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Encyclopedia > George Washington Carver
George Washington Carver

Born circa 1864
Diamond, Missouri, U.S.
Died January 5, 1943 (aged -66)
Tuskegee, Alabama, U.S.

George Washington Carver (July 12, 1864January 5, 1943)[1] worked in agricultural extension at the Tuskegee Institute, in Tuskegee, Alabama, teaching former slaves farming techniques for self-sufficiency. His exact birth day (and year) are unknown, yet it is known that it was some time before slavery was abolished in Missouri in January, 1865.[2] To commemorate his life and fabulous inventions, George Washington Carver Recognition Day is celebrated every January 5, on the day Carver died. Image File history File links George_washington_carver. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Diamond is a town located in Newton County, Missouri. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tuskegee is a city in Macon County, Alabama, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Agricultural extension was once known as the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. ... Tuskegee University is a private university located in Tuskegee, Alabama and is a member school of the Thurgood Marshall Scholarship Fund. ... Tuskegee is a city in Macon County, Alabama, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Slave redirects here. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

To bring education to farmers, Carver designed a mobile school, called a Jesup Wagon after the New York financier, Morris Ketchum Jesup, who provided funding.[3] In 1921, Carver spoke in favor of a peanut tariff before the Ways and Means Committee of the United States House of Representatives. At the time it was unusual for a black person to be called as an expert. Carver's well received testimony earned him national attention, and he became an unofficial spokesman for the peanut industry. Carver wrote 44 practical agricultural bulletins for farmers. Morris Ketchum Jesup (June 21, 1830 - January 22, 1908), United States banker and philanthropist, was born at Westport, Connecticut. ... This article is about the legume. ... The Committee on Ways and Means is a committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party...

George Washington's father died in a fatal ox-hauling agricultural voyage. One of the supply wagons toppled thereby suffocating him.

In the Reconstruction South, an agricultural monoculture of cotton depleted the soil; and, in the early 20th century, the boll weevil destroyed much of the cotton crop. Much of Carver's fame was based on his research and promotion of alternative crops to cotton, such as peanuts and sweet potatoes. He wanted poor farmers to grow alternative crops as both a source of their own food as well as a source of other products to improve their quality of life. His most popular bulletin contained 105 existing food recipes that used peanuts. He also created or disseminated about 100 products made from peanuts that were useful for the house and farm, including cosmetics, dyes, paints, plastics, gasoline, and nitroglycerin. For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 Wikispecies has information related to: Boll weevil The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a beetle measuring an average length of six millimeters (¼ inch). ... For other uses, see crop (disambiguation). ... This article is about the legume. ... Binomial name Ipomoea batatas Linnaeus, The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a crop plant whose large, starchy, sweet-tasting tuberous roots are an important root vegetable. ... Make-up redirects here. ... A dye can generally be described as a coloured substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. ... For information on the U.S. borough, see Paint, Pennsylvania. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... Petrol redirects here. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ...

It is a common misconception that Carver's research on products that could be made by small farmers for their own use led to commercial successes that revolutionized Southern agriculture,[4][5] but these products were intended as adequate replacements for commercial products that were outside the budget of the small one horse farmer. Carver's work to apply the scientific method to sustain small farmers and to provide them with the resources to be as independent of the cash economy as possible foreshadowed the appropriate technology work of E.F. Schumacher. Appropriate technology is technology that is appropriate to the environmental, cultural and economic situation it is intended for. ... Ernst Friedrich Fritz Schumacher (1911-1977) was an economist with a professional background as a statistician and economist in Britain. ...

In addition to his work on agricultural extension education for purposes of advocacy of sustainable agriculture and appreciation of plants and nature, Carver's important accomplishments also included improvement of racial relations, mentoring children, poetry, painting, and religion. He served as a valuable role model for black Americans and others, and as an example of the importance of hard work, a positive attitude, and a good education. His humility, humanitarianism, good nature, frugality, and lack of economic materialism also have been admired widely. It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... Mentoring refers to a developmental relationship between a more experienced mentor and a less experienced partner referred to as a mentoree (sometimes vernacularized into mentee) or protégé. // Historical The roots of the practice are lost in antiquity. ... This article is about the art form. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... For the medieval saint of the same name, see Saint Humility. ... There are a number of meanings for humanitarianism: humanitarianism, humanism, the doctrine that peoples duty is to promote human welfare. ... Frugality (also known as thrift or thriftiness ) is the practice of acquiring goods and services at minimum cost, achieved via economical restraints or creative measures. ... Materialism refers to how a person or group chooses to spend their resources, particularly money and time. ...

One of his most important roles was in undermining, through the fame of his achievements and many talents, the widespread stereotype of the time that the black race was intellectually inferior to the white race. In 1941, Time magazine dubbed him a "Black Leonardo", a reference to the white polymath Leonardo da Vinci[6] For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ... The study of race and intelligence is the controversial study of how human intellectual capacities may vary among the different population groups commonly known as races. ... TIME redirects here. ... Leonardo da Vinci is regarded in many Western cultures as the archetypal Renaissance Man. A polymath (Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής, having learned much)[1][2] is a person with encyclopedic, broad, or varied knowledge or learning. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ...

National Basketball Association star David Robinson and his wife, Valerie, founded an academy named after Carver; it opened on September 17, 2001, in San Antonio, Texas.[7] NBA redirects here. ... David Maurice Robinson (born August 6, 1965)) is a retired American NBA basketball player, who is often considered one of the greatest centers to ever play the game. ...


Early years

He was born into slavery in Newton County, Marion Township, near Diamond Place, now known as Diamond, Missouri on or around July 12, 1864[8]. His owner, Moses Carver, was a German American immigrant who had purchased George's mother, Mary, from William P. McGinnis on October 9, 1855 for seven hundred dollars. The identity of Carver's father is unknown but he had 10 sisters and a brother, all of whom died prematurely. Slave redirects here. ... Newton County is a county located in the state of Missouri. ... Diamond is a town located in Newton County, Missouri. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Moses Carver was a German American settler, and father of George Washington Carver. ... German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

When George was an infant, he, a sister, and his mother were kidnapped by night raiders and sold in Arkansas, a common practice. Moses Carver hired John Benley to find them. Only Carver was found, orphaned and near death from whooping cough. Carver's mother and sister had already died, although some reports stated that his mother and sister had gone north with the soldiers. For returning George, Moses Carver rewarded Bentley with his best filly that would later produce winning race horses. This episode caused George a bout of respiratory disease that left him with a permanently weakened constitution. Because of this, he was unable to work as a hand and spent his time wandering the fields, drawn to the varieties of wild plants. He became so knowledgeable that he was known by Moses Carver's neighbors as the "Plant Doctor."[2] “Baby” redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious disease that is one of the leading causes of vaccine-preventable deaths. ... Filly is also a town in Belgium. ... For COPD occurring in horses, see recurrent airway obstruction. ...

