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Encyclopedia > George Washington
George Washington
George Washington

In office
April 30, 1789 – March 4, 1797
Vice President(s) John Adams
Preceded by (none)
Succeeded by John Adams

Born February 22, 1732
Westmoreland County, Virginia
Died December 14, 1799 (aged 67)
Mount Vernon, Virginia
Nationality American
Spouse Martha Dandridge Custis Washington
Occupation Farmer (Planter), Soldier (General)
Religion Anglican/Episcopal
Signature George Washington's signature

George Washington (February 22, 1732December 14, 1799)[1] led America's Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America.[2] He served two four-year terms from 1789 to 1797, winning reelection in 1792. Because of his central and critical role in the founding of the United States, Washington is referred to as father of the nation. His devotion to republicanism and civic virtue made him an exemplary figure among early American politicians. Image File history File links the first president of the United States of America Stuart, Gilbert, 1755-1828, artist File links The following pages link to this file: President of the United States Purple Heart United States List of Presidents of the United States User talk:Simplicius User:Bishonen/prettytable... For a list of presidents, see list of Presidents of the United States. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... Westmoreland County is a county located in the Northern Neck of the state of Virginia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Back of the main house. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Give Me Liberty Martha Dandridge Custis Washington (June 2, 1731 – May 22, 1802) was the wife of George Washington, the first president of the United States, and therefore is seen as the first First Lady of the United States (although that title was not coined until after her death; she... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... // This article is about crop plantations. ... This article is about a military rank. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The arms of the Episcopal Church are based on the St Georges Cross, a symbol of England (mother of world Anglicanism), with a saltire reminiscent of the Cross of St Andrew in the canton in reference to the historical origins of the American episcopate in the Scottish Episcopal Church. ... Image File history File links George_Washington_signature. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... British North America was an informal term first used in 1783, but uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... Combatants American Revolutionaries French Monarchy Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida and Tuscarora tribes Polish volunteers Prussian volunteers Kingdom of Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Hessian mercenaries Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz KoÅ›ciuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben Sir... For a list of presidents, see list of Presidents of the United States. ... Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ... Classical republicanism is the form of republicanism developed during the Renaissance inspired by the government systems and writings of classical antiquity. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties/Parishes/Boroughs, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential...


In his youth, Washington worked as a surveyor of rural lands and acquired what would become invaluable knowledge of the terrain around his native state of Virginia which at the time included West Virginia and the upper Ohio Valley area around present day Pittsburgh. In the early 1750's Washington was actually sent as an ambassador to the French traders and Indians as far north as present day Erie, Pennsylvania. Virginia was very interested in this area as the gateway to western expansion via the Ohio River and onward. Pennsylvania and Virginia both competed for this area around what would become Pittsburgh, but the French saw it as even more valueable; a way to unite Quebec and Louisiana via river while pinning the English to the East Coast. Washington gained command experience during the resulting French and Indian War (1754–1763). First as a colonel under General Edward Braddock to take Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, then as a commander when at Braddocks Field, Braddock was fatally injured. It is curious to note that Washington suffered his only military defeat in the woods outside present day Pittsburgh at Fort Necessity, mistakes that he witnessed first hand at the brash leadership of European Braddock losing battles on a new "American" frontier. Due to this experience, his military bearing, his enormous charisma, his leadership of the patriot cause in Virginia, and his political base in the largest colony, the Second Continental Congress chose him, in 1775, as their commander-in-chief of the American army. // [edit] Native Americans Virginia Indian chief in engraving after John White watercolor The portion of the New World designated Virginia in honor of the Virgin Queen (Elizabeth I) in the late 16th century had been inhabited by many groups of Native Americans for at least 3,000 years, based upon... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Carl D. Perkins Bridge in Portsmouth, Ohio with Ohio River and Scioto River tributary on right. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... Nickname: The Gem City Location in Pennsylvania Location of Pennsylvania with the U.S.A. Coordinates: County Erie County Founded 1795 Government  - Mayor Joseph Sinnott Area  - City  28. ... Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... Combatants France First Nations allies: * Algonquin * Wyandot * Ojibwa * Ottawa * Shawnee Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven Years War. ... General Edward Braddock General Edward Braddock (1695? – July 13, 1755) was a British soldier and commander-in-chief for North America during the actions at the start of the French and Indian War. ... An artist’s rendering of Fort Duquesne Fort Duquesne was a fort established by the French in 1754, at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers in what is now downtown Pittsburgh in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Main article: Battle of the Great Meadows Fort Necessity National Battlefield, located near Farmington, Pennsylvania, commemorates the first military engagement of the French and Indian War (known as the Seven Years War outside of the United States). ... Go to american revolution at wiki to get the same information provided below! This article concerns Patriots in the Revolutionary War. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting the first draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ...


In 1776, he victoriously forced the British out of Boston, but, later that same year, was badly defeated, and nearly captured, when he lost New York City. However, in the bitter-cold dead of night, he revived the patriot cause, by crossing the Delaware River in New Jersey and defeating the surprised enemy units. As a result of his strategic oversight, Revolutionary forces captured the two main British combat armies, first at Saratoga in 1777 and then at Yorktown in 1781. He handled relations with the states and their militias, dealt with disputing generals and colonels, and worked with Congress to supply and recruit the Continental army. Negotiating with Congress, the colonial states, and French allies, he held together a tenuous army and a fragile, nascent nation amid the constant threats of disintegration and failure. He was also the country's first spymaster.[3] The Boston campaign was part of the American Revolutionary War. ... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington Sir William Howe Lord Cornwallis The New York and New Jersey campaigns were important early events in the American Revolutionary War. ... For the Delaware River in Kansas, see Delaware River (Kansas) The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Charles Lee Sir William Howe, Lord Cornwallis Strength 19,000 regulars and militia 25,000 soldiers, 10,000 seamen The New York and New Jersey campaign was a series of engagements in the American Revolutionary War between forces led by General Sir... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Brian green and anthony bararta 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... Combatants France United States Great Britain German mercenaries Commanders Jean-Baptiste de Rochambeau François de Grasse Gilbert de La Fayette George Washington Nathanael Greene Charles Cornwallis # Charles O’Hara # Banastre Tarleton # (stationed at Gloucester, Virginia) Strength 10,800 French, 8,845 Americans 7,500 Casualties 62 dead 190 wounded... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties/Parishes/Boroughs, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... The concept of the militia in the United States of America is a complex one. ... Army shoulder insignia for a full General General is the most senior rank currently used in the United States Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps. ... Please see Colonel for other countries which use this rank Insignia of a United States Colonel Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces. ... The Continental Congress is the label given to these two girls that i know. ... Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution). ...


Following the end of the war in 1783, Washington emulated the Roman general Cincinnatus, and retired to his plantation on Mount Vernon, an exemplar of the republican ideal of citizen leadership who rejected power. Alarmed in the late 1780s at the many weaknesses of the new nation under the Articles of Confederation, he presided over the Constitutional Convention that drafted the United States Constitution in 1787. With one hand he returns the fasces, symbol of power as appointed dictator of Rome. ... Back of the main house. ... Mount Vernon is a census-designated place located in Fairfax County, Virginia. ... The Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the United States of America Page one of the original copy of the Constitution. ...


In 1789, Washington became President of the United States and promptly established many of the customs and usages of the new government's executive department. He sought to create a great nation capable of surviving in a world torn asunder by war between Britain and France. His Proclamation of Neutrality of 1793 provided a basis for avoiding any involvement in foreign conflicts. He supported Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton's plans to build a strong central government by funding the national debt, implementing an effective tax system, and creating a national bank. When rebels in Pennsylvania defied Federal authority, he rode at the head of the army to authoritatively quell the Whiskey Rebellion. Washington avoided the temptation of war and began a decade of peace with Britain via the Jay Treaty in 1795; he used his immense prestige to get it ratified over intense opposition from the Jeffersonians. Although he never officially joined the Federalist Party, he supported its programs and was its inspirational leader. By refusing to pursue a third term, he made it the enduring norm that no U.S. President should seek more than two. Washington's Farewell Address was a primer on republican virtue and a stern warning against involvement in foreign wars. This article describes the government of the United States. ... This article describes the government of the United States. ... It has been suggested that Neutrality Proclamation be merged into this article or section. ... Non-interventionism, the diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations, has had a long history in the United States. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... Central government or the national government (or, in federal states, the federal government) is the government at the level of the nation state. ... Government debt (also known as public debt or national debt) is money (or credit) owed by any level of government; either central government, federal government, municipal government or local government. ... Taxation in the United States is a complex system which may involve payment to at least four different levels of government. ... The term national bank has several meanings: especially in developing countries, a bank owned by the state an ordinary private bank which operates nationally (as opposed to regionally or locally or even internationally) In the past, the term national bank has been used synonymously with central bank, but it is... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The Whiskey Rebellion, lesser known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the locality of Washington, Pennsylvania, in the Monongahela Valley. ... The Treaty The Jay Treaty between the United States and Great Britain averted war, solved many issues left over from the Revolution, and opened ten years of peaceful trade in the midst of a large war. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party during the First Party System, in the period 1793 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. ... George Washingtons Farewell Address was written to the people of the United States at the end of his second term as President of the United States. ...


