AC converter in the basement of his home (see) [1]. That same year, Westinghouse formed the "Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company", which was renamed the "Westinghouse Electric Corporation" in 1889. William Stanley, Jr. ... Franklin Leonard Pope was born in Great Barrington, Mass. ...   Great Barrington is a town in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower is the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose. ... Westinghouse logo (designed by Paul Rand) The Westinghouse Electric Company, headquartered in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, is an organization founded by George Westinghouse in 1886. ...


Thirty more AC lighting systems were installed within a year, but the scheme was limited by the lack of an effective metering system and an AC electric motor. In 1888, Westinghouse and his engineer Oliver Shallenger developed a power meter, which they designed to look as much like a gas meter as possible. The same basic meter technology is still used today. An AC motor was a more difficult task, but fortunately a design was already available. The brilliant Serbian-American inventor Nikola Tesla had already dreamed up the basic principles of a polyphase electric motor. Rotating magnetic field as a sum of magnetic vectors from 3 phase coils An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ...


Tesla and Edison did not get along well. Earlier Tesla had worked for the Edison General Electric company in Europe, but was unpaid for his service and had to go into labour for a few years. Later, Edison promised Tesla $50,000 if he could redesign his DC electrical dynamos. When Tesla did this, Edison told Tesla that he had been joking about the money. Edison and Tesla quickly parted company.


Westinghouse got in touch with Tesla, and obtained patent rights to Tesla's AC motor. Tesla had conceived the rotating magnetic field principle in 1882 and used it to invent the first brushless AC motor or induction motor in 1883. Westinghouse hired him as a consultant for a year and from 1888 onwards the wide scale introduction of the polyphase AC motor began. The work led to the standard modern US power-distribution scheme: three-phase AC at 60 Hz, chosen as a rate high enough to minimize light flickering, but low enough to reduce reactive losses, an arrangement also conceived by Tesla. For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Magnetic field density be merged into this article or section. ... Induction Motor (IM) is one kind of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by induction. ...


Westinghouse's promotion of AC power distribution led him into a bitter confrontation with Edison and his DC power system. The feud became known as "the War of Currents." Edison claimed that high voltage systems were inherently dangerous; Westinghouse replied that the risks could be managed and were outweighed by the benefits. Edison tried to have legislation enacted in several states to limit power transmission voltages to 800 volts, but failed. // In the War of Currents era (sometimes, War of the Currents or Battle of Currents) in the late 1880s, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edisons promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the alternating current (AC) advocated by Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla. ...


The battle went to an absurd, and some would say tragic, level, when in 1887 a board appointed by the state of New York consulted Edison on the best way to execute condemned prisoners. At first, Edison wanted nothing to do with the matter, declaring his opposition to capital punishment.


However, Westinghouse AC networks were clearly winning the battle of the currents, and the ultra-competitive Edison saw a last opportunity to defeat his rival. Edison hired an outside engineer named Harold P. Brown, who could pretend to be impartial, to perform public demonstrations in which animals were electrocuted by AC power. Edison then told the state board that AC was so deadly that it would kill instantly, making it the ideal method of execution. His prestige was so great that his recommendation was adopted. Harold P. Brown first invented the electric chair. ...


Harold Brown then sold gear for performing electric executions to the state for $8,000. In August 1890, a convict named William Kemmler became the first person to be executed by electrocution. Westinghouse hired the best lawyer of the day to defend Kemmler and condemned electrocution as a form of "cruel and unusual punishment". The execution was messy and protracted, and Westinghouse protested that they could have done better with an axe. The electric chair became a common form of execution for decades, even though it had proven from the first to be an unsatisfactory way to do the job. However, Edison failed in his attempts to have the procedure named "Westinghousing". William Kemmler William Kemmler (May 9, 1860– August 6, 1890) of Buffalo, New York was the first person to be executed via electric chair. ... The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being put to death is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ...


Edison also failed to discredit AC power, whose advantages did in fact well outweigh its hazards. Even General Electric, formed with Edison's backing in Schenectady in 1892, decided to begin production of AC equipment. “GE” redirects here. ... Schenectady is a city located in Schenectady County, New York, of which it is the county seat. ...