One day he was called to a neighbor's house to help with a plant in need. When he had fixed the problem, he was told to go into the kitchen to collect his reward. When he entered the kitchen, he saw no one. He did, however, see something that changed his life: beautiful paintings of flowers on the walls of the room. From that moment on, he knew that he was going to be an artist as well as a botanist. This love of both science and beauty was evident in one of his hobbies of hybridizing ornamental bulbs of the genus Hippeastrum [9]. Species About 80, including: Hippeastrum aglaiae Hippeastrum ambiguum Hippeastrum andreanum Hippeastrum argentinum Hippeastrum aulicum Hippeastrum blossfeldiae Hippeastrum blumenavium Hippeastrum bukasovii Hippeastrum breviflorum Hippeastrum calyptratum Hippeastrum candidum Hippeastrum cybister Hippeastrum doraniae Hippeastrum elegans Hippeastrum evansiae Hippeastrum forgetii Hippeastrum gayanum Hippeastrum goianum Hippeastrum lapacense Hippeastrum leopoldii Hippeastrum machupijchense Hippeastrum maracasum Hippeastrum oconequense...

After slavery was abolished, Moses Carver and his wife Susan raised George and his brother James as their own children. They encouraged George Carver to continue his intellectual pursuits and "Aunt Susan" taught him the basics of reading and writing.

Since blacks were not allowed at the school in Diamond Grove and he had received news that there was a school for blacks ten miles (16 km) south in Neosho, he resolved to go there at once. To his dismay, when he reached the town, the school had been closed for the night. As he had nowhere to stay, he slept in a nearby barn. By his own account, the next morning he met a kind woman, Mariah Watkins, from whom he wished to rent a room. When he identified himself "Carver's George," as he had done his whole life, she replied that from now on, his name was "George Carver." George liked this lady very much and her words "You must learn all you can, then go back out into the world and give your learning back to the people," made a great impression on him. Look up black in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Neosho, incorporated in 1878, is a city located at the western edge of the Missouri Ozarks serving as the county seat of Newton County, Missouri, USA. The name Neosho (pronounced nē-ō-shō - originally nē-ō-zhō, or nē-ō-zhū) is generally accepted to be of Native American (most likely Osage) derivation...

At the age of thirteen, due to his desire to attend high school, he relocated to the home of another foster family in Fort Scott, Kansas. After witnessing the beating to death of a black man at the hands of a group of white men, George left Fort Scott. He subsequently attended a series of schools before earning his diploma at Minneapolis High School in Minneapolis, Kansas. For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... Fort Scott is a city located 88 miles (158 km) south of Kansas City, on the Marmaton River. ... Minneapolis, Kansas, is a city located in Ottawa County, Kansas. ...

After high school, George started a laundry business in Olathe, Kansas. He was the first black student to study the piano and arts. For other places with the same name, see Olathe (disambiguation). ...


At work in his laboratory
At work in his laboratory

Over the next five years, he sent several letters to colleges and was finally accepted at Highland College in Highland, Kansas. He traveled to the college, but he was rejected when they discovered that he was an African American. George Washington Carver at work in his laborotory. ... George Washington Carver at work in his laborotory. ... Highland is a city located in Doniphan County, Kansas (see map). ...

Carver's travels took him to Winterset, Iowa in the mid-1880s, where he met the Milhollands, a white couple whom he later credited with encouraging him to pursue higher education. The Milhollands urged Carver to enroll in nearby Simpson College in Indianola, Iowa, which he did despite his reluctance due to his previous rejection at Highland College. The Madison County Courthouse Winterset is a city in Madison County, Iowa, United States. ... Simpson College is a four-year, coeducational liberal arts institution situated in Indianola, Iowa, USA, and affiliated with the United Methodist Church. ... Indianola is a city located in Warren County, Iowa. ...

In 1887, he was accepted into Simpson as its second African-American student. While in college at Simpson, he showed a strong aptitude for singing and art. His art teacher, Etta Budd, was the daughter of the head of the department of horticulture at Iowa State: Joseph Budd. Etta convinced Carver to pursue a career that paid better than art and so he transferred to Iowa State. The encouragement Etta Budd gave Carver to seek a better-paying career was well-warranted, at least for Etta. She died a poor retired art teacher in a Boone, Iowa retirement home. Boone is a city in and the county seat of Boone County,GR6 Iowa, United States. ...

He transferred in 1891 to Iowa State Agricultural College, where he was the first black student, and later the first black faculty member. In order to avoid confusion with another George Carver in his classes, he began to use the name George Washington Carver. The Iowa State University of Science and Technology (ISU) is a public land-grant and space-grant university located in Ames, Iowa, USA. Iowa State has produced a number of astronauts, Nobel laureates, Pulitzer Prize winners and a variety of other notable individuals in their respective fields. ...

At the end of his undergraduate career in 1894, recognizing Carver's potential, Joseph Budd and Louis Pammel convinced Carver to stay at Iowa State for his master's degree. Carver then performed research at the Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station under Pammel from 1894 to his graduation in 1896. It is his work at the experiment station in plant pathology and mycology that first gained him national recognition and respect as a botanist. A masters degree is a postgraduate academic degree awarded after the completion of an academic program of one to six years in duration. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... Mycology (from the Greek μύκης, meaning fungus) is the study of fungi, their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy, and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicinals (e. ...