As the symbol of republicanism in practice, Washington embodied American values and across the world was seen as the symbol of the new nation. Scholars perennially rank him among the three greatest U.S. Presidents. During Washington's funeral oration, Henry Lee said that of among all Americans, he was "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." (See Legacy, below.) This article serves as an overview of the customs and culture of the United States; for the popular (pop) culture of the United States, see arts and entertainment in the United States. ... Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and President Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ... Henry Lee (portrait by William Edward West) Henry Lee III, called Light Horse Hairy, (January 29, 1756 – March 25, 1818) was a cavalry officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...

Contents

Early life

George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 (February 11, 1731, O.S.), the first son of Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington, on the family estate (later known as Wakefield) in Westmoreland County, Virginia. Washington embarked upon a career as a planter and in 1748 was invited to help survey Baron Fairfax's lands west of the Blue Ridge. In 1749 he was appointed to his first public office, surveyor of newly created Culpeper County,[4] and through his half-brother Lawrence Washington he became interested in the Ohio Company, which aimed to exploit Western lands. After Lawrence's death (1752), George inherited part of his estate and took over some of Lawrence's duties as adjutant of the colony.[5] As district adjutant, which made him Major Washington at the age of 20 (December 1752), he was charged with training the militia in the quarter assigned him.[6] Also at 20, in Fredricksburg, Washington joined the Freemasons, a fraternal organization that became a lifelong influence.[7] George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799) commanded Americas war for independence (1775–1783), and was the first President of the United States, from 1789 to 1797. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Augustine Washington (circa 1694 - 1743) is the father of George Washington. ... Mary Ball Washington Sangford was the mother of George Washington. ... Wakefield The Town Hall, Wood St. ... Westmoreland County is a county located in the Northern Neck of the state of Virginia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Culpeper County is a county located in the U.S. state — officially, Commonwealth — of Virginia. ... The Masonic Square and Compasses. ...


French and Indian War

The earliest known portrait of Washington, painted in 1772 by Charles Willson Peale, showing Washington in uniform as colonel of the Virginia Regiment.

At 22 years of age Washington fired some of the first shots of the French and Indian War, soon to become part of the worldwide Seven Years' War. Troubles began in 1753, when France began building a series of forts in the Ohio Country, a region also claimed by Virginia. Governor Dinwiddie sent young Major Washington to the Ohio Country to assess French military strength and intentions, and ask the French to leave. When the French refused, Washington's published report was widely read in both Virginia and Britain. In 1754, Dinwiddie sent Washington, now commissioned a Lieutenant Colonel in the newly created Virginia Regiment, to drive away the French. Along with his American Indian allies, Washington and his troops ambushed a French scouting party of some 30 men, led by Joseph Coulon de Villiers de Jumonville and sent from Fort Duquesne to discover if Washington had in fact invaded French-claimed territory. Were this to be the case he was to send word back to the fort, then deliver a formal summons to Washington calling on him to withdraw. His small force was an embassy, resembling Washington’s to Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre the preceding year, and he neglected to post sentries around his encampment. At daybreak on the 28th, Washington with 40 men stole up on the French camp near present Jumonville, Pa. Some were still asleep, others preparing breakfast. Without warning, Washington gave the order to fire. The Canadians who escaped the volley scrambled for their weapons, but were swiftly overwhelmed. Jumonville, the French later claimed, was struck down while trying to proclaim his official summons. Ten of the Canadians were killed, one wounded, all but one of the rest taken prisoner. Washington and his men then retired, leaving the bodies of their victims for the wolves. Washington then built Fort Necessity, which soon proved inadequate, as he was soon compelled to surrender to a larger French and Indian force. The surrender terms that Washington signed included an admission that he had assassinated Jumonville. Because the French claimed that Jumonville's party had been on a diplomatic (rather than military) mission, the "Jumonville affair" became an international incident and helped to ignite a wider war. Washington was released by the French with his promise not to return to the Ohio Country for one year. Back in Virginia, Governor Dinwiddie broke up the Virginia Regiment into independent companies; Washington resigned from active military service rather than accept a demotion to captain. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with George Washington#French and Indian War. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827), self-portrait from 1822 Charles Willson Peale (April 15, 1741 – February 22, 1827) was an American painter, soldier and naturalist. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: * Algonquin * Wyandot * Ojibwa * Ottawa * Shawnee Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven Years War. ... Combatants Prussia Great Britain Hanover Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Austria France Russia Sweden Spain Saxony Naples and Sicily Sardinia The Seven Years War(i) (1754 and 1756–1763), incorporating the Pomeranian War and the French and Indian War enveloped both European and colonial theatres. ... The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... The Virginia Regiment was formed in 1754 by Virginia s Governor Robert Dinwiddie, initially as an all volunteer corps, and he sent George Washington, the future first president of the United States of America, to assume command upon the death of Colonel Joshua Fry. ... Fort Necessity was a British fortress west of the Pennsylvania colony. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders George Washington James Mackay Louis Coulon de Villiers Strength 100 regulars 193 militia, and natives 100 natives 600 marines, and militia Casualties 31 dead 70 wounded 192 captured 3 dead 19 wounded The Battle of the Great Meadows, also known as the Battle of Fort Necessity... The Battle of Jumonville Glen was a battle of the French and Indian War fought on May 28, 1754 near what is present-day Uniontown in Western Pennsylvania. ...


In 1755, British General Edward Braddock headed a major effort to retake the Ohio Country. Washington eagerly volunteered to serve as one of Braddock's aides, although the British officers held the colonials in contempt.[8] Though the expedition ended in disaster at the Battle of the Monongahela, Washington distinguished himself in the debacle. He had two horses shot out from under him, and four bullets pierced his coat, yet he sustained no injuries and maintained composure under fire. While Washington's role during the battle has been debated, biographer Joseph Ellis asserts that Washington rode back and forth across the battlefield, rallying the remnant of the British and Virginian forces to a retreat. Washington became a hero in Virginia. General Edward Braddock General Edward Braddock (1695? – July 13, 1755) was a British soldier and commander-in-chief for North America during the actions at the start of the French and Indian War. ... Combatants France Britain Commanders Liénard de Beaujeu † Jean-Daniel Dumas Charles de Langlade Edward Braddock † Strength 105 regulars 147 militia 600 natives 1,459 regulars and militia Casualties 23 killed 20 wounded 456 killed 521 wounded The Braddock expedition (also called Braddocks campaign) was a failed British attempt... Joseph John Ellis (1943- ) is a Pulitzer Prize - winning professor of history at Mount Holyoke College. ...


In fall 1755, Governor Dinwiddie appointed Washington commander in chief of all Virginia forces, with rank of colonel and responsibility for defending 300 miles (480 km) of mountainous frontier with about 300 men. Washington supervised savage, frontier warfare that averaged two engagements a month. His letters show he was moved by the plight of the frontiersmen he was protecting. With too few troops, inadequate supplies, and insufficient authority for discipline, and hampered by an antagonistic governor, he had a severe challenge. In 1758, he took part in the Forbes Expedition, which successfully drove the French from Fort Duquesne. John Forbes (5 September 1707 – March 11, 1759) was a British general in the French and Indian War. ... An artist’s rendering of Fort Duquesne Fort Duquesne was a fort established by the French in 1754, at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers in what is now downtown Pittsburgh in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ...


Washington's goal at the outset of his military career had been to secure a commission as a British officer, which had more prestige than serving in the provincial military. However, the British officers had disdain for the amateurish, non-aristocratic Americans. Washington's commission never came; in 1758, Washington resigned from active military service and spent the next sixteen years as a Virginia planter and politician.[9]


Between the wars

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
A mezzotint of Martha Dandridge Custis, based on a 1757 portrait by John Wollaston.
A mezzotint of Martha Dandridge Custis, based on a 1757 portrait by John Wollaston.

On January 6, 1759, Washington married Martha Dandridge Custis, a widow who was living at White House Plantation on the south shore of the Pamunkey River in New Kent County, Virginia. The newlywed couple moved to Mount Vernon, where he took up the life of a genteel planter and political figure. They had a good marriage, and together, they raised her two children, John Parke Custis and Martha Parke Custis, affectionately called "Jackie" and "Patsy". Later the Washingtons raised two of Mrs. Washington's grandchildren, Eleanor Parke Custis and George Washington Parke Custis after their father died in 1781. George and Martha never had any children together—his earlier bout with smallpox followed, possibly, by tuberculosis may have made him sterile. [10] George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799) commanded Americas war for independence (1775–1783), and was the first President of the United States, from 1789 to 1797. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Martha_Dandridge_Custis. ... Image File history File links Martha_Dandridge_Custis. ... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Give Me Liberty Martha Dandridge Custis Washington (June 2, 1731 – May 22, 1802) was the wife of George Washington, the first president of the United States, and therefore is seen as the first First Lady of the United States (although that title was not coined until after her death; she... ... The Pamunkey River is a tributary of the York River, about 90 mi (145 km) long, in eastern Virginia in the United States. ... New Kent County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ... Back of the main house. ... John Parke Custis (27 November 1754-5 November 1781) was a Virginia planter and stepson of George Washington. ... Eleanor Parke Custis Lewis (1779-1852), known as Nelly, is the adopted daughter and step-granddaughter of United States President George Washington. ... Photograph of George Washington Parke Custis George Washington Parke Custis (April 30, 1781 – October 19, 1857), was the adopted son (and also step-grandson) of United States President George Washington. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease that is caused by mycobacteria, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


Washington's marriage to a wealthy widow greatly increased his property holdings and social standing. He acquired one-third of the 18,000-acre (73 km²) Custis estate upon his marriage, and managed the remainder on behalf of Martha's children. He frequently purchased additional acreage in his own name, and was granted land in what is now West Virginia as a bounty for his service in the French and Indian War. By 1775, Washington had doubled the size of Mount Vernon to 6,500 acres (26 km²), with over 100 slaves. As a respected military hero and large landowner, he held local office and was elected to the Virginia provincial legislature, the House of Burgesses, beginning in 1758.[11] Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Patrick Henry before the House of Burgesses in an 1851 painting by Peter F. Rothermel The House of Burgesses was the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619. ...