Later years

In 1893, in a significant victory, the Westinghouse company was awarded the contract to set up an AC network to power the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, giving the company and the technology widespread positive publicity. Westinghouse also received a contract to set up the first long-range power network, with AC generators at Niagara Falls producing electricity for distribution in Buffalo, New York, 40 kilometers (25 miles) away. One-third scale replica of Daniel Chester Frenchs Republic, which stood in the great basin at the exposition, Chicago, 2004 The Worlds Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago Worlds Fair), a Worlds Fair, was held in Chicago in 1893, to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... For other uses, see Niagara Falls (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ...


With AC networks expanding, Westinghouse turned his attention to electrical power production. At the outset, the available generating sources were hydroturbines where falling water was available, and reciprocating steam engines where it was not. Westinghouse felt that reciprocating steam engines were clumsy and inefficient, and wanted to develop some class of "rotating" engine that would be more elegant and efficient. // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ...


In fact, one of his first inventions had been a rotary steam engine, but it had proven impractical. However, an Irish engineer named Charles Algernon Parsons began to experiment with steam turbines in 1884, beginning with a 10 horsepower (7.5 kW) unit. Westinghouse bought rights to the Parsons turbine in 1885, and began work towards improving the Parsons technology and scaling it up. Charles Algernon Parsons Compund Steam Turbine, circa 1887 Sir Charles Algernon Parsons, O.M. (June 13, 1854 – February 11, 1931) was a British engineer, best known for his invention of the steam turbine. ...


Skeptics questioned that the steam turbine would ever be a reliable large-scale power source, but in 1898 Westinghouse demonstrated a 300 kilowatt unit, replacing reciprocating engines in his air-brake factory. The next year he installed a 1.5 megawatt, 1,200 rpm unit for the Hartford Electric Light Company. Northeast Utilities is a private utility company with several subsidiaries and units doing business in the wholesale and retail electricity and natural gas markets. ...


Westinghouse then turned his attention to using such large steam turbines to drive big ships. The problem was that such large turbines were most efficient at about 3,000 rpm, while an efficient propeller operated at about 100 rpm. That meant reduction gearing, but building a reduction gear system that could operate at such high rpm and at high power was difficult. Even a slight misalignment would shake the power train to pieces. Westinghouse and his engineers were able to devise an automatic alignment system that made turbine power practical for large vessels.


Westinghouse remained productive and inventive through almost all his life. Like Edison, he had a practical and experimental streak. At one time, Westinghouse began to work on heat pumps that could provide heating and cooling, and even believed that he might be able to extract enough power in the process for the system to run itself. A diagram of a simple heat pumps vapor-compression refrigeration cycle: 1) condenser, 2) expansion valve, 3) evaporator, 4) compressor. ...


Any modern engineer would clearly see that Westinghouse was after a perpetual motion machine, and the Irish & British physicist Lord Kelvin, one of Westinghouse's correspondents, told him that he would be violating the laws of thermodynamics. Westinghouse replied that might be the case, but it made no difference. If he couldn't build a perpetual-motion machine, he would still have a heat pump system that he could patent and sell. This article or section should include material from Parallel Path See also Perpetuum mobile as a musical term Perpetual motion machines (the Latin term perpetuum mobile is not uncommon) are a class of hypothetical machines which would produce useful energy in a way science cannot explain (yet). ... William Thomson, Archbishop of York, has the same name as this man. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dunamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ...


With the introduction of the automobile after the turn of the century, Westinghouse went back to earlier inventions and came up with a compressed-air shock absorber scheme to allow automobiles to deal with the wretched roads of the time. “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... Gasfilled Shock absorber. ...


Westinghouse remained a captain of American industry until 1907, when a financial panic led to his resignation from control of the Westinghouse company. By 1911, he was no longer active in business, and his health was in decline.

The Westinghouse Memorial in Schenley Park.
The Westinghouse Memorial in Schenley Park.

Image File history File links This is a picture of the Westinghouse Memorial in Schenley Park, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Image File history File links This is a picture of the Westinghouse Memorial in Schenley Park, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... The Cathedral of Learning is visible from Panther Hollow Lake Schenley Park is a large municipal park located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania between the neighborhoods of Oakland, Greenfield, and Squirrel Hill. ...