At Tuskegee with Booker T. Washington

In 1896, Carver was invited to lead the Agriculture Department at the five year old Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, later Tuskegee University, by its founder, Booker T. Washington, in Tuskegee, Alabama. Carver accepted the position, and remained there for 47 years, until his death in 1943. Carver never married. Tuskegee University is a private university located in Tuskegee, Alabama and is a member school of the Thurgood Marshall Scholarship Fund. ... Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. ... Tuskegee is a city in Macon County, Alabama, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Carver had numerous problems at Tuskegee before he became famous. Carver's perceived arrogance, his higher than normal salary and the two rooms he received for his personal use were resented by other faculty.[10] Single faculty members normally bunked two to a room. One of Carver's duties was to administer the Agricultural Experiment Station farms. He was expected to produce and sell farm products to make a profit. He soon proved to be a poor administrator. In 1900, Carver complained that the physical work and the letter-writing his agricultural work required were both too much for him.[11]

In 1902, Booker T. Washington invited a nationally famous woman photographer to Tuskegee. Carver and Nelson Henry, a Tuskegee graduate, accompanied the attractive white woman in the town of Ramer. Several white citizens thought Henry was improperly associating with a white woman. Someone fired three pistol shots at Henry and he fled. Mobs prevented him from returning. Carver considered himself fortunate to escape alive.[12] Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. ...

In 1904, a committee reported that Carver's reports on the poultry yard were exaggerated, and Washington criticized Carver about the exaggerations. Carver replied to Washington "Now to be branded as a liar and party to such hellish deception it is more than I can bear, and if your committee feel that I have willfully lied or [was] party to such lies as were told my resignation is at your disposal." [13] In 1910, Carver submitted a letter of resignation in response to a reorganization of the agriculture programs.[14]: Carver again threatened to resign in 1912 over his teaching assignment.[15] Carver submitted a letter of resignation in 1913, with the intention of heading up an experiment station elsewhere.[16] He also threatened to resign in 1913 and 1914 when he didn't get a summer teaching assignment [17][18] In each case, Washington smoothed things over. It seemed that Carver's wounded pride prompted most of the resignation threats, especially the last two because he did not need the money from summer work.

In 1911, Washington wrote a lengthy letter to Carver complaining that Carver did not follow orders to plant certain crops at the experiment station.[19] He also refused Carver's demands for a new laboratory and research supplies for Carver's exclusive use and for Carver to teach no classes. He complimented Carver's abilities in teaching and original research but bluntly stated his poor administrative skills, "When it comes to the organization of classes, the ability required to secure a properly organized and large school or section of a school, you are wanting in ability. When it comes to the matter of practical farm managing which will secure definite, practical, financial results, you are wanting again in ability." Also in 1911, Carver complained that his laboratory was still without the equipment promised 11 months earlier. At the same time, Carver complained of committees criticizing him and that his "nerves will not stand" any more committee meetings.[20]

Despite their clashes, Booker T. Washington praised Carver in the 1911 book, My Larger Education: Being Chapters from My Experience.[21] Booker called Carver "one of the most thoroughly scientific men of the Negro race with whom I am acquainted." Like most later Carver biographies, it also contained exaggerations. It inaccurately claimed that as a young boy Carver "proved to be such a weak and sickly little creature that no attempt was made to put him to work and he was allowed to grow up among chickens and other animals around the servants' quarters, getting his living as best he could." Carver wrote elsewhere that his adoptive parents, the Carvers, were "very kind" to him. [22]

Booker T. Washington died in 1915. His successor made fewer demands on Carver. From 1915 to 1923, Carver's major focus was compiling existing uses and proposing new uses for peanuts, sweet potatoes, pecans and other crops [23]. This work and especially his promotion of peanuts for the peanut growers association and before Congress eventually made him the most famous African-American of his time.

Rise to fame

Carver had an interest in helping poor Southern farmers who were working low quality soils that had been depleted of nutrients by repeated plantings of cotton crops. He and other agricultural workers urged farmers to restore nitrogen to their soils by practicing systematic crop rotation, alternating cotton crops with plantings of sweet potatoes or legumes (such as peanuts, soybeans and cowpeas) that were also sources of protein. Following the crop rotation practice resulted in improved cotton yields and gave farmers new foods and alternative cash crops. In order to train farmers to successfully rotate crops and cultivate the new foods, Carver developed an agricultural extension program for Alabama that was similar to the one at Iowa State. In addition, he founded an industrial research laboratory where he and assistants worked to popularize use of the new plants by developing hundreds of applications for them through original research and also by promoting recipes and applications that they collected from others. Carver distributed his information as agricultural bulletins. (See Carver bulletins below.) For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... Binomial name Ipomoea batatas Linnaeus, The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a crop plant whose large, starchy, sweet-tasting tuberous roots are an important root vegetable. ... Varieties of soybean seeds, a popular legume The term legume has two closely related meanings in botany, a situation encountered with many botanical common names of useful plants whereby an applied name can refer to either the plant itself, or to the edible fruit (or useful part). ... This article is about the legume. ... Soy redirects here. ... Binomial name Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ...

Peanut specimen collected by Carver
Peanut specimen collected by Carver

Much of Carver's fame is related to the hundreds of plant products he supposedly invented. After Carver's death, lists were created of the plant products Carver compiled or originated. Such lists enumerate about 300 applications for peanuts and 118 for sweet potatoes, although 73 of the 118 were dyes. He made similar investigations into uses for cowpeas, soybeans and pecans. Carver did not write down formulas for most of his novel plant products so they could not be made by others. Carver is also often incorrectly credited with the invention of peanut butter (see Reputed inventions below). George Washington Carver-peanut specimen From http://www. ... George Washington Carver-peanut specimen From http://www. ... Binomial name Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ... Binomial name Carya illinoinensis Reference: [1] as of 2003-03-13 The Pecan is a deciduous tree native to North America of the species Carya illinoinensis. ... Peanut butter in a jar. ...

Until 1921, Carver was not widely known for his agricultural research. However, he was known in Washington, D.C. President Theodore Roosevelt publicly admired his work. James Wilson, a former Iowa state dean and teacher of Carver's, was U.S. Secretary of Agriculture from 1897 to 1913. Henry Cantwell Wallace, U.S. Secretary of Agriculture from 1921 to 1924, was one of Carver's teachers at Iowa State. Carver was a friend of Wallace's son, Henry A. Wallace, also an Iowa State graduate. [24] The younger Wallace served as U.S. Secretary of Agriculture from 1933 to 1940 and as Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Vice President from 1941-1945. For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... James Wilson (August 16, 1835 – August 26, 1920) was a Scots born United States politician, serving as United States Secretary of Agriculture from 1897 – 1913. ... For other persons named Henry Wallace, see Henry Wallace (disambiguation). ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ...