Washington first took a leading role in the growing colonial resistance in 1769, when he introduced a proposal drafted by his friend George Mason which called for Virginia to boycott imported English goods until the Townshend Acts were repealed. Parliament repealed the Acts in 1770. Washington also took an active interest in helping his fellow citizens even ones he did not know personally. On September 21, 1771 Washington wrote a letter to Neil Jameson on behalf of Jonathan Plowman Jr., a merchant from Baltimore whose ship had been seized for exporting non-permitted items by the Boston Frigate, and requested his help toward recovery of Plowman's ship.[12] Washington regarded the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774 as "an Invasion of our Rights and Privileges". In July 1774, he chaired the meeting at which the Fairfax Resolves were adopted, which called for, among other things, the convening of a Continental Congress. In August, he attended the First Virginia Convention, where he was selected as a delegate to the First Continental Congress.[13] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Townshend Acts were Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1767 having been proposed by Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer, just before his death. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Jonathan Plowman Jr. ... The Intolerable Acts, called by the British the Coercive Acts or Punitive Acts, were a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 in response to the growing unrest in thirteen American colonies, particularly in Boston, Massachusetts after incidents such as the Boston Tea Party. ... The Fairfax Resolves was a statement drafted on July 17, 1774 (soon after the Boston Tea Party) by George Washington, George Mason, and Patrick Henry at Washingtons Mount Vernon home, in response to Great Britains oppression of Massachusetts. ... The Continental Congress is the label given to these two girls that i know. ... The Virginia Conventions were a series of five political meetings in the state of Virginia in response to British colonial rule. ... The First Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of twelve North American colonies of Great Britain in 1774. ...


American Revolution

Portrait of George Washington in military uniform.
Portrait of George Washington in military uniform.

After fighting broke out in April 1775, Washington appeared at the Second Continental Congress in military uniform, signaling that he was prepared for war. Washington had the prestige, the military experience, the charisma and military bearing, the reputation of being a strong patriot, and he was supported by the South, especially Virginia. There was no serious competition. Congress created the Continental Army on June 14; the next day on the nomination of John Adams of Massachusetts it selected Washington as commander-in-chief. Washington assumed command of the American forces in Massachusetts in July 1775, during the ongoing siege of Boston. Realizing his army's desperate shortage of gunpowder, Washington asked for new sources. British arsenals were raided (including some in the West Indies) and some manufacturing was attempted; a barely adequate supply (about 2.5 million pounds) was obtained by the end of 1776, mostly from France.[14] Washington Crossing the Delaware, by Emanuel Leutze, 1851, Metropolitan Museum After fighting broke out in the American Revolutionary War in April 1775, George Washington was appointed as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (972x1184, 124 KB) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (972x1184, 124 KB) Česky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | Românǎ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Combatants Militia of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, (Minutemen) British Army, Royal Marines Commanders John Parker, James Barrett, William Heath Francis Smith, John Pitcairn, Walter Laurie, Lord Hugh Percy Strength 75 at Lexington Green (Parker). ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting the first draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ... The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the active American Revolutionary War, in which the Continental Army surrounded the city of Boston, Massachusetts, to prevent movement by the British Army within. ...


Washington reorganized the army during the long standoff, and forced the British to withdraw by putting artillery on Dorchester Heights overlooking the city. The British evacuated Boston and Washington moved his army to New York City. Dorchester Heights Monument The Fortification of Dorchester Heights was a decisive action early in the American Revolutionary War, which led to the British evacuation of Boston, ending the ongoing siege of Boston. ... March 17 in Suffolk County, Massachusetts is Evacuation Day, an official holiday commemorating the evacuation of the city (which was a town at the time) of Boston by British forces during the American Revolutionary War. ... Nickname: Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1625 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area  - City  468. ...

Depiction by John Trumbull of the surrender of Lord Cornwallis's army at Yorktown
Depiction by John Trumbull of the surrender of Lord Cornwallis's army at Yorktown

As Bickham (2002) shows, Washington was widely admired in Britain, where the press was virtually unanimous in portraying him in a positive light. Although negative toward the patriots in the Continental Congress, British newspapers routinely praised Washington's personal character and qualities as a military commander. Moreover, both sides of the aisle in Parliament found the American general's courage, endurance, and attentiveness to the welfare of his troops worthy of approbation and examples of the virtues they and most other Britons found wanting in their own commanders. Washington's refusal to become involved in politics buttressed his reputation as a man fully committed to the military mission at hand and above the factional fray. Image File history File links Surrender_of_Lord_Cornwallis. ... Image File history File links Surrender_of_Lord_Cornwallis. ... John Trumbull, 1756–1843 John Trumbull (June 6, 1756 – November 10, 1843) was a famous American artist from the time of the American Revolutionary War. ...


In August 1776, British General William Howe launched a massive naval and land campaign to capture New York, designed to seize New York City and offer a negotiated settlement. The Continental Army under Washington engaged the enemy for the first time as an army of the newly-declared independent United States at the Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the entire war. This and several other defeats against Howe (despite some bright spots at the Battle of Harlem Heights and elsewhere) sent Washington scrambling out of New York and across New Jersey, leaving the future of the Continental Army in doubt. On the night of December 25, 1776, Washington staged a counterattack, leading the American forces across the Delaware River to capture nearly 1,000 Hessians in Trenton, New Jersey. Sir William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC (August 10, 1729 – July 12, 1814) was an English General who was Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American Revolutionary War, one of the three Howe brothers. ... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington Sir William Howe Lord Cornwallis The New York and New Jersey campaigns were important early events in the American Revolutionary War. ... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Israel Putnam William Howe, Charles Cornwallis, Henry Clinton Strength 11,000-13,000 (about 10,000 of which were militia ) 22,000 (including 9,000 Hessians) Casualties 1,807 total (400 dead, 1,407 wounded, captured or missing) 377 total... The Battle of Harlem Heights was a skirmish in the New York Campaign of the American Revolutionary War. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Washingtons crossing of the Delaware. ... Washington Crossing the Delaware, by Emanuel Leutze, 1851, Metropolitan Museum Washingtons crossing of the Delaware, occurring on December 25, 1776 during the American Revolutionary War, was the first move in a surprise attack against the Hessian forces at Trenton, New Jersey in the Battle of Trenton. ... In mathematics, the Hessian matrix of a function of several real variables is the (symmetric) matrix of all second partial derivatives. ... Nickname: Trent, T-Town Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County Coordinates: Country United States State New Jersey County Mercer County Founded circa 1719 Mayor Douglas H. Palmer Area    - City 21. ...


Washington was defeated at the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777. On September 26, Howe outmaneuvered Washington and marched into Philadelphia unopposed. Washington's army unsuccessfully attacked the British garrison at Germantown in early October. Meanwhile Burgoyne, out of reach from help from Howe, was trapped and forced to surrender his entire army at Saratoga. As a result of this victory, France entered the war as an open ally, turning the Revolution into a major world-wide war. Washington's loss of Philadelphia prompted some members of Congress to discuss removing Washington from command. This episode failed after Washington's supporters rallied behind him.[15] Combatants United States Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Strength 10,600 17,000 Casualties 250 killed, 750 wounded, 400 captured 89 killed, 487 wounded The Battle of Brandywine was a battle of the American Revolutionary War fought on September 11, 1777, near Chadds Ford on Brandywine Creek in Delaware... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|Germantown]] || result = inconclusive || combatant1 = Continental Army || combatant2 = Great Britain|Hessian Forces || commander1 = George Washington || commander2 = William Howe || strength1 = 13,000 || strength2 = 8,000 || casualties1 = 152 killed, 521 wounded, 400 captured || casualties2 = 71 killed, 450 wounded, 14 missing |}} |- | |} The Battle of Germantown was a battle in the American Revolutionary... Germantown was originally the Borough of Germantown, a town in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania and is today a neighborhood in Philadelphia, about six miles northwest from the center of the city. ... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Brian green and anthony bararta 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... The Conway Cabal refers to a conspiracy in late 1777 and 1778 designed to remove George Washington as commander of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. ...

Depiction by John Trumbull of Washington resigning his commission as commander-in-chief.
Depiction by John Trumbull of Washington resigning his commission as commander-in-chief.

