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Encyclopedia > George W Bush
George W. Bush
George W. Bush

Incumbent
Assumed office 
January 20, 2001
Vice President Dick Cheney
Preceded by Bill Clinton

In office
January 17, 1995 – December 21, 2000
Lieutenant Bob Bullock (1995 – 1999)
Rick Perry (1999 – 2000)
Preceded by Ann Richards
Succeeded by Rick Perry

Born July 6, 1946 (1946-07-06) (age 62)
New Haven, Connecticut
Birth name George Walker Bush
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse Laura Bush
Children Barbara Pierce Bush and Jenna Welch Hager
Residence White House (official)
Crawford, Texas (private)
Alma mater Yale University
Harvard Business School
Occupation Businessman (oil, baseball)
Religion United Methodist[1][2]
Signature George W. Bush's signature
Website The White House
Military service
Service/branch Texas Air National Guard
Alabama Air National Guard
Years of service 1968 – 1973
Rank First Lieutenant

George Walker Bush (/ˈdʒɔrdʒ ˈwɔːkɚ ˈbʊʃ/; born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States. He served as the forty-sixth Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000 before being sworn in as President on January 20, 2001. His term ends at noon (ET) on January 20, 2009.[3] People George W. Bush (born 1946), 43rd (and current) President of the United States (2001–present) and son of George H. W. Bush George H. W. Bush (born 1924), 41st President of the United States (1989–1993) and father of George W. Bush George P. Bush (born 1976), son of... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2267x3000, 1890 KB) Description Official photograph portrait of U.S. President George W. Bush. ... This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as President of the United States following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect in 1789. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Open seat redirects here. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... In politics, Governor of Texas is the title given to the chief executive of the state of Texas. ... Lieutenant Governor of Texas is the second-highest executive office in state government. ... Texas Lieutenant Governor Bob Bullock Bob Bullock (July 10, 1929 - June 18, 1999) was an American politician from Texas. ... James Richard Rick Perry (born March 4, 1950) is a Republican politician and the current Governor of Texas. ... This article is about the American politician/teacher, for the Australian-American actress, see Ann Richards (actress). ... James Richard Rick Perry (born March 4, 1950) is a Republican politician and the current Governor of Texas. ... New Haven redirects here. ... GOP redirects here. ... Laura Lane Welch Bush (born Laura Welch on November 4, 1946 in Midland, Texas) is the wife of the forty-third and current President of the United States George W. Bush, murderess, and current First Lady of the United States. ... For the wife of George H.W. Bush, see Barbara Bush. ... Jenna Welch Bush (born November 25, 1981 in Dallas, Texas)[1] is an author and school teacher who is the daughter of U.S. President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush as well as the fraternal twin of Barbara Pierce Bush. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Crawford is a Waco suburb located in western McLennan County, Texas. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... Yale redirects here. ... Harvard Business School, officially named the Harvard Business School: George F. Baker Foundation, and also known as HBS, is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... A businessperson is a generic term for someone who is employed at a profit-oriented enterprise, or more specifically, someone who is involved in the management (at any level) of a company. ... The oil industry is a type of industry which brings petroleum to a financial market. ... This article is about the sport. ... This article is about the current Christian denomination based in the United States. ... Image File history File links GeorgeWBush_Signature. ... Shield of the United States Air National Guard In the US military, the Air National Guard (ANG), as part of the National Guard, is the organized militia of a particular US state and is a reserve of the US Air Force (USAF), too. ... Shield of the United States Air National Guard In the US military, the Air National Guard (ANG), as part of the National Guard, is the organized militia of a particular US state and is a reserve of the US Air Force (USAF), too. ... First Lieutenant is a military rank. ... Image File history File links En-us-George_Walker_Bush. ... This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as President of the United States following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect in 1789. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... In politics, Governor of Texas is the title given to the chief executive of the state of Texas. ... Inauguration Day 2005 on the west steps of the U.S. Capitol. ... Time Zone is also a historical computer game. ...


Bush is the eldest son of former U.S. President George H. W. Bush and Barbara Bush. After graduating from Yale University, Bush worked in his family's oil businesses. He married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the United States House of Representatives shortly thereafter. He later co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards to become Governor of Texas in 1994. In a close and controversial election, Bush was elected to the Presidency in 2000 as the Republican candidate, receiving a majority of the electoral votes but losing the popular vote. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... For the daughter of President George W. Bush, see Barbara Pierce Bush. ... Yale redirects here. ... The Bush family: President George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush, former First Lady Barbara Bush, and former President George H. W. Bush sit surrounded by family in the Red Room (White House) on January 6, 2005, together to celebrate the senior couples 60th wedding anniversary. ... Rate of world energy usage in terawatts (TW), 1965-20051 Global energy usage in successively increasing detail23 Energy intensity of different economies The graph shows the ratio between energy usage and GNP for selected countries. ... Laura Lane Welch Bush (born Laura Welch on November 4, 1946 in Midland, Texas) is the wife of the forty-third and current President of the United States George W. Bush, murderess, and current First Lady of the United States. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Major league affiliations American League (1961–present) West Division (1972–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 26, 34, 42 Name Texas Rangers (1972–present) Washington Senators (1961-1971) Other nicknames None in common use Ballpark Rangers Ballpark in Arlington (1994–present) a. ... This article is about the sport. ... This article is about the American politician/teacher, for the Australian-American actress, see Ann Richards (actress). ... The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ... GOP redirects here. ... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 Cartogram representation of the Electoral College for the elections of 2004 and 2008. ...