In 1916 Carver was made a member of the Royal Society of Arts in England, one of only a handful of Americans at that time to receive this honor. However, Carver's promotion of peanuts gained him the most fame. The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a British multi-disciplinary institution, based in London. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

In 1919, Carver wrote to a peanut company about the great potential he saw for his new peanut milk. Both he and the peanut industry seemed unaware that in 1917, William Melhuish had secured patent #1,243,855 for a milk substitute made from peanuts and soybeans. Despite reservations about his race, the peanut industry invited him as a speaker to their 1920 convention. He discussed "The Possibilities of the Peanut," and exhibited 145 peanut products.

By 1920, U.S. peanut farmers were being undercut with imported peanuts from the Republic of China. White peanut farmers and processors came together in 1921 to plead their cause before a Congressional committee hearings on a tariff. Carver was elected to speak at the hearings because he had spoken at the convention of the United Peanut Associations of America. Carver was a novel choice because of U.S. racial segregation. On arrival, Carver was mocked by surprised Southern congressmen, but he was not deterred and began to explain some of the many uses for the peanut. Initially given ten minutes to present, the now spellbound committee extended his time again and again. The committee rose in applause as he finished his presentation, and the Fordney-McCumber Tariff of 1922 included a tariff on imported peanuts. Carver's presentation to Congress made him famous, while his intelligence, ability to communicate, and amiability and courtesy delighted the general public. For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... The Fordney-McCumber tariff of 1922 was a law in the United States that created a Tariff Commission to raise or lower rates by 50%. This was a post-World War I Republican defense against expected Europeans exports. ...

Life while famous

During the last two decades of his life, Carver seemed to enjoy his celebrity status. He was often traveling to promote Tuskegee, peanuts or racial harmony. Although he only published six agricultural bulletins after 1922, he published articles in peanut industry journals and wrote a syndicated newspaper column, "Professor Carver's Advice." Business leaders came to seek his help, and he often responded with free advice. Three American presidents — Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge and Franklin Roosevelt — met with him, and the Crown Prince of Sweden studied with him for three weeks. For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ...

In 1923, Carver received the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP, awarded annually for outstanding achievement. From 1923 to 1933, Carver toured white Southern colleges for the Commission on Interracial Cooperation. [23] The Spingarn Medal is awarded annually by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for outstanding achievement by a Black American. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ...

Carver was famously criticized in a Nov. 20, 1924 New York Times article "Men of Science Never Talk That Way." The Times considered Carver's statements that God guided his research were inconsistent with a scientific approach. The criticism garnered a lot of sympathy for Carver because Christians viewed it as an attack on religion.

In 1928, Simpson College bestowed Carver with an honorary doctorate. For a 1929 book on Carver, Raleigh H. Merritt contacted Carver. Merritt wrote "At present not a great deal has been done to utilize Dr. Carver's discoveries commercially. He says that he is merely scratching the surface of scientific investigations of the possibilities of the peanut and other Southern products." [25] Yet in 1932, Professor of Literature, James Saxon Childers wrote that Carver and his peanut products were almost solely responsible for the rise in U.S. peanut production after the boll weevil devastated the American cotton crop beginning about 1892. Childer's 1932 article on Carver, "A Boy Who Was Traded for a Horse" in The American Magazine and its 1937 reprint in Reader's Digest did much to establish this Carver myth. Other major magazines and newspapers of the time also exaggerated Carver's impact on the peanut industry. [26] Simpson College is a four-year, coeducational liberal arts institution situated in Indianola, Iowa, USA, and affiliated with the United Methodist Church. ... An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ... Binomial name Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 Wikispecies has information related to: Boll weevil The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a beetle measuring an average length of six millimeters (¼ inch). ...

From 1933 to 1935, Carver was largely occupied with work on peanut oil massages for treating infantile paralysis (polio). [23] Carver received tremendous media attention and visitations from parents and their sick children; however, it was ultimately found that peanut oil was not the miracle cure it was made out to be--it was the massages which provided the benefits. Carver had been a trainer for the Iowa State football team and was skilled as a masseur. From 1935 to 1937, Carver participated in the USDA Disease Survey. Carver had specialized in plant diseases and mycology for his Master's degree. Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ...

In 1937, Carver attended two chemurgy conferences. [23] He met Henry Ford at the Dearborn, MI conference, and they became close friends. Also, in 1937, Carver's health declined. Time magazine reported in 1941 that Henry Ford installed an elevator for Carver because his doctor told him not to climb the 19 stairs to his room. [6] In 1942, the two men denied that they were working together on a solution to the wartime rubber shortage. Carver also did work with soy, which he and Ford considered as an alternative fuel. Look up chemurgy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ...

In 1939, Carver received the Roosevelt Medal for Outstanding Contribution to Southern Agriculture enscribed "to a scientist humbly seeking the guidance of God and a liberator to men of the white race as well as the black." In 1940, Carver established the George Washington Carver Foundation at the Tuskegee Institute. In 1941, the George Washington Carver Museum was dedicated at the Tuskegee Institute. In 1942, Henry Ford built a replica of Carver's slave cabin at the Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village in Dearborn, MI as a tribute to his friend. Also in 1942, Ford dedicated the George Washington Carver Laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan. The George Washington Carver Museum and Cultural Center is a museum in east Austin, Texas housed in the former George Washington Carver Library building. ... A Ford Model T, used for giving tourist rides, is shown above at Greenfield Village. ...

Death and afterwards

Upon returning from home one day, Carver took a bad fall down a flight of stairs; he was found unconscious by a maid who took him to a hospital. Carver died January 5, 1943 at the age of 78 from complications (anemia) resulting from this fall. He was buried next to Booker T. Washington at Tuskegee University. Due to his frugality, Carver's life savings totaled $60,000--all of which he donated in his last years and at his death to the Carver Museum and to the George Washington Carver Foundation. [27] This article discusses the medical condition. ...

On his grave was written the simplest and most meaningful summary of his life. He could have added fortune to fame, but caring for neither, he found happiness and honor in being helpful to the world.