Washington's army encamped at Valley Forge in December 1777, where it stayed for the next six months. Over the winter, 2,500 men (out of 10,000) died from disease and exposure. The next spring, however, the army emerged from Valley Forge in good order, thanks in part to a full-scale training program supervised by Baron von Steuben, a veteran of the Prussian general staff. The British evacuated Philadelphia in 1778 and returned to New York City. Meanwhile, Washington remained with his army outside New York. He delivered the final blow in 1781, after a French naval victory allowed American and French forces to trap a British army in Virginia. The surrender at Yorktown on October 17, 1781 marked the end of fighting. Though known for his successes in the war and of his life that followed, as Robert Wuhl states in his HBO special Assume the Position, Washington only won three of the nine battles that he fought. Image File history File links General_George_Washington_Resigning_his_Commission. ... Image File history File links General_George_Washington_Resigning_his_Commission. ... John Trumbull, 1756–1843 John Trumbull (June 6, 1756 – November 10, 1843) was a famous American artist from the time of the American Revolutionary War. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Recreation of a cabin in which soldiers would have lived at Valley Forge Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, was the site of the camp of the American Continental Army over the winter of 1777–1778 in the American Revolutionary War. ... This article is about the American Revolutionary officer. ... Combatants France Great Britain Commanders Comte de Grasse Sir Thomas Graves Strength 24 ships 19 ships Casualties none some ships damaged The Battle of the Chesapeake, also known as Battle of the Virginia Capes, was a crucial naval battle in the American Revolutionary War which took place near the mouth... Combatants France United States Great Britain German mercenaries Commanders Jean-Baptiste de Rochambeau François de Grasse Gilbert de La Fayette George Washington Nathanael Greene Charles Cornwallis # Charles O’Hara # Banastre Tarleton # (stationed at Gloucester, Virginia) Strength 10,800 French, 8,845 Americans 7,500 Casualties 62 dead 190 wounded... October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


In March 1783, Washington used his influence to disperse a group of Army officers who had threatened to confront Congress regarding their back pay. The Treaty of Paris (1783) (signed in September) recognized the independence of the United States. Washington disbanded his army and, on November 2, gave an eloquent farewell address to his soldiers.[16] On November 25, the British evacuated New York City, and Washington and the governor took possession of the city. At Fraunces Tavern in the city on December 4, Washington formally bade his officers farewell and on December 23, 1783, he resigned his commission as commander-in-chief to the Congress of the Confederation. The Newburgh Conspiracy was a plot hatched in 1783 near the end of the American Revolutionary War resulting from the fact that many of the officers and men of the Continental Army had not received pay for many years. ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Evacuation Day on November 25 marks the day in 1783 when the last vestige of British authority in the United States — its troops in New York — departed from Manhattan. ... The current Fraunces Tavern restaurant on Pearl Street in lower Manhattan 1. ... December 4th redirects here. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of the United States from March 1, 1781 to March 4, 1789. ...


Washington's retirement to Mount Vernon was short-lived. He was persuaded to attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787, and he was unanimously elected president of the Convention. For the most part, he did not participate in the debates involved (though he did participate in voting for or against the various articles), but his prestige was great enough to maintain collegiality and to keep the delegates at their labors. The delegates designed the presidency with Washington in mind, and allowed him to define the office once elected. After the Convention, his support convinced many, including the Virginia legislature, to vote for ratification; all 13 states did ratify the new Constitution. Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ...


Presidency: 1789–1797

In 1796, Gilbert Stuart painted this famous portrait of Washington from life, and then used the unfinished painting to create numerous others, including the image used on the U.S. one-dollar bill.
In 1796, Gilbert Stuart painted this famous portrait of Washington from life, and then used the unfinished painting to create numerous others, including the image used on the U.S. one-dollar bill.
Another painting by Gilbert Stuart in 1795.
Another painting by Gilbert Stuart in 1795.
The Washington Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM
President George Washington 1789 – 1797
Vice President John Adams 1789 – 1797
Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson 1789 – 1793
Edmund Randolph 1794 – 1795
Timothy Pickering 1795 – 1797
Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton 1789 – 1795
Oliver Wolcott, Jr. 1795 – 1797
Secretary of War Henry Knox 1789 – 1794
Timothy Pickering 1795 – 1795
James McHenry 1796 – 1797
Attorney General Edmund Randolph 1789 – 1794
William Bradford 1794 – 1795
Charles Lee 1795 – 1797
Postmaster General Samuel Osgood 1789 – 1791
Timothy Pickering 1791 – 1795
Joseph Habersham 1795 – 1797

Washington was elected unanimously by the Electoral College in 1789, and he remains the only person ever to be elected president unanimously (a feat which he duplicated in the 1792 election). As runner-up with 34 votes (each elector cast two votes), John Adams became vice president. Washington took the oath of office as the first President on April 30, 1789 at Federal Hall in New York City although he never wanted the position in the beginning.[17] Inaugurated on April 30, 1789, George Washington was the first President of the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2064, 208 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): George Washington ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2064, 208 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): George Washington ... Self portrait, 1778 Gilbert Charles Stuart (né Stewart) (December 3, 1755 - July 9, 1828) was an American painter. ... Obverse of the $1 bill Reverse of the $1 bill The United States one dollar bill ($1) is a denomination of U.S. currency. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 512 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1004 × 1176 pixel, file size: 107 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): George Washington ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 512 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1004 × 1176 pixel, file size: 107 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): George Washington ... Self portrait, 1778 Gilbert Charles Stuart (né Stewart) (December 3, 1755 - July 9, 1828) was an American painter. ... For a list of presidents, see list of Presidents of the United States. ... Seal of the office of the Vice-President of the United States The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 – September 12, 1813) was an American attorney, Governor of Virginia, Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Timothy Pickering Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745 – January 29, 1829) was the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and John Adams. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... Oliver Wolcott Jr. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was an American bookseller from Boston who became the chief artillery officer of the Continental Army and later the nations first Secretary of War. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Timothy Pickering Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745 – January 29, 1829) was the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and John Adams. ... James McHenry James McHenry (November 16, 1753 – May 3, 1816) was an early American statesman. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 – September 12, 1813) was an American attorney, Governor of Virginia, Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General. ... There is more than one person sharing this name. ... Charles Lee (1758– June 24, 1815) was an American lawyer from Virginia. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Samuel Osgood (February 3, 1747– August 12, 1813) was an American merchant and statesman from Andover, Massachusetts. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Timothy Pickering Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745 – January 29, 1829) was the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and John Adams. ... Joseph Habersham Joseph Habersham (July 28, 1751–November 17, 1815) was an American businessman, Continental Congressman, soldier in the Continental Army and Postmaster General of the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The United States presidential election of 1792 was the second presidential election in the United States, and the first in which each of the original 13 states appointed electors (in addition to newly added states Kentucky and Vermont). ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ... Seal of the office of the Vice-President of the United States The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Federal Hall, once located at 26 Wall Street in New York City, was the first capitol of the United States. ...


The First U.S. Congress voted to pay Washington a salary of $25,000 a year—a large sum in 1789. Washington, already wealthy, declined the salary, since he valued his image as a selfless public servant. At the urging of Congress, however, he ultimately accepted the payment. A dangerous precedent could have been set otherwise, as the founding fathers wanted future presidents to come from a large pool of potential candidates - not just those citizens that could afford to do the work for free. // Major events and legislation Senate and House of Representatives first convene (without quorum) in New York City, March 4, 1789 representing eleven States: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Virginia House first met with quorum to elect first Speaker, April 1...


Washington attended carefully to the pomp and ceremony of office, making sure that the titles and trappings were suitably republican and never emulated European royal courts. To that end, he preferred the title "Mr. President" to the more majestic names suggested.


Washington proved an able administrator. An excellent delegator and judge of talent and character, he held regular cabinet meetings, which debated issues; he then made the final decision and moved on. In handling routine tasks, he was "systematic, orderly, energetic, solicitous of the opinion of others but decisive, intent upon general goals and the consistency of particular actions with them."[18]


Washington only reluctantly agreed to serve a second term of office as president. He refused to run for a third, establishing the precedent of a maximum of two terms for a president.[19]


Domestic issues

Washington was not a member of any political party, and hoped that they would not be formed. His closest advisors, however, became divided into two factions, setting the framework for political parties. Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton, who had bold plans to establish the national credit and build a financially powerful nation, formed the basis of the Federalist Party. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, founder of the Jeffersonian Republicans, strenuously opposed Hamilton's agenda, but Hamilton had Washington's ear, not Jefferson. Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party during the First Party System, in the period 1793 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the...


In 1791, Congress imposed an excise tax on distilled spirits, which led to protests in frontier districts, especially Pennsylvania. By 1794, after Washington ordered the protesters to appear in U.S. district court, the protests turned into full-scale riots known as the Whiskey Rebellion. The federal army was too small to be used, so Washington invoked the Militia Law of 1792 to summon the militias of Pennsylvania, Virginia and several other states. The governors sent the troops and Washington took command, marching into the rebellious districts. There was no fighting, but Washington's forceful action proved the new government could protect itself. It also was one of only two times that a sitting President would personally command the military in the field: the other was after President James Madison fled the burning White House in the War of 1812. These events marked the first time under the new constitution that the federal government used strong military force to exert authority over the states and citizens. An excise is an indirect tax or duty levied on items within a country. ... Spirits redirects here. ... Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... The Whiskey Rebellion, lesser known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the locality of Washington, Pennsylvania, in the Monongahela Valley. ... The Militia Law of 1792 was signed into law by President George Washington in 1792 to give the President authority to call out the National Militia, as at the time under the Articles of Confederation, the ineffective fledgling United States government did not provide for a standing national Army. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), an American politician and fourth President of the United States of America (1809–1817), was one of the most influential Founders of the United States. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Great Britain Canada Bermuda Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other...