Eight months into his first term as President, the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks occurred, and Bush announced a global War on Terrorism, ordered an invasion of Afghanistan that same year, and an invasion of Iraq in 2003. In addition to national security issues, President Bush has attempted to promote policies on the economy, health care, education, and social security reform. He has enacted large tax cuts, the No Child Left Behind Act,[4] medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, and his tenure has seen a national debate on immigration.[5] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... President Bush makes remarks in 2006 during a press conference in the Rose Garden about Irans nuclear ambitions and discusses North Koreas nuclear test. ... This article is about the U.S.-led campaign against the spread of terrorism. ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... A tax cut is a reduction in the rate of tax charged by a government, for example on personal or corporate income. ... President Bush signing the bipartisan No Child Left Behind Act at Hamilton H.S. in Hamilton, Ohio. ...


Bush ran for re-election against Democratic Senator John Kerry in 2004 and was re-elected, garnering 50.7% of the popular vote to his opponent's 48.3%.[6] After his re-election, Bush received increasingly heated criticism.[7][8][9] During his two terms, he has received both the highest and the lowest domestic approval ratings of American Presidents.[10][11][12] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004 to elect the president. ... George W. Bush, the 43rd President of the United States, has drawn significant domestic and international criticism since his election in 2000. ... In the United States, presidential job approval ratings were introduced by George Gallup in the late 1930s (probably 1937) to gauge public support for the president during his presidency. ...

Childhood to mid-life

Born in New Haven, Connecticut on July 6, 1946, Bush was the first child of George H. W. Bush and Barbara Bush (born Pierce). He was raised in Midland and Houston, Texas, with his four siblings, Jeb, Neil, Marvin, and Dorothy. Another younger sister, Robin, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953.[13] Bush's grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a Senator from Connecticut, and his father served as U.S. President from 1989 to 1993. George Walker Bush, the oldest child in a family of seven, grew up in the Texan cities of Midland and Houston and studied at Yale University and the Harvard Business School before serving in the Texas Air National Guard and engaged in behaviors that would embroil him in a substance... New Haven redirects here. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... For the daughter of President George W. Bush, see Barbara Pierce Bush. ... Nickname: Location within the state of Texas Coordinates: , Country State Counties Midland Government  - Mayor Mike Canon Area  - City 173. ... Houston redirects here. ... John Ellis Jeb Bush (born February 11, 1953) is an American politician, and was the 43rd Governor of Florida. ... Neil Bush Neil Mallon Bush (born January 22, 1955 in Midland, Texas) is the third of five children of former President George Herbert Walker Bush and Barbara Bush (Barbara Lane Pierce). ... Marvin Pierce Bush (born October 22, 1956) is the youngest son of George H. W. Bush and Barbara Pierce, and brother of George W., John (Jeb), Neil and Dorothy. ... Dorothy Bush Koch, often called Doro, (born August 18, 1959), is the daughter of the 41st President of the United States George H. W. Bush and former First Lady Barbara Bush, and the youngest sibling of George W. Bush, the 43rd President. ... Pauline Robinson Bush (December 20, 1949, in Compton, California-October 11, 1953 in Connecticut) was the second child of George H. W. Bush and Barbara Bush and the younger sister of George W. Bush. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Prescott Sheldon Bush (May 15, 1895 – October 8, 1972) was a United States Senator from Connecticut and a Wall Street executive banker with Brown Brothers Harriman. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym Connecticuter or Connecticutian[2] Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[4] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[5] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km...


Education

Bush, as a child, was not accepted for admission by St. John's School in Houston, Texas, a prestigious private school.[14] Instead, he attended The Kinkaid School, the private school from which St. John's had broken away.[14][15] St. ... Houston redirects here. ... The Kinkaid School is a combined primary and secondary independent coeducational school in Piney Point Village, Texas, United States. ...


Bush attended Phillips Academy, an all-boys private high school in Andover, Massachusetts, where he played baseball and during his senior year was the head cheerleader.[16][17] Following in his father's footsteps, Bush attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968, receiving a Bachelor's degree in history in 1968.[18] As a college senior, Bush became a member of the secretive Skull and Bones society.[19] By his own characterization, he was an average student.[20] Phillips Academy (also known as Phillips Andover or P.A. or simply Andover) is a co-educational University preparatory school for boarding and day students in grades 9-12. ... This article is about the Massachusetts town. ... Yale redirects here. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... For the pirate flag, see Jolly Roger. ...


In 1970, Bush applied to but was not accepted into the University of Texas School of Law.[21] Beginning in the Fall of 1973, Bush attended Harvard University, where he earned a MBA.[22] The University of Texas School of Law is an ABA-certified American law school located on The University of Texas at Austin campus. ... Harvard redirects here. ... MBA redirects here. ...


Texas Air National Guard

Lt. George W. Bush while in the Texas Air National Guard

In May 1968, Bush enlisted in the Texas Air National Guard.[23] After training, he was assigned to duty in Houston, flying Convair F-102s out of Ellington Air Force Base.[24] Critics allege that Bush was favorably treated due to his father's political standing, citing his selection as a pilot and his irregular attendance.[25] In June 2005, the United States Department of Defense released all the records of Bush's Texas Air National Guard service, which remain in its official archives.[26] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x645, 85 KB) This image is a work of a U.S. military or Department of Defense employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x645, 85 KB) This image is a work of a U.S. military or Department of Defense employee, taken or made during the course of an employees official duties. ... Shield of the United States Air National Guard In the US military, the Air National Guard (ANG), as part of the National Guard, is the organized militia of a particular US state and is a reserve of the US Air Force (USAF), too. ... Houston redirects here. ... The Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation, universally known as Convair, was the result of a 1943 merger between Consolidated Aircraft and Vultee Aircraft, resulting in a leading aircraft manufacturer of the United States. ... The Convair F-102 Delta Dagger fighter aircraft was part of the backbone of the United States air defenses in the late 1950s. ... NASAs fleet of T-38 Talons sitting on the flightline at Ellington. ... 1st Lt. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ...