Before and after his death, there was a movement to establish a U.S. national monument to Carver. However, because of World War II such non-war expenditures were banned by presidential order. Missouri Senator Harry S Truman sponsored a bill anyway. In a committee hearing on the bill, one supporter argued that "The bill is not simply a momentary pause on the part of busy men engaged in the conduct of the war, to do honor to one of the truly great Americans of this country, but it is in essence a blow against the Axis, it is in essence a war measure in the sense that it will further unleash and release the energies of roughly 15,000,000 Negro people in this country for full support of our war effort." [23] The bill passed in both houses without a single vote against. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For the victim of Mt. ...

1948 US Postage Stamp
1948 US Postage Stamp

On July 14, 1943[28], President Franklin Delano Roosevelt dedicated $30,000 for the George Washington Carver National Monument west-southwest of Diamond, Missouri - an area where Carver had spent time in his childhood. This was the first national monument dedicated to an African-American and first to a non-President. At this 210-acre (0.8 km²) national monument, there is a bust of Carver, a ¾-mile nature trail, a museum, the 1881 Moses Carver house, and the Carver cemetery. Due to a variety of delays, the National Monument was not opened until July, 1953. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Statue of George Washington Carver Wagon and 1881 Moses Carver House at George Washington Carver National Monument George Washington Carver National Monument is a unit of the National Park Service located in Diamond, Missouri; the national monument was founded on July 14, 1943 by Franklin Delano Roosevelt who dedicated $30... The term national monument can either refer to a specific monument which aims to represent a nation, or to a general concept. ... Bust of Richard Bently by Roubiliac A bust is a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ...

In December 1947, a fire destroyed all but three of 48 of Carver's paintings at the Carver Museum [29] Carver appeared on U.S. commemorative stamps in 1948 and 1998, and was depicted on a commemorative half dollar coin from 1951 to 1954. The USS George Washington Carver (SSBN-656) is also named in his honor. The Half Dollar of the United States has been produced nearly every year since the inception of the United States Mint in 1794. ... USS George Washington Carver (SSBN/SSN-656), a Benjamin Franklin-class submarine, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for the researcher and inventor. ...

In 1977, Carver was elected to the Hall of Fame for Great Americans. In 1990, Carver was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. In 1994, Iowa State University awarded Carver the Doctor of Humane Letters. In 2000, Carver was a charter inductee in the USDA Hall of Heroes as the "Father of Chemurgy." [30] View of the Hall of Fame for Great Americans The Hall of Fame for Great Americans, is the original Hall of Fame in the United States. ... Exterior of the National Inventors Hall of Fame museum, 2005 The National Inventors Hall of Fame is an organization that honors important inventors from the whole world. ... A Doctor of Humane Letters (Latin: Litterarum humanae doctor; D.H.L.; or L.H.D.) is an honorary degree often conferred to those who have contributed to issues of peace and social justice. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ...

In 2005, Carver's research at the Tuskegee Institute was designated a National Historic Chemical Landmark by the American Chemical Society. [31] On February 15, 2005, an episode of Modern Marvels included scenes from within Iowa State University's Food Sciences Building and about Carver's work. In 2005, the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis, Missouri opened a George Washington Carver garden in his honor, which includes a lifesize statue of him. The ACS National Historic Chemical Landmarks Program was launched by the American Chemical Society in 1992 and has recognized over 50 landmarks to date. ... The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Modern Marvels introductory title. ... Seiwa-en One of the Various Gardens at the Missouri Botanical Garden The Missouri Botanical Garden is a botanical garden located in St. ...

Many institutions honor George Washington Carver to this day, particularly the American public school system. Dozens of elementary schools and high schools are named after him. Ironically, despite his fame and wish to share his work with all mankind, few of Carver's writings are available online, just 3 of 44 bulletins, a poem or two and a few dozen inspirational quotations.

Reputed inventions

George Washington Carver reputedly discovered three hundred uses for peanuts and hundreds more uses for soybeans, pecans and sweet potatoes. Among the listed items that he suggested to southern farmers to help them economically were adhesives, axle grease, bleach, buttermilk, chili sauce, fuel briquettes, ink, instant coffee, linoleum, mayonnaise, meat tenderizer, metal polish, paper, plastic, pavement, shaving cream, shoe polish, synthetic rubber, talcum powder and wood stain. Three patents (one for cosmetics, and two for paints and stains) were issued to George Washington Carver in the years 1925 to 1927; however, they were not commercially successful in the end. Aside from these patents and some recipes for food, he left no formulas or procedures for making his products.[32] He did not keep a laboratory notebook. For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... This article is about the chemical whitener. ... Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... For the streetball player, see Philip Champion. ... For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... Instant coffee Instant coffee is a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans. ... A linoleum kitchen floor Linoleum is a floor covering made from solidified linseed oil (linoxyn) in combination with wood flour or cork dust over a burlap or canvas backing. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see Mayonaise (song). ... A meat tenderizer on a wooden cutting board. ... Shaving cream is cream that is applied to the face to avoid razor burn. ... An open can of Kiwi shoe polish with a side-mounted opening mechanism visible at the top of the photo. ... Talc block Talc is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a government to an inventor or applicant for a limited amount of time (normally maximum 20 years from the filing date, depending on extension). ...

Peanut products

Carver's fame today is typically summarized by the claim that he invented more than 300 uses for the peanut. However, Carver's lists contain many products he did not invent; the lists also have many redundancies. The 105 recipes in Carver's 1916 bulletin [33] were common kitchen recipes, but some appear on lists of his peanut inventions, including salted peanuts, bar candy, chocolate coated peanuts, peanut chocolate fudge, peanut wafers and peanut brittle. Carver acknowledged over two dozen other publications as the sources of the 105 peanut recipes.[34] Carver's list of peanut inventions includes 30 cloth dyes, 19 leather dyes, 18 insulating boards, 17 wood stains, 11 wall boards and 11 peanut flours.[35] These six product types account for 106 "uses". If the multiple listings for the same product, redundant listings and uses unoriginal to Carver are removed, the list of Carver's peanut inventions is about 100 rather than 300.

Even many seemingly innovative uses, such as cocoa, coffee and soap were not new. An 1885 peanut book by B.W. Jones, The Peanut Plant: Its Cultivation and Uses, included recipes for peanut chocolate and peanut coffee and reported that soap had been made from peanuts. [36] Carver's nine stock feeds from peanuts were not new either. Jones reported that "Every kind of stock, horses, cows, sheep, hogs and poultry, are exceedingly fond of the Peanut and will leave any other food to partake of it."