Family, death and legacy

George Westinghouse married Marguerite Erskine Walker on August 8, 1867. They had one child, George Westinghouse 3rd, and were happily married for k47 years. George Westinghouse died on March 12 1914, in New York City, at age 67. As a Civil War veteran, he was buried in Arlington National Cemetery, along with his wife Marguerite, who survived him by only three months. He was mourned. Although a shrewd and determined businessman, Westinghouse was a conscientious employer and wanted to make fair deals with his business associates. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1918 his former home was razed and the land given to the City of Pittsburgh to establish Westinghouse Park. In 1930, a memorial to Westinghouse, funded by his employees, was placed in Schenley Park in Pittsburgh. George Westinghouse Bridge is near the site of his Turtle Creek plant. The plaque on it reads: Westinghouse Park is a small municipal park in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... The Cathedral of Learning is visible from Panther Hollow Lake Schenley Park is a large municipal park located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania between the neighborhoods of Oakland, Greenfield, and Squirrel Hill. ... George Westinghouse Memorial Bridge in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania carries U.S. Route 30, The Lincoln Highway, 240 feet over the Turtle Creek Valley where it joins the Monongahela River Valley east of Pittsburgh. ...

IN BOLDNESS OF CONCEPTION, IN GREATNESS
AND IN USEFULNESS TO MANKIND THIS BRIDGE
TYPIFIES THE CHARACTER AND CAREER OF
GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE 1846-1914
IN WHOSE HONOR IT WAS DEDICATED ON
SEPTEMBER 10, 1932

See also

General
Westinghouse, Air brake (rail) and automatic brake, Timeline of transportation technology, Steam turbine, Columbian Exposition, Franklin Institute, Electro-pneumatic action
Electricity
Electricity, War of Currents, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Electric power, Electric motor, Nikola Tesla, Telluride, Colorado, Reginald Fessenden, Thomas Edison, William Kemmler, Lucien Gaulard, Oliver Shallenberger, polyphase, Diomede Pantaleoni, Nernst lamp, induction motor, Peter Cooper Hewitt
Other
List of inventors, Timeline of invention, Progressive Generation, rotary engine, elastic fluid, gas engines, turbine, East Pittsburgh, signal apparatus

The name Westinghouse can refer to any number of devices and independent businesses that trace their roots to the work of George Westinghouse: People George Westinghouse, founder of Westinghouse Electric Corporation Places George Westinghouse Bridge in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Westinghouse Park in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Devices Westinghouse air brake, patented by... Piping diagram from 1920 of a Westinghouse E-T Air Brake system. ... Timeline of transportation technology // 3500 BC - Wheeled carts are invented 3500 BC - River boats are invented 2000 BC - Horses are tamed and used for transport 770 - Iron horseshoes come into common use 1492 - Leonardo da Vinci describes a flying machine 1662 - Blaise Pascal invents a horse-drawn public bus which... A rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in a power plant A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work. ... One-third scale replica of The Republic, which once stood in the great basin at the exposition, Chicago, 2004 The Worlds Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago Worlds Fair), a Worlds fair, was held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbuss... Franklin Institute Front steps as seen from the adjacent Moore College This article is about the science museum in Philadelphia. ... electro-pneumatic action The electro-pneumatic action is a control system for pipe organs, whereby air pressure, controlled by an electric current and operated by the keys of an organ console, opens and closes valves within wind chests, allowing the pipes to speak. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... // In the War of Currents era (sometimes, War of the Currents or Battle of Currents) in the late 1880s, George Westinghouse and Thomas Edison became adversaries due to Edisons promotion of direct current (DC) for electric power distribution over the alternating current (AC) advocated by Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla. ... Westinghouse logo (designed by Paul Rand) The Westinghouse Electric Company, headquartered in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, is an organization founded by George Westinghouse in 1886. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into electricity. ... Rotating magnetic field as a sum of magnetic vectors from 3 phase coils An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... For other meanings, see Telluride (disambiguation). ... Reginald Aubrey Fessenden (October 6, 1866 – July 22, 1932) was a Canadian-born inventor, best known for his work in early radio. ... “Edison” redirects here. ... William Kemmler William Kemmler (May 9, 1860– August 6, 1890) of Buffalo, New York was the first person to be executed via electric chair. ... Lucien Gaulard (1850 - November 26, 1888) invented devices for the transmission of alternating current electrical energy. ... Polyphase can refer to: a polyphase system in electrical engineering a polyphase filter in signal processing Category: ... Nernst lamp, complete, model B with cloche, DC-lamp 0. ... Induction Motor (IM) is one kind of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by induction. ... Peter Cooper Hewitt (May 5, 1861 - August 25, 1921) was an American electrical engineer, who demonstrated the mercury-vapor lamp for which he deposited a patent. ... This is a list of inventors. ... This is a chronological list of inventions. ... The Progressive Generation is a name coined by William Strauss and Neil Howe in their book Generations for that generation of Americans born from 1843 to 1859. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Elasticity is a branch of physics which studies the properties of elastic materials. ... In the UK a Gas engine means an engine running on gas, such as coal gas or producer gas. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... East Pittsburgh is a borough located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. ... A signal is a mechanical or electrical device that indicates to train drivers or engineers information about the state of the line ahead, and therefore whether he or she must stop or may proceed, or instructions on what speed the train may go. ...