In late 1972 and early 1973, he drilled with the Alabama Air National Guard, having moved to Memphis to work on the unsuccessful U.S. Senate campaign of Republican Winton M. Blount. In October 1973, Bush was discharged from the Texas Air National Guard and transferred to the Air Force inactive reserves. He was discharged from the Air Force Reserve on November 21, 1974, at the end of his six-year service obligation.[27] Shield of the United States Air National Guard In the US military, the Air National Guard (ANG), as part of the National Guard, is the organized militia of a particular US state and is a reserve of the US Air Force (USAF), too. ... Memphis is a town located in Pickens County, Alabama. ... A bronze sculpture of Winton M. Blount by Charles Parks stands in the Blount Cultural Park in Montgomery, Alabama. ...


Bush had multiple accounts of alcohol abuse.[28] In one instance, Bush was arrested near his family's summer home in Kennebunkport, Maine for driving under the influence of alcohol at the age of thirty on September 4, 1976. He pleaded guilty, was fined US$150, and had his Maine driver's license suspended until 1978.[29] Bush gave up alcohol in 1986.[30] Boats on the Kennebunk River between Kennebunk and Kennebunkport Kennebunkport is a town located in York County, Maine. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Drunk driving is the act of operating and/or driving a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs to the degree that mental and motor skills are impaired. ... USD redirects here. ... First German driving school in 1906, Aschaffenburg Current EU driving licence, German version - front 1. ...


Marriage and family

Further information: Bush family
George and Laura Bush with their daughters Jenna and Barbara, 1990

In 1977, he was introduced by friends at a backyard barbecue to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. Bush proposed to her after a three-month courtship and they were married on November 5 of that year.[31] The couple settled in Midland, Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church.[1] In 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to twin daughters, Jenna and Barbara;[31] they graduated from high school in 2000 and from the University of Texas at Austin and Yale University, respectively, in 2004. The Bush family: President George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush, former First Lady Barbara Bush, and former President George H. W. Bush sit surrounded by family in the Red Room (White House) on January 6, 2005, together to celebrate the senior couples 60th wedding anniversary. ... Source: http://usembassy. ... Source: http://usembassy. ... Laura Lane Welch Bush (born Laura Welch on November 4, 1946 in Midland, Texas) is the wife of the forty-third and current President of the United States George W. Bush, murderess, and current First Lady of the United States. ... Nickname: Location within the state of Texas Coordinates: , Country State Counties Midland Government  - Mayor Mike Canon Area  - City 173. ... -1... This article is about the current Christian denomination based in the United States. ... Jenna Welch Bush (born November 25, 1981 in Dallas, Texas)[1] is an author and school teacher who is the daughter of U.S. President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush as well as the fraternal twin of Barbara Pierce Bush. ... For the wife of George H.W. Bush, see Barbara Bush. ... University of Texas redirects here. ... Yale redirects here. ...


Bush says his wife has had a stabilizing effect on his private life,[31] and attributes to her influence his 1986 decision to stop drinking.[30] While Governor of Texas, Bush said of his wife, "I saw an elegant beautiful woman who turned out not only to be elegant and beautiful, but very smart and willing to put up with my rough edges, and I must confess has smoothed them off over time."[31]


Early career

In 1978, Bush ran for the House of Representatives from Texas's 19th congressional district. His opponent, Kent Hance, portrayed him as being out of touch with rural Texans; Bush lost the election by 6,000 votes.[32] He returned to the oil industry, and began a series of small, independent oil exploration companies.[33] He created Arbusto Energy,[34] and later changed the name to Bush Exploration. In 1984, his company merged with the larger Spectrum 7, and Bush became chairman.[33] The company was hurt by a decline in oil prices, and as a result, it folded into Harken Energy.[33][35] Bush served on the board of directors for Harken.[33] Questions of possible insider trading involving Harken have arisen, though the Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) investigation of Bush concluded that he did not have enough insider information before his stock sale to warrant a case.[33][36] George W. Bush This article covers the professional life of George W. Bush, the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The current boundaries of Texas District 19. ... Kent Ronald Hance (born November 14, 1942, in Dimmitt, Texas) is a lobbyist and lawyer who was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from west Texas, having served from 1979 to 1985. ... Arbusto Energy (sometimes referred to as Arbusto Oil), was a petroleum and energy company formed in Midland, Texas, in 1977, by George Walker Bush and a group of investors which included Dorothy Bush, Lewis Lehrman, William Henry Draper III, Bill Gammell, and James R. Bath. ... Spectrum 7 was an oil company started by William DeWitt and Mercer Reynolds. ... Harken Energy Corporation is an American oil and gas company, having its headquarters in Southlake, Texas. ... Allegations of insider trading have been made against George W. Bush, later elected President of the United States, for his 1990 sale of stock in Harken Energy Corporation, of which he was a director. ... The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, commonly referred to as the SEC, is the United States governing body which has primary responsibility for overseeing the regulation of the securities industry. ...