Recipe number 51 on the list of 105 peanut uses describes a "peanut butter" that led to the belief that Carver invented the modern product with this name. It is a recipe for making a typical gritty, oily peanut butter of the period. It does not have the key steps (which would be difficult to achieve in a kitchen) for manufacturing stable, creamy commercial peanut butter that was developed in 1922 by Joseph L. Rosefield. Carver is also often incorrectly credited with the invention of the original oily type of peanut butter. In 1890, even before Carver was in college, George A. Bayle Jr. of St. Louis marketed a crude form of peanut butter as a food easily eaten by people with poor teeth. Joseph L. Rosefield was a California food businessman who invented modern peanut butter in 1922-1923. ...

Carver's original uses for peanuts include radical substitutes for existing products such as gasoline and nitroglycerin. These products remain mysterious because Carver never published his formulas, except for his peanut cosmetic patent. Many of them may only have been hypothetical proposals. Without Carver's formulas, others could not determine if his products were worthwhile or manufacture them. Thus, the widespread claims that Carver's peanut inventions revolutionized Southern agriculture by creating large new markets for peanuts have no factual basis.[32]

The rise in U.S. peanut production in the early 1900s was due to the following: [37]

  • The boll weevil's devastation of cotton farming
  • The growing popularity of peanut butter after John Harvey Kellogg began promoting it as a health food in the 1890s
  • Introduction of a big-selling roasted peanut vending machine in 1901
  • The start of major commercial production of peanut candy in 1901
  • Introduction of a peanut picking machine in 1905
  • Increased demand for peanut oil during World War I due to wartime shortages of other plant oils

Although his industrial uses of peanuts found no significant application in the U.S., Carver gave a peanut milk recipe to an African nurse in 1918. [23] In a letter written after Carver's death, the nurse claimed that in some parts of interior Africa, tigers and tsetse flies made it impossible to raise domestic animals as a source of milk. She related that peanut milk had saved the lives of hundreds of infants whose mothers were unable to nurse them. A problem with the story is that tigers are not native to Africa. John Harvey Kellogg (February 26, 1852 – December 14, 1943) was an American medical doctor in Battle Creek, Michigan who ran a sanitarium using holistic methods, with a particular focus on nutrition, enemas and exercise. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ...

Despite a common claim that Carver never tried to profit from his inventions, Carver did market a few of his peanut products. None was successful enough to sell for long. The Carver Penol Company sold a mixture of creosote and peanuts as a patent medicine for respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis. Other ventures were The Carver Products Company and the Carvoline Company. Carvoline Antiseptic Hair Dressing was a mix of peanut oil and lanolin. Carvoline Rubbing Oil was a peanut oil for massages.

Sweet potato products

Next to peanuts, Carver is most associated with sweet potato products. In his 1922 sweet potato bulletin, Carver listed a few dozen recipes "many of which I have copied verbatim from Bulletin No. 129, U. S. Department of Agriculture"[38] Binomial name (L.) Lam. ...

The list of Carver's sweet potato inventions compiled from Carver's records includes 73 dyes, 17 wood fillers, 14 candies, 5 library pastes, 5 breakfast foods, 4 starches, 4 flours and 3 molasses. [39] There are also listings for vinegar and spiced vinegar, dry coffee and instant coffee and candy, after dinner mints, orange drops and lemon drops.

Carver bulletins

During his time at Tuskegee (over four decades), Carver's official published work consisted mainly of 44 practical bulletins for farmers.[40] His first bulletin in 1898 was on feeding acorns to farm animals. His final bulletin in 1943 was about the peanut. He also published six bulletins on sweet potatoes, five on cotton and four on cowpeas. Some other individual bulletins dealt with alfalfa, wild plum, tomato, ornamental plants, corn, poultry, dairying, hogs, preserving meats in hot weather and nature study in schools.

His most popular bulletin, How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption, was first published in 1916[41] and reprinted many times. It gave a short overview of peanut crop production and contained a list of recipes from other agricultural bulletins, cookbooks, magazines and newspapers, such as the Peerless Cookbook, Good Housekeeping and Berry's Fruit Recipes. Carver's was far from the first American agricultural bulletin devoted to peanuts,[42][43][44][45][46] but his bulletins did seem to be more popular and widespread than previous ones.

Beyond the Peanut Man legend

The life history and achievements of George Washington Carver have been exaggerated by many admirers, as is the case for many admired historical figures.

Perhaps the legend most often told to young children is that Carver "invented peanut butter." This legend, and the related legend that Carver invented 300-plus peanut products, derive from Carver's years of research into novel end-uses for southern crops other than cotton, whose monoculture was depleting southern soils. Carver himself made it clear that he used recipe books and other sources when compiling (for example) his booklet How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing It for Human Consumption. [47] Peanut butter in a jar. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ...

After Carver's death, lists were created of the plant products Carver compiled or originated. The number of items on such lists (for example, about 300 applications for peanuts) [35] have often been mis-stated as the number of items invented by Carver.

Carver oil painting
Carver oil painting

The legend that "Carver invented crop rotation" is a similar exaggeration of Carver's role promoting crop rotation in the post-Civil-War South. Carver's advocacy for crop rotation gave special stress to the nitrogen-replenishing role of legume crops like the peanut. He was not, however, the original discoverer of this feature of legume crops. George Washington Carver-oil painting From http://www. ... George Washington Carver-oil painting From http://www. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ...

Another common legend is that Carver generously made his new plant products freely available for everyone to use and never tried to financially profit from them himself. Carver did not write down the formulas for most of his new plant products so other people could not make them. Carver started four companies that made and sold a few of his peanut products. All four companies soon failed.

Finally, there were many people other than Carver who played a part in the rescue of post-Civil-War southern agriculture from cotton monoculture.


While George Washington Carver is most widely recognized for his scientific contributions regarding the peanut, he is also often recognized as a devoted Christian. God and science were both areas of intrigue, not warring ideas in the mind of George Washington Carver. Like many other devout Christians of his era, he accepted the Creation account given in the Book of Genesis as literal truth. [48] He testified on many occasions that his faith in Jesus was the only mechanism by which he could effectively pursue and perform the art of science.[49][50] This article is about the legume. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ...