External sources and references

Sources

Jill Jonnes, Empires of Light (2003) Richard Moran, Executioner's Current (2002)


Patents

  • U.S. Patent 34,605 , grain and seed winnowers
  • U.S. Patent 106,899 , improvements in steam engine and pump
  • U.S. Patent 109,695 , improvement in atmospheric car-brake pipes
  • U.S. Patent 136,631 , improvement in steam-power-brake couplings
  • U.S. Patent 149,901 , improvement in valves for fluid brake-pipes
  • U.S. Patent 218,149 , improvement in fluid-pressure brake apparatus
  • U.S. Patent 280,269 , fluid-pressure regulator
  • U.S. Patent 366,362 , electrical converter
  • U.S. Patent 399,639 , system of electrical distribution
  • U.S. Patent 314,089 , system for the protection of railroad-tracks and gas-pipe lines
  • U.S. Patent 400,420 , fluid-meter
  • U.S. Patent 425,059 , fluid-pressure automatic brake mechanism
  • U.S. Patent 427,489 , alternating current electric meter
  • U.S. Patent 437,740 , fluid-pressure automatic brake
  • U.S. Patent 446,159 , switch and signal apparatus
  • U.S. Patent 454,129 , pipe-coupling
  • U.S. Patent 497,394 , conduit electric railway
  • U.S. Patent 499,336 , draw-gear apparatus for cars
  • U.S. Patent 550,465 , electric railway
  • U.S. Patent 579,506 , current-collecting device for railway-vehicles
  • U.S. Patent 595,007 , elevator
  • U.S. Patent 595,008 , electric railway
  • U.S. Patent 609,484 , fluid pressure automatic brake
  • U.S. Patent 672,114 , draft appliance for railway cars
  • U.S. Patent 672,117 , draw-gear and buffing apparatus
  • U.S. Patent 676,108 , electric railway system
  • U.S. Patent 687,468 , draw-gear and buffing apparatus
  • U.S. Patent 727,039 , automatic fluid pressure brake apparatus
  • U.S. Patent 922,827 , gearing
  • U.S. Patent 995,508 , elastic-fluid turbine
  • U.S. Patent 1,119,913 , electric railway

Publications

  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The electrification of Railways, G. Westinghouse. Page 945+.
  • Henry G. Prout, C.E., A Life of George Westinghouse.
  • Fraser, J. F. (1903). America at work. London: Cassell. Page 223+.
  • Hubert, P. G. (1894). Men of achievement. Inventors. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Page 296+.
  • New York Air Brake Company. (1893). Instruction book. 1893.
  • Westinghouse Air Brake Company. (1882). Westinghouse automatic brake. (ed., Patents on Page 76.)

Websites

Awards
Preceded by
Frank J. Sprague
IEEE Edison Medal
1911
Succeeded by
William Stanley, Jr.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Who Made America? | Innovators | George Westinghouse, Jr. (496 words)
George Westinghouse was instrumental in increasing the safety of the American railroad system and encouraging the growth of the transportation industry.
In total Westinghouse made over 300 inventions that revolved around railroad travel, including a rotary steam engine, an effective means of righting cars that had been derailed, and a "frog," a switch that allowed trains to "hop" across rails at a junction.
Westinghouse also experimented with electricity and developed a transformer that could bring alternating current (AC) electricity down from high voltage to low -- thus enabling AC to travel long distances while still making it ready for use.
Westinghouse Lighting Corporation (192 words)
In fact, Westinghouse Lighting Corporation is the only company that offers this many high-quality lighting products under one roof.
Westinghouse Lighting Corporation presents decorative two-piece medallions that install easily around existing lighting fixtures and ceiling fans.
Westinghouse's aluminum reflector compact fluorescent PAR lamps provide the lumen output and color of conventional halogen PAR lamps while reducing energy costs by up to $60 per lamp.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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