Foreign affairs

A statue of George Washington in the Place d'Iéna, Paris, France
A statue of George Washington in the Place d'Iéna, Paris, France

In 1793, the revolutionary government of France sent diplomat Edmond-Charles Genêt, called "Citizen Genêt," to America. Genêt issued letters of marque and reprisal to American ships so they could capture British merchant ships. He attempted to turn popular sentiment towards American involvement in the French war against Britain by creating a network of Democratic-Republican Societies in major cities. Washington rejected this interference in domestic affairs, demanded the French government recall Genêt, and denounced his societies. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 2. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Edmond-Charles Gen t was born in Versailles in 1763. ... A letter of marque and reprisal was an official warrant or commission from a national government authorizing the designated agent to search, seize, or destroy specified assets or personnel belonging to a party which had committed some offense under the laws of nations against the assets or citizens of the... Democratic-Republican Societies were local political organizations formed in the United States in 1793-94 to promote republicanism and democracy and fight aristocratic tendencies. ...


To normalize trade relations with Britain, remove them from western forts, and resolve financial debts left over from the Revolution, Hamilton and Washington designed the Jay Treaty. It was negotiated by John Jay, and signed on November 19, 1794. The Jeffersonians supported France and strongly attacked the treaty. Washington and Hamilton, however, mobilized public opinion and won ratification by the Senate by emphasizing Washington's support. The British agreed to depart their forts around the Great Lakes, the Canadian-U.S. boundary was adjusted, numerous pre-Revolutionary debts were liquidated, and the British opened their West Indies colonies to the American trade. Most important, the treaty avoided war with Britain and instead brought a decade of prosperous trade with Britain. It angered the French and became a central issue in the political debates of the emerging First Party System. The Treaty The Jay Treaty between the United States and Great Britain averted war, solved many issues left over from the Revolution, and opened ten years of peaceful trade in the midst of a large war. ... John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, writer, and a jurist. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... The First Party System is the term political scientists and historians give to the political system existing in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824. ...


Farewell Address

Washington's Farewell Address (issued as a public letter in 1796) was one of the most influential statements of American political values.[20] Drafted primarily by Washington himself, with help from Hamilton, it gives advice on the necessity and importance of national union, the value of the Constitution and the rule of law, the evils of political parties, and the proper virtues of a republican people. In the address, he called morality "a necessary spring of popular government." He suggests that "reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle." Washington thus makes the point that the value of religion is for the benefit of society as a whole.[21] George Washingtons Farewell Address was written to the people of the United States at the end of his second term as President of the United States. ...


Washington's address warned against foreign influence in domestic affairs and American meddling in European affairs. He warned against bitter partisanship in domestic politics and called for men to move beyond partisanship and serve the common good. He called for an America wholly free of foreign attachments, saying the United States must concentrate only on American interests. He counseled friendship and commerce with all nations, but warned against involvement in European wars and entering into long-term alliances. The address quickly set American values regarding religion and foreign affairs.


States admitted to Union

Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Area  Ranked {{{AreaRank}}}  - Total {{{TotalAreaUS}}} sq mi ({{{TotalArea}}} km²)  - Width 80 miles (130 km)  - Length 160 miles (260 km)  - % water 3. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Retirement and death

Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon

After retiring from the presidency in March 1797, Washington returned to Mount Vernon with a profound sense of relief. He devoted much time to farming and, in that year, constructed a 2,250 square foot (75-by-30 feet, 200 m²) distillery, which was one of the largest in the new republic, housing five copper stills, a boiler and 50 mash tubs, at the site of one of his unprofitable farms. At its peak, two years later, the distillery produced 11,000 gallons of corn and rye whiskey worth $7,500, and fruit brandy.[22][23] George Washington's distillery is a part of the American Whiskey Trail. On March 30, 2007, Washington’s Mount Vernon estate officially opened a reconstruction of Washington’s distillery. This fully functional reproduction, which will produce up to 5,000 gallons of whiskey annually, for sale only at the Mount Vernon gift shop, cost $2.1 M and is located on the exact site as Washington's original distillery, a short distance from his mansion on the Potomac River.[24] Photo taken by Alexandros File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo taken by Alexandros File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The American Whiskey Trail[1] is a cultural heritage and tourism initiative of the Distilled Spirits Council in cooperation with historic Mount Vernon. ...


In 1798, Washington was appointed Lieutenant General in the United States Army (then the highest possible rank) by President John Adams. Washington's appointment was to serve as a warning to France, with which war seemed imminent. Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The United States Army is one of the armed forces of the United States and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ...


On December 12, 1799, Washington spent several hours inspecting his farms on horseback, in snow and later hail and freezing rain. He sat down to dine that evening without changing his wet clothes. The next morning, he awoke with a bad cold, fever and a throat infection called quinsy that turned into acute laryngitis and pneumonia. Washington died on the evening of December 14, 1799, at his home, while attended by Dr. James Craik, one of his closest friends, and Tobias Lear, Washington's personal secretary. Lear would record the account in his journal. From Lear's account, we receive Washington's last words: Tis well. December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Peritonsillar abscess, also called PTA or Quinsy is a common infection of the peritonsillar space. ... Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... He was a close friend of George Washington and had administered bloodletting in an attempt to cure him. ... Tobias Lear V (1762 - 1816) was an American who served as President George Washingtons personal secretary. ...


Modern doctors believe that Washington died from either epiglottitis or, since he was bled as part of the treatment, a combination of shock from the loss of five pints of blood, as well as asphyxia and dehydration. Washington's remains were buried at Mount Vernon. In order to protect their privacy, Martha Washington burned the correspondence between her husband and herself following his death. Only three letters between the couple have survived. Epiglottitis is inflammation of the cartilage that covers the trachea(windpipe). ... Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... Suffocation redirects here, for the band, see Suffocation (band). ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Back of the main house. ...


After Washington's death, Mount Vernon was inherited by his nephew, Bushrod Washington, a justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. External link Biography from the OYEZ Project Categories: People stubs | 1762 births | 1829 deaths | U.S. Supreme Court justices ...


During the United States Bicentennial year George Washington was appointed posthumously to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States by the congressional joint resolution s:Public Law 94-479 on January 19, 1976, approved by President Gerald R. Ford on October 11, 1976, with an effective appointment date of July 4, 1776. The United States Bicentennial was celebrated on Sunday, July 4, 1976, the 200th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. ... In the United States Army military hierarchy, General of the Armies is traditionally considered a rank superior to a five-star general. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Legacy

Further information: Cultural depictions of George Washington
Tourists pose under the statue of Washington outside the Federal Hall National Memorial in lower Manhattan, site of Washington's first inauguration as President
Tourists pose under the statue of Washington outside the Federal Hall National Memorial in lower Manhattan, site of Washington's first inauguration as President

Congressman Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee, a Revolutionary War comrade and father of the Civil War general Robert E. Lee, famously eulogized Washington as: George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799) commanded Americas war for independence (1775–1783), and was the first President of the United States, from 1789 to 1797. ... . ... Download high resolution version (600x825, 103 KB)Tourists pose under the statue of George Washington in front of Federal Hall on Wall Street in lower Manhattan © 2004 Matthew Trump File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (600x825, 103 KB)Tourists pose under the statue of George Washington in front of Federal Hall on Wall Street in lower Manhattan © 2004 Matthew Trump File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Federal Hall, once located at 26 Wall Street in New York City, was the first capitol of the United States. ... Manhattan is a borough of New York City, USA, coterminous with New York County. ... Henry Lee (portrait by William Edward West) Henry Lee III, called Light Horse Hairy, (January 29, 1756 – March 25, 1818) was a cavalry officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. ...

First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen, he was second to none in humble and enduring scenes of private life. Pious, just, humane, temperate, and sincere; uniform, dignified, and commanding; his example was as edifying to all around him as were the effects of that example lasting. . . . Correct throughout, vice shuddered in his presence and virtue always felt his fostering hand. The purity of his private character gave effulgence to his public virtues. . . . Such was the man for whom our nation mourns.

Lee's words set the standard by which Washington's overwhelming reputation was impressed upon the American memory. Washington set many precedents for the national government and the presidency in particular. His decision to relinquish the presidency after serving two terms in office would be formalized in the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution over 150 years later. (Redirected from 22nd Amendment) The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution establishes a two-term limit for the Presidency. ...


As early as 1778, Washington was lauded as the "Father of His Country"[25] Father of the Nation is a term used by many countries to describe a political or symbolic leader who was one of the most influential founding fathers of the nation. ...


He was upheld as a shining example in schoolbooks and lessons: as courageous and farsighted, holding the Continental Army together through eight hard years of war and numerous privations, sometimes by sheer force of will; and as restrained: at war's end taking affront at the notion he should be King; and after two terms as President, stepping aside.


Washington became the exemplar of republican virtue in America. More than any American he was extolled for his great personal integrity, and a deeply held sense of duty, honor and patriotism. He is seen more as a character model than war hero or founding father. One of Washington's greatest achievements, in terms of republican values, was refraining from taking more power than was due. He was conscientious of maintaining a good reputation by avoiding political intrigue. He rejected nepotism or cronyism. Jefferson observed, "The moderation and virtue of a single character probably prevented this Revolution from being closed, as most others have been, by a subversion of that liberty it was intended to establish."[26] Republicanism is the political value system that has dominated American political thought since the American Revolution. ...