Bush moved his family to Washington, D.C. in 1988 to work on his father's campaign for the U.S. presidency.[37][38] He worked as a campaign adviser and served as liaison to the media;[33] he assisted his father by campaigning across the country.[33] Returning to Texas after the successful campaign, he purchased a share in the Texas Rangers baseball franchise in April 1989, where he served as managing general partner for five years.[39] He actively led the team's projects and regularly attended its games, often choosing to sit in the open stands with fans.[40] The sale of Bush's shares in the Rangers in 1998 brought him over US$15 million from his initial US$800,000 investment.[41] For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Major league affiliations American League (1961–present) West Division (1972–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 26, 34, 42 Name Texas Rangers (1972–present) Washington Senators (1961-1971) Other nicknames None in common use Ballpark Rangers Ballpark in Arlington (1994–present) a. ...


In December 1991, Bush was one of seven people named by his father to run his father's 1992 Presidential re-election campaign; Bush's title was "campaign advisor".[42] The prior month, Bush had been asked by his father to tell White House chief of staff John H. Sununu that he should resign.[43] John Henry Sununu (born July 2, 1939 in Havana, Cuba) is a former Governor of New Hampshire (1983-89) and former White House Chief of Staff under President George H. W. Bush. ...


Governor of Texas

Governor Bush with wife, Laura, and father, former President George H. W. Bush at the dedication of the George Bush Presidential Library, November 1997

As Bush's brother, Jeb, sought the governorship of Florida, Bush declared his candidacy for the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. His campaign focused on four themes: welfare reform, tort reform, crime reduction, and education improvement.[33] Bush's campaign advisers were Karen Hughes, Joe Allbaugh, and Karl Rove.[44] George W. Bush served as the 47th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Library entrance The George Bush Presidential Library and Museum is the presidential library of George H. W. Bush, the 41st President of the United States. ... John Ellis Jeb Bush (born February 11, 1953) is an American politician, and was the 43rd Governor of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Karen Parfitt Hughes (born December 27, 1956 in Paris, France) is a Republican U.S. political professional from the state of Texas. ... Joe M. Allbaugh. ... Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) was Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush until his resignation on 31 August 2007. ...


After winning the Republican primary easily, Bush faced popular Democrat incumbent Governor Ann Richards. Bush pledged to sign a bill allowing Texans to obtain permits to carry concealed weapons. Governor Richards had vetoed the bill, but Bush signed it after he became governor.[45] Following his debates with Richards, his popularity grew; he won the general election with 53.5 percent against Richards' 45.9 percent.[46] This article is about the American politician/teacher, for the Australian-American actress, see Ann Richards (actress). ...


Bush used a budget surplus to push through Texas's largest tax-cut of two billion dollars.[44] He extended government funding for organizations providing education, alcohol and drug use and abuse prevention, and reduction of domestic violence.


In 1998, Bush won re-election with a record[33] 69 percent of the vote.[47] He became the first governor in Texas history to be elected to two consecutive four-year terms.[33] In his second term, Bush promoted faith-based organizations and enjoyed high approval ratings.[33] He proclaimed June 10, 2000 to be Jesus Day in Texas, a day on which he "urge[d] all Texans to answer the call to serve those in need."[48] George W. Bushs official proclamation designating 10 June 2000 as Jesus Day. Jesus Day is a celebration held annually by some Christians on the Saturday before Pentecost Sunday, started on June 10, 2000, with the purpose of showing their love of Jesus by serving their communities and worshiping their...


Critics contended that during his tenure, Texas ranked near the bottom in environmental evaluations, but supporters pointed to his efforts to raise the salaries of teachers and improved educational test scores.[33]


Throughout Bush's first term, national attention focused on him as a potential future presidential candidate. Following his re-election, speculation soared.[33] Within a year, he had decided to seek the Republican nomination for the presidency. GOP redirects here. ...


Presidential campaigns

2000 Presidential candidacy

The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ...

Primary

In June 1999, while Governor of Texas, Bush announced his candidacy for President of the United States. With no incumbent running, Bush entered a large field of candidates for the Republican Party presidential nomination. Along with Bush, that field of candidates consisted of John McCain, Alan Keyes, Steve Forbes, Gary Bauer, Orrin Hatch, Elizabeth Dole, Dan Quayle, Pat Buchanan, Lamar Alexander, John Kasich and Robert C. Smith. Open seat redirects here. ... McCain redirects here. ... Alan Keyes (born August 7, 1950) is an American political activist, author and former diplomat. ... For the boxer, see Stephen Forbes. ... Gary L. Bauer (born May 4, 1946, in Covington, Kentucky)[1] is a conservative American politician notable for his ties to several evangelical Christian groups and campaigns. ... Orrin Grant Hatch (born March 22, 1934) is a Republican United States Senator from Utah, serving since 1977. ... Elizabeth Hanford Liddy Dole (born July 29, 1936) is an American politician who served in both the Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush presidential administrations, and currently serves as a United States senator from North Carolina. ... James Danforth[1][2] Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) is an American politician and a former Senator from the state of Indiana. ... Patrick Joseph Pat Buchanan (born November 2, 1938) is an American politician, author, syndicated columnist and broadcaster. ... Andrew Lamar Alexander (born July 3, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Tennessee and a member of the Republican Party. ... John Kasich John Richard Kasich (born May 13, 1952, McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania) is a former United States Republican United States Representative who is now a television show host for FOX News Channel. ... For other persons named Robert Smith, see Robert Smith (disambiguation). ...