George Washington Carver became a Christian when he was ten years old. He heard about Sunday school from a white neighborhood boy while working in a barn. When he was told that they sang songs and prayed at Sunday school, he followed suit and prayed to God for the first time in the loft of that same barn.[48] From this child-like beginning he matured in his faith by placing his understanding of God firmly in the Words of the Bible. [51][52] When he was still a young boy, he was not expected to live past his twenty-first birthday due to inconspicuously failing health. He used the diagnosis as an opportunity to exercise his trust in God and pushed forward. He lived well past the age of twenty-one and his trust in God's provision deepened as a result.[22] Throughout his career, he always found friendship and safety in the fellowship of other Christians. He relied on them exceedingly when enduring harsh criticism from the scientific community and newsprint media regarding his research methodology. [48][53] Sunday school, Indians and whites. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...

Dr. Carver's faith was foundational in how he approached life. He viewed faith in Jesus as a means to destroying both barriers of racial disharmony and social stratification.[54] For Dr. Carver, faith was an agent of change. It increased knowledge rather than competing against it. The greater his faith increased, the more he desired to learn. The more he learned, the greater his faith became.[55] In attempts to teach his students, he defaulted first and foremost to the proclamation of Christ. He taught that knowledge of God through the Bible and devotion to Jesus were paramount to what he could teach them pedagogically through numbers and formulas.[56] He was as concerned with his students' character development as he was with their intellectual development. He even compiled a list of eight cardinal virtues for his students to emulate and strive toward: This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

  • Be clean both inside and out.
  • Neither look up to the rich or down on the poor.
  • Lose, if need be, without squealing.
  • Win without bragging.
  • Always be considerate of women, children, and older people.
  • Be too brave to lie.
  • Be too generous to cheat.
  • Take your share of the world and let others take theirs.[7]

Carver also led a Bible class on Sundays while at Tuskegee, beginning in 1906, for several students at their request. In this class he would regularly tell the stories from the Bible by acting them out.[7] Unconventional in respect to both his scientific method and his ambition as a teacher, he inspired as much criticism as he did praise.[57] Dr. Carver expressed this sentiment in response to this phenomenon: "When you do the common things in life in an uncommon way, you will command the attention of the world."[58]

The legacy of George Washington Carver's faith is included in many Christian book series for children and adults about great men and women of faith and the work they accomplished through their convictions respectively. One such series, the Sower series, includes his story along side such scientists as Isaac Newton, Samuel Morse, Johannes Kepler and the Wright brothers.[59] Other Christian literary references include "Man’s Slave, God’s Scientist," by David R. Collins and the Heroes of the Faith series' book "George Washington Carver: Inventor and Naturalist" by Sam Wellman. He is also included in Christian and homeschooling curriculum in the history units as in Heroes of History: George Washington Carver along with Abraham Lincoln, David Livingstone, and Eric Liddell. Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Portrait of Samuel F. B. Morse by Mathew Brady, between 1855 and 1865 Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American inventor, and painter of portraits and historic scenes; he is most famous for inventing the electric telegraph and Morse code. ... Kepler redirects here. ... The Wright brothers, Orville (19 August 1871 – 30 January 1948) and Wilbur (16 April 1867 – 30 May 1912), were two Americans who are generally credited[1][2][3] with inventing and building the worlds first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in central Africa. ... Eric Henry Liddell, circa 1923. ...


  1. ^ Birth and death dates from the Notable Names Database
  2. ^ a b http://www.nps.gov/archive/gwca/expanded/gwc_tour_01.htm
  3. ^ The first Jesup Wagon
  4. ^ McMurry, L.O. 1981. George Washington Carver: Scientist and Symbol. New York, Oxford University Press.
  5. ^ Smith, Andrew F. 2002. Peanuts: The Illustrious History of the Goober Pea. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
  6. ^ a b Anon. Nov. 24, 1941 "Black Leonardo", Time 38 (21): 81–82.
  7. ^ a b c Link Lookup
  8. ^ Pages 9-10 of George Washington Carver: Scientist and Symbol by Linda McMurry, 1982. New York: Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-503205-5)
  9. ^ Harmon Collection
  10. ^ Pages 45-47 of McMurry
  11. ^ Volume 5, page 481 of Harlan
  12. ^ Volume 5, page 504 of Harlan
  13. ^ Volume 8, page 95 of Harlan
  14. ^ Volume 10, page 480 of Harlan
  15. ^ Volume 12, page 95 of Harlan
  16. ^ Volume 12, pages 251-252 of Harlan
  17. ^ Volume 12, page 201 of Harlan
  18. ^ Volume 13, page 35 of Harlan
  19. ^ Volume 10, pages 592-596 of Harlan
  20. ^ Volume 4, page 239 of Harlan
  21. ^ Booker T. Washington, 1856-1915 My Larger Education: Being Chapters from My Experience
  22. ^ a b GWC | His Life in his own words
  23. ^ a b c d e f Microsoft Word - Special History Study.doc
  24. ^ The legacy of George Washington Carver-Friends & Colleagues (Henry Wallace
  25. ^ Raleigh Howard Merritt. From Captivity to Fame or The Life of George Washington Carver
  26. ^ Peanut Man - TIME
  27. ^ GWC | Tour Of His Life |Page 6
  28. ^ George Washington Carver National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)
  29. ^ Change Without Revolution - TIME
  30. ^ USDA Hall of Heroes
  31. ^ George Washington Carver: Chemist, Teacher, Symbol
  32. ^ a b Mackintosh, Barry. 1977. George Washington Carver and the Peanut: New Light on a Much-loved Myth. American Heritage 28(5): 66-73. [1]
  33. ^ Carver, George Washington. 1916. How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption. Tuskegee Institute Experimental Station Bulletin 31. [2]
  34. ^ Page 88 of Peanuts: The Illustrious History of the Goober Pea by Andrew F. Smith, 2002. Chicago: University of Illinois Press (ISBN 0-252-02553-9) [3]
  35. ^ a b List of By-Products From Peanuts By George Washington Carver (as compiled by the Carver Museum)
  36. ^ Core Historical Literature of Agriculture
  37. ^ Pages 412-413 of Crop Production : Evolution, History, and Technology. by C. Wayne Smith, 1995. New York: Wiley (ISBN 0-471-07972-3) [4]
  38. ^ How the Farmer Can Save His Sweet Potatoes, Geo. W. Carver
  39. ^ Carver Sweet Potato Products
  40. ^ List of Bulletins by George Washington Carver [5]
  41. ^ Carver, George Washington. 1916. "How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption." Tuskegee Institute Experimental Station Bulletin 31. [6]
  42. ^ Handy, R.B. 1895. Peanuts: Culture and Uses. USDA Farmers' Bulletin 25.
  43. ^ Newman, C.L. 1904. Peanuts. Fayetteville, Arkansas: Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station.
  44. ^ Beattie, W.R. 1909. Peanuts. USDA Farmers' Bulletin 356.
  45. ^ Ferris, E.B. 1909. Peanuts. Agricultural College, Mississippi: Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station.
  46. ^ Beattie, W.R. 1911. The Peanut. USDA Farmers' Bulletin 431.
  47. ^ George Washington Carver and the Peanut
  48. ^ a b c http://www.georgiasouthern.edu/~etmcmull/CARVER.htm
  49. ^ Man of science-and of God: George Washington Carver believed that Providence guided his scientific investigations and that those investigations led to a better understanding of God and His handiwork. | The New American (January, 2004)
  50. ^ George Washington Carver - CreationWiki, the encyclopedia of creation science
  51. ^ George Washington Carver: Pocket Watch and Bible
  52. ^ http://www.mhmin.org/FC/fc-1293GeorgeC.htm
  53. ^ http://www.lib.unc.edu/mss/inv/n/Newman,Wilson_L.
  54. ^ Quotes From Dr. Carver | Page 2
  55. ^ Legends of Tuskegee: George Washington Carver-From Slave to Student
  56. ^ The Educational Theory of George Washington Carver
  57. ^ George Washington Carver
  58. ^ George Washington Carver Quotes
  59. ^ Whole Life Stewardship - Books