Monuments and memorials

Washington is commemorated on the U.S. quarter.
Washington is commemorated on the U.S. quarter.
Washington is also commemorated on the Dollar Coin
Washington is also commemorated on the Dollar Coin
Washington on Mt. Rushmore

Today, Washington's face and image are often used as national symbols of the United States, along with the icons such as the flag and great seal. Perhaps the most pervasive commemoration of his legacy is the use of his image on the one-dollar bill and the quarter-dollar coin. Washington, together with Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln, is depicted in stone at the Mount Rushmore Memorial. The Washington Monument, one of the most well-known American landmarks, was built in his honor. The George Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria, Virginia, constructed entirely with voluntary contributions from members of the Masonic Fraternity, was also built in his honor.[27] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 609 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1106 × 1089 pixel, file size: 953 KB, MIME type: image/png) Source United States Mint Date 2006-04-06 Author United States Mint Permission see below File links The following pages on the English... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 609 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1106 × 1089 pixel, file size: 953 KB, MIME type: image/png) Source United States Mint Date 2006-04-06 Author United States Mint Permission see below File links The following pages on the English... The quarter is 1/4th of a United States dollar or 25 cents. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 2000 pixel, file size: 7. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 2000 pixel, file size: 7. ... Dollar coins have been minted in the United States in gold, silver, and base metal versions. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1056x1245, 153 KB) Summary Mt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1056x1245, 153 KB) Summary Mt. ... (left to right) Sculptures of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln represent the first 150 years of American history. ... Obverse of the $1 bill Reverse of the $1 bill The U.S. one dollar bill ($1) is a denomination of U.S. currency. ... The quarter is 1/4th of a United States dollar or 25 cents. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... (left to right) Sculptures of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln represent the first 150 years of American history. ... The Washington Monument at dusk For other Washington Monuments, see Washington Monuments (world). ... George Washington Masonic National Memorial George Washington Masonic National Memorial is a masonic lodge and memorial dedicated to the memory of George Washington, the first president of the United States of America and a Mason. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ...


Many things have been named in honor of Washington. Washington's name became that of the nation's capital, Washington, DC, and the State of Washington, the only state to be named after an American (Maryland, the Virginias, the Carolinas and Georgia are named in honor of British monarchs). The George Washington University and Washington University in St. Louis were named for him.
This is an alphabetical list of places in the United States named for George Washington: Fort Washington, a fortified position near the north end of Manhattan Island during the American Revolutionary War Fort Washington, a frontier outpost at Cincinnati, Ohio Fort Washington, a still-extant earthworks fortification in Cambridge, Massachusetts... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... State nickname: The Evergreen State Other U.S. States Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Governor Christine Gregoire (D) Official languages None Area 184,824 km² (18th)  - Land 172,587 km²  - Water 12,237 km² (6. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... The George Washington University (GWU) is a private university in Washington, D.C., founded in 1821 as The Columbian College. ... Washington University in St. ...


Washington and slavery

For most of his life, Washington operated his plantations as a typical Virginia slave owner. In the 1760s, he dropped tobacco (which was prestigious but unprofitable) and shifted to wheat growing and diversified into milling flour, weaving cloth, and distilling brandy. By the time of his death, there were 317 slaves at Mount Vernon.


Before the American Revolution, Washington expressed no moral reservations about slavery, but, by 1778, he had stopped selling slaves without their consent because he did not want to break up slave families.


In 1778, while Washington was at war, he wrote to his manager at Mount Vernon that he wished to sell his slaves and "to get quit of negroes", since maintaining a large (and increasingly elderly) slave population was no longer economically efficient. Washington could not legally sell the "dower slaves", however, and because these slaves had long intermarried with his own slaves, he could not sell his slaves without breaking up families.[28]


After the war, Washington often privately expressed a dislike of the institution of slavery. Despite these privately expressed misgivings, Washington never criticized slavery in public. In fact, as President, Washington brought nine household slaves to the Executive Mansion in Philadelphia. By Pennsylvania law, slaves who resided in the state became legally free after six months. Washington rotated his household slaves between Mount Vernon and Philadelphia so that they did not earn their freedom, a scheme he attempted to keep hidden from his slaves and the public and one which was, in fact, against the law.[29]


Washington was the only prominent, slaveholding Founding Father to emancipate his slaves. He did not free his slaves in his lifetime, however, but instead included a provision in his will to free his slaves upon the death of his wife. It is important to understand that not all the slaves at his estate at Mt. Vernon were owned by him. His wife Martha owned a large number of slaves and Washington did not feel that he could unilaterally free slaves that came to Mt. Vernon from his wife's estate. His actions were influenced by his close relationship with the Marquis de La Fayette. Martha Washington would free slaves to which she had title late in her own life. He did not speak out publicly against slavery, argues historian Dorothy Twohig, because he did not wish to risk splitting apart the young republic over what was already a sensitive and divisive issue.[30] Lieutenant General & National Guard Commander-in-Chief Lafayette in 1792 at ~35yrs. ...


Religious beliefs

Washington was baptized as an infant into the Church of England.[31][32] In 1765, when the Church of England was still the state religion,[33] he served on the vestry (lay council) for his local church. Throughout his life, he spoke of the value of righteousness, and of seeking and offering thanks for the "blessings of Heaven." He endorsed religion rhetorically and in his 1796 Farewell Address remarked on its importance in building moral character in American citizenry, believing morality undergirded all public order and successful popular government. In a letter to George Mason in 1785, he wrote that he was not among those alarmed by a bill "making people pay towards the support of that [religion] which they profess," but felt that it was "impolitic" to pass such a measure, and wished it had never been proposed, believing that it would disturb public tranquility.[34] This, the earliest portrait of Washington, was painted in 1772 by Charles Willson Peale, and shows Washington in uniform as colonel of the Virginia Regiment. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... A vestry is a room within or attached to a church which is used to store vestments and other items used in worship. ... George Washingtons Farewell Address was written to the people of the United States at the end of his second term as President of the United States. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


His adopted daughter, Nelly Custis Lewis, stated: "I have heard her [Nelly's mother, Eleanor Calvert Custis, who resided in Mount Vernon for two years] say that General Washington always received the sacrament with my grandmother [Martha Washington] before the revolution."[35] After the revolution, Washington frequently accompanied his wife to Christian church services; however, there is no record of his ever taking communion, and he would regularly leave services before communion — with the other non-communicants (as was the custom of the day), until he ceased attending at all on communion Sundays.[36][37] Historians and biographers continue to debate the degree to which he can be counted as a Christian, and the degree to which he was a deist. For other uses, see Ceremonial deism. ...


Washington was also a Freemason, the most famous member of the society in America. A few portraits of Washington show him wearing Masonic regalia. He occasionally received letters from prominent families, asking him to publicly state that he was not a Freemason, but Washington would reply and say only that he was not a member of the Illuminati.[38] American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ...


According to one source,[39] Washington was also a member of the World or Great Council of the Fraternitas Rosae Crucis, and as such a Rose Cross, though this was known only to the Great Council at the time as he chose to remain an "inconnu" or an "unknown" of the Fraternity.


He was an early supporter of religious toleration and freedom of religion. In 1775, he ordered that his troops not show anti-Catholic sentiments by burning the pope in effigy on Guy Fawkes Night. When hiring workmen for Mount Vernon, he wrote to his agent, "If they be good workmen, they may be from Asia, Africa, or Europe; they may be Mohammedans, Jews, or Christians of any sect, or they may be Atheists."[36] The cross of the war memorial and a menorah for Hanukkah coexist in Oxford. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... A Guy Fawkes Night firework display Guy Fawkes Night, also called Bonfire Night, is an annual celebration (but not a public holiday) on the evening of the 5th of November primarily in the United Kingdom, but also in former British colonies New Zealand, South Africa, the island of Newfoundland (Canada... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Personal life

Though Washington had no children, he did have two successful nephews. Bushrod Washington became an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, and Burwell Bassett was a long-time congressman in both Virginia State and United States government. External link Biography from the OYEZ Project Categories: People stubs | 1762 births | 1829 deaths | U.S. Supreme Court justices ... The Justices of the United States Supreme Court, other than the Chief Justice, are termed Associate Justices. ... Burwell Bassett (March 18, 1764 – February 26, 1841) was an eighteenth and nineteenth century politician from Virginia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... This article describes the government of the United States. ...


Ample anecdotal evidence suggests that George Washington was an enthusiast of cricket, once a popular sport in America.[40] He played the game on at least one occasion with his troops at Valley Forge during the Revolution.[41] This is a sporting passion that other presidents have shared, such as Abraham Lincoln. For the insect, see Cricket (insect). ... Recreation of a cabin in which soldiers would have lived at Valley Forge Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, was the site of the camp of the American Continental Army over the winter of 1777–1778 in the American Revolutionary War. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...


Myths and misconceptions

  • An early biographer, Parson Weems, was the source of the famous story about young Washington cutting down a cherry tree and confessing this to his father, in an 1800's book entitled The Life of George Washington; With Curious Anecdotes, Equally Honorable to Himself and Exemplary to His Young Countrymen. Some historians believe Weems invented or greatly embellished the dialogue, while others build Weems' credibility by citing the facts that he did interview older people who knew young Washington. Weems did not, in fact, include the cherry tree story until the fifth edition of this work; he ascribed it to an "excellent lady," not otherwise identified. Even so, a careful reading of the account does not state that young George "cut down" the cherry tree, only that he hacked it so badly that he killed it. (and, also within the context of the story, he had just been given the hatchet as a gift and would be, in his father's eyes, the only likely suspect.)
  • A popular belief is that Washington wore a wig, as was the fashion among some at the time. He did not wear a wig; he did, however, powder his hair,[42] as represented in several portraits, including the well-known unfinished Gilbert Stuart depiction.[43]
  • An old legend about Washington was that he threw or skipped a silver dollar across the Potomac River. One would need a strong arm to throw an object across the Potomac, for it is about a mile wide at Mount Vernon. More likely he threw an object across the Rappahannock River, the river on which his childhood home stood.
  • Washington's teeth were not made out of wood, as was once commonly believed. They were made out of teeth from different kinds of animals, specifically elk, hippopotamus, and human.[44] One set of his false teeth weighed almost four ounces (110 g) and were made out of lead.