Bush portrayed himself as a compassionate conservative. He campaigned on a platform that included increasing the size of the United States Armed Forces, cutting taxes, improving education, and aiding minorities.[33] By early 2000, the race had centered on Bush and McCain.[33] Definition Compassionate conservatism is a political philosophy that was invented by Marvin Olasky, who went on to memorialize it in his 2000 book Compassionate Conservatism: What it is, What it Does, and How it Can Transform America, and Myron Magnet of the Manhattan Institute. ... The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States. ...


Bush won the Iowa caucuses, and although he was heavily favored to win the New Hampshire primary, he trailed John McCain by 19% and lost that primary.[49] However, the Bush campaign regained momentum and, according to political observers, effectively became the front runner after the South Carolina primary.[50] The South Carolina campaign was controversial for the use of telephone poll questions phrased negatively toward McCain.[49] Since 1976, the Iowa caucus has been the first indication of which candidate for President of the United States would win the nomination of his or her political party at that partys national convention. ... The New Hampshire primary is the first in a series of nationwide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of choosing the Democratic and Republican nominees for the presidential elections to be held the subsequent November. ... The South Carolina presidential primary has become one of several key early state nominating contests in the process of choosing nominees of the Democratic and Republican parties for the following election for President of the United States. ...


General election

On July 25, 2000, Bush surprised some observers by asking the Halliburton corporation's chief executive officer Dick Cheney, a former White House Chief of Staff, U.S. Representative, and Secretary of Defense, to be his running mate. Cheney was then serving as head of Bush's Vice-Presidential search committee. Soon after, he was officially nominated by the Republican Party at the 2000 Republican National Convention. For other uses, see Haliburton. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Joshua B. Bolten, the current White House Chief of Staff. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... A running mate is a person running for a subordinate position on a joint ticket during an election. ... The 2000 Republican National Convention convened at the Wachovia Center (then the First Union Center) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from July 31 to August 3, 2000. ...


Bush continued to campaign across the country, and touted his record as Governor of Texas.[33] Bush's campaign criticized his Democratic opponent, incumbent Vice President Al Gore, over gun control and taxation.[51] This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Gun politics is a set of legal issues surrounding the ownership, use, and regulation of firearms as well as safety issues related to firearms both through their direct use and through legal and criminal use. ...


As the election returns came in on November 7, Bush won twenty-nine states including Florida. The closeness of the Florida outcome led to a recount.[33] Two initial counts went to Bush, but the outcome was tied up in courts for a month until reaching the U.S. Supreme Court. On December 9, in the Bush v. Gore case, the Court reversed a Florida Supreme Court ruling ordering a third count, and stopped an ordered statewide hand recount based on the argument that the use of different standards among Florida's counties violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.[33] The machine recount stated that Bush had won the Florida vote by a margin of 537 votes out of six million cast.[52] Bush received 271 electoral votes to Gore's 266.[53] However, he lost the popular vote by 543,895 votes,[52] surpassing the previous 1876 election record.[54] This made him one of three Presidents elected without receiving a plurality of the popular vote. This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... The outcome of the 2000 United States presidential election was not known for more than a month after balloting, because of the extended process of counting and then recounting of Florida presidential ballots. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Holding In the circumstances of this case, any manual recount of votes seeking to meet the December 12 “safe harbor” deadline would be unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. ... The Florida Supreme Court is the highest court in the State of Florida. ... Congressman John Bingham of Ohio was the principal framer of the Equal Protection Clause. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 Cartogram representation of the Electoral College for the elections of 2004 and 2008. ... The United States presidential election of 1876 was one of the most disputed and intense presidential elections in American history. ... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 Cartogram representation of the Electoral College for the elections of 2004 and 2008. ... For other uses, see Plurality (disambiguation). ...


2004 Presidential candidacy

George W. Bush speaks at a campaign rally in 2004.

Bush commanded broad support in the Republican Party and did not encounter a primary challenge. He appointed Kenneth Mehlman as campaign manager, with a political strategy devised by Karl Rove.[55] Bush and the Republican platform included a strong commitment to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan,[56] support for the USA PATRIOT Act,[57] constitutional amendments banning abortion and same-sex marriage,[56] reforming Social Security to create private investment accounts,[56] creation of an ownership society,[56] and mandatory carbon emissions controls.[58] Bush also called for the implementation of a temporary guest-worker program for immigrants,[56] which was criticized by conservatives.[59] The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004 to elect the president. ... Download high resolution version (757x1024, 93 KB)President Bush at a GOP Rally in St. ... Download high resolution version (757x1024, 93 KB)President Bush at a GOP Rally in St. ... Ken Mehlman Kenneth B. Mehlman (born 1967 in Baltimore, Maryland) is the chair of the Republican National Committee. ... Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) was Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush until his resignation on 31 August 2007. ... In the United States, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56), known as the USA PATRIOT Act or simply the Patriot Act, is an Act of Congress which President George W. Bush signed into law... Ownership society is a slogan for a model of society promoted by United States President George W. Bush. ...


The Bush campaign advertised across the U.S. against Democratic candidates, including Bush's emerging opponent, Massachusetts Senator John Kerry. Kerry and other Democrats attacked Bush on the war in Iraq, perceived excesses of the USA PATRIOT Act and for allegedly failing to stimulate the economy and job growth. The Bush campaign portrayed Kerry as a staunch liberal who would raise taxes and increase the size of government. The Bush campaign continuously criticized Kerry's seemingly contradictory statements on the war in Iraq,[33] and claimed Kerry lacked the decisiveness and vision necessary for success in the war on terrorism. This article is about the U.S. state. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... This article discusses the history and development of various notions of liberalism in the United States. ...