  • Carver, George Washington. "1897 or Thereabouts: George Washington Carver's Own Brief History of His Life." George Washington Carver National Monument.
  • Kremer, Gary R. (editor). 1987. George Washington Carver in His Own Words. Columbia, Missouri.: University of Missouri Press.
  • McMurry, L. O. Carver, George Washington. American National Biography Online Feb. 2000
  • George Washington Carver : Man’s Slave, God’s Scientist, Collins, David R., Mott Media, 1981)
  • George Washington Carver: His Life & Faith in His Own Words (Hardcover) by William J. Federer Publisher: AmeriSearch (January 2003) ISBN-10: 0965355764
  • George Washington Carver: In His Own Words (Paperback)by George W. Carver Publisher: University of Missouri Press; Reprint edition (January 1991) ISBN-10: 0826207855 ISBN-13: 978-0826207852
  • H.M. Morris, Men of Science, Men of God (1982)
  • E.C.Barnett & D.Fisher, Scientists Who Believe (1984)
  • G.R. Kremer, George Washington Carver in His Own Words (1987)

See also

African American History or Black American History, a history of American blacks or Black Americans in the United States from their arrival in the Americas in the 16th century until the present day. ... Binomial name Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 Wikispecies has information related to: Boll weevil The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a beetle measuring an average length of six millimeters (¼ inch). ... The Carver Academy is a non-profit, private school located in San Antonio, Texas. ... This article lists people who have been featured on United States postage stamps. ... This article is about the legume. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...


Find A Grave is an online database of seventeen million cemeteries and burial records. ...

Print Publications

  • Peter D. Burchard, "George Washington Carver: For His Time and Ours," National Parks Service: George Washington Carver National Monument. 2006.
  • Barry Mackintosh, "George Washington Carver and the Peanut: New Light on a Much-loved Myth," American Heritage 28(5): 66-73, 1977.
  • Louis R. Harlan, Ed., The Booker T. Washington Papers, Volume 4, pp. 127-128. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. 1975.
  • Mark Hersey, "Hints and Suggestions to Farmers: George Washington Carver and Rural Conservation in the South," Environmental History April 2006
  • George Washington Carver. "How to Grow the Peanut and 105 Ways of Preparing it for Human Consumption," Tuskegee Institute Experimental Station Bulletin 31, 1916.
  • George Washington Carver. "How the Farmer Can Save His Sweet Potatoes and Ways of Preparing Them for the Table," Tuskegee Institute Experimental Station Bulletin 38, 1936.
  • George Washington Carver. "How to Grow the Tomato and 115 Ways to Prepare it for the Table" Tuskegee Institute Experimental Station Bulletin 36, 1936.
  • Raleigh H. Merritt, From Captivity to Fame or the Life of George Washington Carver, Boston: Meador Publishing. 1929.
  • Linda O. McMurry, George Washington Carver: Scientist and Symbol, New York: Oxford University Press, 1982. [7][8]
NAME Carver, George Washington
PLACE OF BIRTH Diamond, Missouri, United States of America
DATE OF DEATH January 5, 1943
PLACE OF DEATH Tuskegee, Alabama, United States of America
This is a list of botanists by their author abbreviation, including that established by Brummitt & Powell (1992), designed for citation in the botanical names they have published. ... In botanical nomenclature, author citation refers to the person (or team) who valid published the name, i. ... A botanical name is a formal name conforming to the ICBN. As with its zoological and bacterial equivalents it may also be called a scientific name. Botanical names may be in one part (genus and above), two parts (species) or three parts (below the rank of species). ... Diamond is a town located in Newton County, Missouri. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tuskegee is a city in Macon County, Alabama, United States. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...

  Results from FactBites:
The legacy of George Washington Carver--About George Washington Carver (848 words)
Carver grew to be a student of life and a scholar, despite the illness and frailty of his early childhood.
Carver's interests in music and art remained strong, but it was his excellence in botany and horticulture that prompted professors Joseph Budd and Louis Pammel to encourage him to stay on as a graduate student after he completed his bachelor's degree in 1894.
Carver taught his students that nature is the greatest teacher and that by understanding the forces in nature, one can understand the dynamics of agriculture.
George Washington Carver - MSN Encarta (540 words)
George Washington Carver (1861?-1943), American scientist and educator, noted especially for his research on the peanut.
Carver was internationally recognized for his research in agricultural sciences, and he is credited with having revolutionized agriculture in the Southern United States.
In 1943 Congress established the George Washington Carver National Monument near Diamond, Missouri, on the farm where Carver was born.
  More results at FactBites »



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