Parson Weems Fable by Grant Wood (1939) Parson Mason Locke Weems (1756-1825) was an American printer and author known as the source for almost all of the half-truths about George Washington, the Father of his Country, including the famous tale of the cherry tree. ... “Cherry tree” redirects here. ... Self portrait, 1778 Gilbert Charles Stuart (né Stewart) (December 3, 1755 - July 9, 1828) was an American painter. ... The Rappahannock at sunset The Rappahannock River is a river in eastern Virginia in the United States, approximately 184 mi (294 km). ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... Binomial name Cervus canadensis New species designate Siberian and American Elk (Cervus canadensis), are the second largest species of deer in the world, after the Moose (Alces alces). ... Binomial name Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ‘ιπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), is a large, mostly plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant, and three or four recently extinct, species in the family Hippopotamidae. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ...

See also

For a list of presidents, see list of Presidents of the United States. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... Combatants American Revolutionaries French Monarchy Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida and Tuscarora tribes Polish volunteers Prussian volunteers Kingdom of Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Hessian mercenaries Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz Kościuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben Sir... . ... Town Destroyer was the nickname given to George Washington by certain Iroquois after the Sullivan Expedition in the American Revolutionary War destroyed at least 40 American Indian villages. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power, Five Nations, or Six Nations) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... Lord Nelson (Trafalgar Square) King George IV (Trafalgar Square) General Napier (Trafalgar Square) Sir Henry Havelock (Trafalgar Square) Edith Cavell (north of Trafalgar Square) King Charles I (south of Trafalgar Square) King James II (National Gallery) George Washington (National Gallery) Sir Henry Irving (north of National Portrait Gallery) Oscar Wilde... Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and President Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ...

References: biographies

  • Washington, George (Rhodehamel, John, ed.) Writings (New York: The Library of America, 1997). ISBN 1-883011-23-X, 1149 pages. Convenient one-volume selection of letters, orders, addresses, and other Washington documents.
  • Buchanan, John. The Road to Valley Forge: How Washington Built the Army That Won the Revolution (2004). 368 pp.
  • Burns, James MacGregor and Dunn, Susan. George Washington. Times, 2004. 185 pp. explore leadership style
  • Cunliffe, Marcus. George Washington: Man and Monument (1958), explores both the biography and the myth
  • Grizzard, Frank E., Jr. George! A Guide to All Things Washington. Buena Vista and Charlottesville, VA: Mariner Publishing. 2005. ISBN 0-9768238-0-2. Grizzard is a leading scholar of Washington.
  • Hirschfeld, Fritz. George Washington and Slavery: A Documentary Portrayal. University of Missouri Press, 1997.
  • Ellis, Joseph J. His Excellency: George Washington. (2004) ISBN 1-4000-4031-0. Acclaimed interpretation of Washington's career.
  • Elkins, Stanley M. and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism. (1994) the leading scholarly history of the 1790s.
  • Ferling, John E. The First of Men: A Life of George Washington (1989). Biography from a leading scholar.
  • Fischer, David Hackett. Washington's Crossing. (2004), prize-winning military history focused on 1775-1776.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. Washington: The Indispensable Man. (1974). ISBN 0-316-28616-8 (1994 reissue). Single-volume condensation of Flexner's popular four-volume biography.
  • Freeman, Douglas S. George Washington: A Biography. 7 volumes, 1948–1957. The standard scholarly biography, winner of the Pulitzer Prize. A single-volume abridgement by Richard Harwell appeared in 1968
  • Grizzard, Frank E., Jr. George Washington: A Biographical Companion. ABC-CLIO, 2002. 436 pp. Comprehensive encyclopedia by leading scholar
  • Grizzard, Frank E., Jr. The Ways of Providence: Religion and George Washington. Buena Vista and Charlottesville, VA: Mariner Publishing. 2005. ISBN 0-9768238-1-0.
  • Higginbotham, Don, ed. George Washington Reconsidered. University Press of Virginia, (2001). 336 pp of essays by scholars
  • Higginbotham, Don. George Washington: Uniting a Nation. Rowman & Littlefield, (2002). 175 pp.
  • Hofstra, Warren R., ed. George Washington and the Virginia Backcountry. Madison House, 1998. Essays on Washington's formative years.
  • Lengel, Edward G. General George Washington: A Military Life. New York: Random House, 2005. ISBN 1-4000-6081-8.
  • Lodge, Henry Cabot. George Washington, 2 vols. (1889), vol 1 at Gutenberg; vol 2 at Gutenberg
  • McDonald, Forrest. The Presidency of George Washington. 1988. Intellectual history showing Washington as exemplar of republicanism.
  • Spalding, Matthew. "George Washington's Farewell Address." The Wilson Quarterly v20#4 (Autumn 1996) pp: 65+.
  • Wiencek, Henry. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. (2003).

Joseph J. Ellis is an American professor, historian and best-selling author of books about the Founding Fathers of the United States, including Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation, which won the Pulitzer Prize for history in 2001, American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson (1997), and His Excellency: George Washington... Douglas Southall Freeman (May 16, 1886 – June 13, 1953) was an American journalist and historian. ...

Further reading

The literature on George Washington is immense. The Library of Congress has a comprehensive bibliography online, as well as online scans of diaries, letterbooks, financial papers and military papers. Notable works not listed above include: The Great Hall interior. ...

Primary sources

  • The Papers of George Washington, 1748–1799, ed. W. W. Abbot et al. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1976–. Ongoing edition; project information at The Papers of George Washington, University of Virginia.
  • George Washington: A Collection, compiled and edited by W.B. Allen (1988). online edition selection of letters
  • Washington, George (Rhodehamel, John, ed.) Writings (New York: The Library of America, 1997). ISBN 1-883011-23-X, 1149 pages. Convenient one-volume selection of letters, orders, addresses, and other Washington documents.
  • Hirschfeld, Fritz. George Washington and Slavery: A Documentary Portrayal. University of Missouri Press, 1997.

"Patriarch: George Washington and the New American Nation"

Book by Richard Norton Smith Richard Norton Smith (born Leominster, Massachusetts in 1953- ) Photo of Richard Norton Smith Presidential historian and former speech writer for Bob Dole, Elizabeth Dole, and a freelance writer for The Washington Post. ...

Scholarly studies

  • Achenbach, Joel. The Grand Idea: George Washington's Potomac and the Race to the West. 2004. 384 pp.
  • Bickham, Troy O. "Sympathizing with Sedition? George Washington, the British Press, and British Attitudes During the American War of Independence." William and Mary Quarterly 2002 59(1): 101-122. ISSN 0043-5597 Fulltext online in History Cooperative
  • Elkins, Stanley M. and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism. (1994) the leading scholarly history of the 1790s.
  • Estes, Todd. "The Art of Presidential Leadership: George Washington and the Jay Treaty" Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 2001 109(2): 127-158. ISSN 0042-6636 Fulltext online at Ebsco. As protests from treaty opponents intensified in 1795, Washington's initial neutral position shifted to a solid pro-treaty stance. It was he who had the greatest impact on public and congressional opinion. With the assistance of Hamilton, Washington made tactical decisions that strengthened the Federalist campaign to mobilize support for the treaty. For example, he effectively delayed the treaty's submission to the House of Representatives until public support was particularly strong in February 1796 and refocused the debate by dismissing as unconstitutional the request that all documentation relating to Jay's negotiations be placed before Congress. Washington's prestige and political skills applied popular political pressure to Congress and ultimately led to approval of the treaty's funding in April 1796. His role in the debates demonstrated a "hidden-hand" leadership in which he issued public messages, delegated to advisers, and used his personality and the power of office to broaden support.
  • Ferling, John. Setting the World Ablaze: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and the American Revolution. Oxford U. Press, 2000. 392 pp by leading scholar
  • Fishman, Ethan M.; William D. Pederson, Mark J. Rozell, eds. George Washington (2001) essays by scholars
  • Gregg II, Gary L. and Matthew Spalding, eds. George Washington and the American Political Tradition. ISI (1999), essays by scholars
  • Harvey, Tamara and O'Brien, Greg, ed. George Washington's South. U. Press of Florida, 2004. 355 pp. essays by scholars on the region, esp. Virginia
  • Leibiger, Stuart. "Founding Friendship: George Washington, James Madison, and the Creation of the American Republic." U. Press of Virginia, 1999. 284 pp.
  • McCullough, David. 1776 2005. 386 pp. very well written overview of the year in America
  • Miller, John C. The Federalist Era, 1789-1801 (1960), political survey of 1790s.
  • Muñoz, Vincent Phillip. "George Washington on Religious Liberty" Review of Politics 2003 65(1): 11-33. ISSN 0034-6705 Fulltext online at Ebsco. Abstract: Article argues GW articulated a much narrower definition of religious liberty than Jefferson or Madison. Although GW believed in religious freedom, he counseled that its exercise must be limited by the duties of republican citizenship. He viewed religion and morality as indispensable parts of both a political system and an involved citizenry. Religion, therefore, deserved the support of those in government. At the same time, however, he wrote that the expression of religion should be free from government hindrance unless it interfered with the duties of citizenship.
  • Peterson, Barbara Bennett. George Washington: America's Moral Exemplar, 2005.
  • Schwarz, Philip J., ed. "Slavery at the Home of George Washington." Mount Vernon Ladies' Assoc., 2001. 182 pp.
  • Washington, George and Marvin Kitman. George Washington's Expense Account. Grove Press. (2001) ISBN 0-8021-3773-3 Account pages, with added humor; GW took no salary but he was repaid all his expenses
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History (1956), thorough analysis of the mechanics of government in 1790s