Bush carried thirty-one of fifty states for a total of 286 electoral votes. He won an absolute majority of the popular vote (50.7% to his opponent's 48.3%).[60] The last President to win an absolute majority of the popular vote had been Bush's father in the 1988 election. Additionally, it was the first time since Herbert Hoover's election in 1928 that a Republican president was elected alongside re-elected Republican congressional majorities in both Houses. Bush's 2.5% margin of victory was the narrowest for a victorious incumbent President up for re-election since Woodrow Wilson's 3.1% margin of victory against Charles Evans Hughes in 1916. Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 Cartogram representation of the Electoral College for the elections of 2004 and 2008. ... Absolute majority is a supermajoritarian voting requirement which is stricter than a simple majority. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a mining engineer and author. ... The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. ... The United States presidential election of 1916 took place while Europe was embroiled in World War I. Public sentiment in the still neutral United States leaned towards the British and French (allied) forces, due to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army, which had invaded and occupied large...


Presidency

The Bush Cabinet
Office Name Term
President George W. Bush 2001–present
Vice President Dick Cheney 2001–present
Secretary of State Colin Powell 2001–2005
Condoleezza Rice 2005–present
Secretary of Treasury Paul O'Neill 2001–2002
John Snow 2003–2006
Henry Paulson 2006–present
Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld 2001–2006
Robert Gates 2006–present
Attorney General John Ashcroft 2001–2005
Alberto Gonzales 2005–2007
Michael Mukasey 2007–present
Secretary of the Interior Gale Norton 2001–2006
Dirk Kempthorne 2006–present
Secretary of Agriculture Ann Veneman 2001–2005
Mike Johanns 2005–2007
Ed Schafer 2008–present
Secretary of Commerce Donald Evans 2001–2005
Carlos Gutierrez 2005–present
Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao 2001–present
Secretary of Health and
Human Services
Tommy Thompson 2001–2005
Michael Leavitt 2005–present
Secretary of Education Rod Paige 2001–2005
Margaret Spellings 2005–present
Secretary of Housing and
Urban Development
Mel Martinez 2001–2003
Alphonso Jackson 2003–2008
Steve Preston 2008–present
Secretary of Transportation Norman Mineta 2001–2006
Mary Peters 2006–present
Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham 2001–2005
Samuel Bodman 2005–present
Secretary of Veterans Affairs Anthony Principi 2001–2005
Jim Nicholson 2005–2007
James Peake 2007–present
Secretary of Homeland Security Tom Ridge 2003–2005
Michael Chertoff 2005–present
Chief of Staff Andrew Card 2001–2006
Joshua Bolten 2006–present
Administrator of the
Environmental Protection Agency
Christine Todd Whitman 2001–2003
Michael Leavitt 2003–2005
Stephen Johnson 2005–present
Director of the Office of
Management and Budget
Mitch Daniels 2001–2003
Joshua Bolten 2003–2006
Rob Portman 2006–2007
Jim Nussle 2007–present
Director of the Office of
National Drug Control Policy
John Walters 2001–present
United States Trade Representative Robert Zoellick 2001–2005
Rob Portman 2005–2006
Susan Schwab 2006–present