References

  1. ^ George Washington had no middle name. He was born when Britain and her colonies still used the Old Style (O.S.) Julian calendar. After 1752 when the New Style (N.S.) Gregorian was adopted, many important British-American dates were changed to reflect New Style. Both GW dates correctly reflect N.S.
  2. ^ Under the Articles of Confederation Congress called its presiding officer "President of the United States in Congress Assembled." He had no executive powers, but the similarity of titles has confused people into thinking there were other presidents before Washington. Merrill Jensen, The Articles of Confederation (1959), 178-9.
  3. ^ S. Eugene Poteat, "George Washington: Spymaster Extraordinare", February 2000
  4. ^ "Washington As Public Land Surveyor: Boyhood and Beginnings". George Washington: Surveyor and Mapmaker. American Memory. Library of Congress. Retrieved on May 17, 2007.
  5. ^ "George Washington: Making of a Military Leader". American Memory. Library of Congress. Retrieved on May 17, 2007.
  6. ^ Sparks, Jared. The Life of George Washington". Boston: Ferdinand Andrews. 1839. page 17. Digitized by Google. Retrieved on May 17, 2007.
  7. ^ Tabbert, Mark A. "A Masonic Memorial to a Virtuous Man". Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry. January 29, 2007. Retrieved on May 17, 2007.
  8. ^ On British attitudes see John Shy, Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence (1990) p. 39
  9. ^ For negative treatments of Washington's excessive ambition and military blunders, see Bernhard Knollenberg, George Washington: The Virginia Period, 1732–1775 (1964) and Thomas A. Lewis, For King and Country: The Maturing of George Washington, 1748–1760 (1992).
  10. ^ John K. Amory, M.D., "George Washington’s infertility: Why was the father of our country never a father?" Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 81, No. 3, March 2004. (online, PDF format)
  11. ^ Acreage, slaves, and social standing: Joseph Ellis, His Excellency, George Washington, pp. 41–42, 48.
  12. ^ The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799, John C. Fitzpatrick,
  13. ^ Washington quoted in Ferling, p. 99.
  14. ^ Orlando W. Stephenson, "The Supply of Gunpowder in 1776," American Historical Review, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Jan., 1925), pp. 271-281 in JSTOR
  15. ^ Fleming, T: "Washington's Secret War: the Hidden History of Valley Forge.", Smithsonian Books, 2005
  16. ^ George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 3b Varick Transcripts. Library of Congress. Accessed on May 22, 2006.
  17. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot (1972). "Washington's First Administration: 1789-1793", The Oxford History of the American People, Vol. 2. Meridian. 
  18. ^ Leonard D. White, The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History (1948)
  19. ^ After Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected to an unprecedented four terms, the two-term limit was formally integrated into the Federal Constitution by the 22nd Amendment.
  20. ^ Matthew Spalding, The Command of its own Fortunes: Reconsidering Washington's Farewell address," in William D. Pederson, Mark J. Rozell, Ethan M. Fishman, eds. George Washington (2001) ch 2; Virginia Arbery, "Washington's Farewell Address and the Form of the American Regime." in Gary L. Gregg II and Matthew Spalding, eds. George Washington and the American Political Tradition. 1999 pp. 199-216.
  21. ^ "Religion and the Federal Government". Religion and the Founding of the American Republic. Library of Congress Exhibition. Retrieved on May 17, 2007.
  22. ^ George Washington's Distillery
  23. ^ Fund, John. "George Washington, Whiskey Entrepreneur", The Wall Street Journal, February 20, 2007. 
  24. ^ Barakat, Matthew (March 31, 2007). Replica of distillery of Washington Opens. The Associated Press. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  25. ^ He has gained fame around the world as a quintessential example of a benevolent national founder. Gordon Wood concludes that the greatest act in his life was his resignation as commander of the armies—an act that stunned aristocratic Europe. Gordon Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1992), pp 105-6; Edmund Morgan, The Genius of George Washington (1980), pp 12-13; Sarah J. Purcell, Sealed With Blood: War, Sacrifice, and Memory in Revolutionary America (2002) p. 97; Don Higginbotham, George Washington (2004); Ellis, 2004. The earliest known image in which Washington is identified as such is on the cover of the circa 1778 Pennsylvania German almanac (Lancaster: Gedruckt bey Francis Bailey).
  26. ^ Jefferson to Washington April 16, 1784. Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Retrieved on 2006-09-05.
  27. ^ http://www.gwmemorial.org/
  28. ^ Slave raffle linked to Washington's reassessment of slavery: Wiencek, pp. 135–36, 178–88. Washington's decision to stop selling slaves: Fritz Hirschfeld, George Washington and Slavery: A Documentary Portrayal, p. 16. Influence of war and Wheatley: Wiencek, ch 6. Dilemma of selling slaves: Wiencek, p. 230; Ellis, pp. 164–7; Hirschfeld, pp. 27–29.
  29. ^ Two slaves escaped while in Philadelphia: one of these, Oney Judge, was discovered in New Hampshire. Judge could have been captured and returned under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, which Washington had signed into law, but this was not done so as to avoid public controversy. See Wiencek, ch. 9; Hirschfeld, pp. 187–88; Ferling, p. 479.
  30. ^ Twohig, "That Species of Property", pp. 127–28.
  31. ^ Family Bible entry http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/hh/26/hh26f.htm
  32. ^ Image of page from family Bible http://gwpapers.virginia.edu/project/faq/bible.html
  33. ^ Colonial Williamsburg website has several articles on religion in colonial Virginia
  34. ^ George Washington to George Mason, 3 October 1785, LS. Library of Congress: American Memory. Retrieved on 2006-09-05.
  35. ^ [1] Eleanor Parke Custis Lewis' letter written to Jared Sparks, 1833
  36. ^ a b The Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents by Franklin Steiner
  37. ^ [2] Eleanor Parke Custis Lewis' letter written to Jared Sparks, 1833
  38. ^ The History Channel, Mysteries of the Freemasons: America, video documentary, August 1, 2006, written by Noah Nicholas and Molly Bedell
  39. ^ R. Swinburne Clymer, M.D. (Supreme Grand Master of the Order, Temple, Brotherhood and Fraternity of the Rosicrucians, and of La Federation Universelle des Ordres, del Societes et Fraternite des Initie - "Book of Rosicrucae", 1947, Volume 2, pages 117-118
  40. ^ Smithonian Institution Magazine: Cricket, Anyone?. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  41. ^ The American Revolution Webpage: The Winter At Valley Forge. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  42. ^ George Washington's Mount Vernon: Answers. Retrieved on 2006-06-30.
  43. ^ Gilbert Stuart. Smithsonian National Picture Gallery: George Washington (the Athenaeum portrait). Retrieved on 2006-06-30.
  44. ^ Barbara Glover. George Washington - A Dental Victim. Retrieved on 2006-06-30.

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Preceded by
(none)
President of the United States
April 30, 1789(a)March 4, 1797
Succeeded by
John Adams
Preceded by
(none)
Oldest U.S. President still living
April 30, 1789December 14, 1799
Succeeded by
John Adams
(a) Washington's term as President is sometimes listed as starting on either March 4 or April 6. March 4 is the official start of the first presidential term. April 6 is the date on which Congress counted the electoral votes and certified a winner. April 30 is the date on which Washington took the oath of office.
Persondata
NAME Washington, George
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION 1st President of the United States, Commander in Chief of the Continental Army
DATE OF BIRTH February 22, 1732
PLACE OF BIRTH Colonial Beach, Virginia, United States of America
DATE OF DEATH December 14, 1799
PLACE OF DEATH Mount Vernon (plantation), Mount Vernon, Virginia, United States of America

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  Results from FactBites:
 
George Washington - MSN Encarta (1134 words)
George Washington was born on his father’s estate in Westmoreland County, Virginia, on February 22, 1732.
George grew up a tall, strong young man, who excelled in outdoor pursuits, liked music and theatrical performances, and was a trifle awkward with girls but fond of dancing.
Washington seems to have been confident he could make an efficient adjutant at the age of 20, though he was then without military experience.
George Washington (2298 words)
George Washington was commander in chief of the Continental army during the American Revolution and first president of the United States (1789-97).
Whatever public criticism attended the debacle, Washington's own military reputation was enhanced, and in 1755, at the age of 23, he was promoted to colonel and appointed commander in chief of the Virginia militia, with responsibility for defending the frontier.
Washington, whose policy of neutrality angered the pro-French Jeffersonians, was horrified by the excesses of the French Revolution and enraged by the tactics of Edmond Genet, the French minister in the United States, which amounted to foreign interference in American politics.
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