The Presidency of George W. Bush, also known as the George W. Bush Administration, began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd and current President of the United States of America. ... President George W. Bush delivers his first State of the Union Address. ... George W. Bushs second term as President of the United States began at noon on January 20, 2005 and is due to expire with the swearing-in of the 44th President of the United States at noon, Washington, D.C. time, on January 20, 2009. ... United States President George W. Bush has appointed a diverse and controversial cabinet. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Paul Henry ONeill (born December 4, 1935) served as the 72nd United States Secretary of the Treasury for part of President George W. Bushs first Administration. ... John W. Snow John William Snow, Ph. ... Henry Merritt Hank Paulson, Jr. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is currently serving as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... John David Ashcroft (born May 9, 1942) is an American politician who was the 79th United States Attorney General. ... Alberto Gonzales (born August 4, 1955), is the 80th and current Attorney General of the United States. ... Michael B. Mukasey (born 1941) is a Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Secretary of the Interior Gale Norton Gale Ann Norton (born March 11, 1954) served as the 48th United States Secretary of the Interior, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Dirk Arthur Kempthorne (born October 29, 1951 in San Diego, California), is the current U.S. Secretary of the Interior, serving since May 2006. ... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... Ann Margaret Veneman (born June 29, 1949) is currently the Executive Director of UNICEF. She was the first woman to become the United States Secretary of Agriculture. ... Michael Owen Johanns (born June 18, 1950 in Osage, Iowa) is an American Republican politician. ... Edward Thomas Ed Schafer (born August 8, 1946), U. S. Republican Party politician, He served as Governor of North Dakota from 1992 to 2000. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Donald Evans Donald Louis Evans (born July 27, 1946) was the 35th U.S. Secretary of Commerce. ... Carlos M. Gutierrez (originally Gutiérrez) (born November 4, 1953) is the 35th U.S. Secretary of Commerce, succeeding Donald Evans. ... Seal of the United States Department of Labor Secretary of Labor redirects here. ... Elaine Lan Chao (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chao Hsiao-lan;[1] born March 26, 1953) currently serves as the 24th United States Secretary of Labor in the Cabinet of President George W. Bush. ... The United States Secretary of Health and Human Services is the head of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... For other people with similar names, see Thomas Thompson. ... Michael Okerlund Leavitt (born February 11, 1951 in Cedar City, Utah) is an American politician, and is currently the Secretary of Health and Human Services. ... The United States Secretary of Education is the head of the Department of Education. ... Roderick Raynor Rod Paige (born June 17, 1933), served as the 7th United States Secretary of Education from 2001 to 2005. ... Margaret Spellings (born Margaret Dudar on November 30, 1957) is the current Secretary of Education under the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush and was previously Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy to Bush. ... Seal of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development The United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Melquíades Rafael Mel Martínez (born October 23, 1946) is a Cuban-American, who is currently the junior United States Senator from Florida and the General Chairman of the Republican Party. ... Alphonso Roy Jackson (born September 9, 1945, in Marshall, Texas) is the current and 13th United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). ... Preston (right) is sworn in as Administrator of the SBA, July 26, 2006. ... Seal of the United States Department of Transportation The United States Secretary of Transportation is the head of the United States Department of Transportation. ... Norman Yoshio Mineta (born November 12, 1931) is a United States politician of the Democratic Party. ... Mary E. Peters (b. ... Seal of the United States Department of Energy The United States Secretary of Energy, the head of the United States Department of Energy, is concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Edward Spencer Abraham (born June 12, 1952 in East Lansing, Michigan) is an a former United States Senator of Lebanese descent. ... Samuel Wright Bodman III, Sc. ... The United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs is the head of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, the department concerned with veterans benefits and related matters. ... Anthony Joseph Principi (born April 16, 1944) was the 4th United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs. ... Robert James Jim Nicholson (born February 4, 1938[1]) is an attorney, real estate developer, and a former Republican Party chairman. ... Lieutenant General Dr. James Peake James B. Peake is the current choice of President George W. Bush for the post of United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs. ... The United States Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the body concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ... Thomas Joseph Ridge (born August 27, 1945 near Pittsburgh, USA) is an American politician who served as a member of the United States House of Representatives (1983–1995), Governor of Pennsylvania (1995–2001), Assistant to the President for Homeland Security (2001–2003), and the first United States Secretary of Homeland... [[Category:Articles needing additional references from August 2007]] Michael Chertoff (born November 28, 1953) is the current United States Secretary of Homeland Security. ... Joshua B. Bolten, the current White House Chief of Staff. ... Andrew Hill Andy Card Jr. ... Categories: People stubs | Directors of the Office of Management and Budget | American lawyers | 1955 births ... The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency is the head of the United States federal governments Environmental Protection Agency, and is thus responsible for enforcing the nations Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, as well as numerous other environmental statutes. ... Christine Todd Christie Whitman (born September 26, 1946) is an American Republican politician and author, who served as the 50th Governor of New Jersey and was the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency in the administration of President George W. Bush. ... Michael Okerlund Leavitt (born February 11, 1951 in Cedar City, Utah) is an American politician, and is currently the Secretary of Health and Human Services. ... Stephen L. Johnson Stephen L. Johnson (born March 21, 1951 in Washington D.C) is an American career civil servant. ... The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is a body within the Executive Office of the President of the United States which is tasked with coordinating United States Federal agencies. ... Mitchell Elias Mitch Daniels, Jr. ... Categories: People stubs | Directors of the Office of Management and Budget | American lawyers | 1955 births ... Robert Jones Rob Portman (born December 19, 1955) is an American lawyer and a former Director of the Office of Management and Budget. ... James Allen Jim Nussle (born June 27, 1960, Des Moines, Iowa) is an American politician. ... The Director of the National Drug Control Policy (ubiquitously nicknamed the Drug czar) is the head of the United States Office of National Drug Control Policy. ... John Walters John P. Walters was sworn in as the Director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) on December 7, 2001. ... The Office of the United States Trade Representative, or USTR, is an arm of the executive branch of the United States government that falls within the Executive Office of the President. ... Robert B. Zoellick Robert Bruce Zoellick (IPA: ) (born July 25, 1953) is an American politician and (effective July 1, 2007) the eleventh president of the World Bank. ... Robert Jones Rob Portman (born December 19, 1955) is an American lawyer and a former Director of the Office of Management and Budget. ... Susan C. Schwab (born March 23, 1955) is currently United States Trade Representative. ...

Domestic policy

This article discusses the domestic policy of the George W. Bush administration, from January 20, 2001 to the present day. ...

Economic policy

Facing opposition in the Congress, Bush held town hall-style public meetings across the U.S. in 2001 to increase public support for his plan for a US$1.35 trillion tax cut program—one of the largest tax cuts in U.S. history.[33] Bush argued that unspent government funds should be returned to taxpayers, saying "the surplus is not the government’s money. The surplus is the people’s money."[33] With reports of the threat of recession from Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan, Bush argued that such a tax cut would stimulate the economy and create jobs.[61] Others, including the Treasury Secretary at the time Paul O'Neill, were opposed to some of the tax cuts on the basis that they would contribute to budget deficits and undermine Social Security.[62] By 2003, the economy showed signs of improvement.[33] During his first term, George W. Bush sought and obtained Congressional approval for tax cuts: the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, the Job Creation and Worker Assistance Act of 2002 and the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003. ... A tax cut is a reduction in the rate of tax charged by a government, for example on personal or corporate income. ... The Chairman of the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve is the head of the central bank of the United States and one of the more important decision-makers in American economic policies. ... Squalltoonix (born March 6, 1926 in New York City) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ... Paul Henry ONeill (born December 4, 1935) served as the 72nd United States Secretary of the Treasury for part of President George W. Bushs first Administration. ... Social Security, in the United States, currently refers to the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ...


Under the Bush Administration, real GDP has grown at an average annual rate of 2.5 percent,[63] considerably below the average for business cycles from 1949 to 2000.[64][65] The Dow Jones Industrial Average peaked in October 2007 at about 14,000, 30 percent above its level in January 2001, before the subsequent economic crisis wiped out all the gains and more.[66] Unemployment originally rose from 4.2 percent in January 2001 to 6.3 percent in June 2003, but subsequently dropped to 4.5 percent as of July 2007.[67] Inflation-adjusted median household income has been flat while the nation's poverty rate has increased.[68] By October 2008, due to increases in domestic and foreign spending,[69] the national debt had risen to US$11.3 trillion dollars,[70][71] an increase of over 100% from the start of the year 2000 when the debt was US$5.6 trillion.[72][73] The perception of President Bush's effect on the economy is significantly affected by partisanship with 67% of Republicans and 1% of Democrats approving of his performance.[74] CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... The median household income is commonly used to provide data about geographic areas and divides households into two equal segments with the first half of households earning less than the median household income and the other half earning more. ... US Debt from 1940 on. ... Look up Partisan (political) in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In politics, a partisan is a person who supports a cause, party, or goal fervently, usually to the exclusion of all others. ...


The United States entered 2008 with a shaky economy, consisting of a housing market correction, a subprime mortgage crisis, soaring oil prices and a declining dollar value.[75] In February, 63,000 jobs were lost, a 5-year record,[76] and many observers believed that a U.S. recession had begun.[77] To aid with the situation, Bush signed a US$170 billion economic stimulus package which aimed to improve the economic situation by sending tax rebate checks to many Americans and providing tax breaks for struggling businesses. In September, the crisis worsened and the majority of the American banking industry was consolidated into three companies.[78] Many economists and world governments determined that the situation became the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression.[79][80][81][82]The Bush administration pushed for increased regulation of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in 2003,[83] though these requests went unanswered by Congress.[84] The administration, however, could have done additional work to curb excesses in the housing market and address the mortgage-backed securities problem.[84] In September 2008, President Bush proposed a financial rescue plan to buy back a large portion of the U.S. mortgage market.[85] The United States housing market correction is the market correction or bubble bursting of the United States housing bubble. ... The subprime mortgage crisis is an ongoing problem manifesting itself through liquidity issues in the banking system which have become more prevalent due to foreclosures which accelerated in the United States in late 2006 and triggered a global financial crisis during 2007 and 2008. ... Medium term crude oil prices, (not adjusted for inflation) Short term crude oil prices, (not adjusted for inflation) From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under $25/barrel. ... In macroeconomics, a recession is generally associated with a decline in a countrys real gross domestic product (GDP), or negative real economic growth. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... The United States Federal Government created the Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) (NYSE: FNM), commonly known as Fannie Mae, in 1938 to establish a secondary market for mortgages insured by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). ... The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) (NYSE: FRE) is a stockholder-owned, publicly-traded company chartered by the United States federal government in 1970 to purchase mortgages and related securities, and then issues securities and bonds in financial markets backed by those mortgages in secondary markets. ... This article is about one division of an enacted statute. ...


Education and health

Since entering office, President Bush has undertaken a number of educational priorities. He increased funding for the National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health in his first years of office, and created education programs to strengthen the grounding in science and mathematics for American high school students. Funding for the NIH was cut in 2006, the first such cut in 36 years, due to rising inflation.[86] The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ...

Bush signs the No Child Left Behind Act into law, January 2002

One of the administration's early major initiatives was the "No Child Left Behind Act", which aimed to measure and close the gap between rich and poor student performance, provide options to parents with students in low-performing schools, and target more federal funding to low-income schools. This landmark education initiative was signed into law by President Bush in early 2002.[87] Many contend that the initiative has been successful, as cited by the fact that students in the U.S. have performed significantly better on state reading and math tests since Bush signed "No Child Left Behind" into law.[88] Critics argue that it is underfunded[89] and that NCLBA's focus on "high stakes testing" and quantitative outcomes is counterproductive.[90] Image File history File links No_Child_Left_Behind_Act. ... Image File history File links No_Child_Left_Behind_Act. ... President Bush signing the bipartisan No Child Left Behind Act at Hamilton H.S. in Hamilton, Ohio. ... President Bush signing the bipartisan No Child Left Behind Act at Hamilton H.S. in Hamilton, Ohio. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ...


After being re-elected, Bush signed into law a Medicare drug benefit program that, according to Jan Crawford Greenburg, resulted in "the greatest expansion in America's welfare state in forty years;" the bill's costs approached $7 trillion.[91] In 2007, Bush opposed and vetoed State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) legislation, which was added by the Democrats onto a war funding bill and passed by Congress. The SCHIP legislation would have significantly expanded federally funded health care benefits and plans to children of some low-income families from about 6 million to 10 million children. It was to be funded by an increase in the cigarette tax.[92] Bush viewed the legislation as a move toward the liberal platform of socialized health care, and claimed that the program could benefit families making as much as US$83,000 per year who would not have otherwise needed the help.[93] Jan Crawford Greenburg is the legal affairs editor for the Chicago Tribune and reports on the Supreme Court of the United States for the PBS show The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... The State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) is a national program in the United States designed for families who earn too much money to qualify for Medicaid, yet cannot afford to buy private insurance. ...


Social services and Social Security

Following Republican efforts to pass the Medicare Act of 2003, Bush signed the bill, which included major changes to the Medicare program by providing beneficiaries with some assistance in paying for prescription drugs, while relying on private insurance for the delivery of benefits.[94] The retired persons lobby group AARP worked with the Bush Administration on the program and gave their endorsement. Bush said the law, estimated to cost US$400 billion over the first 10 years, would give the elderly "better choices and more control over their health care".[95] The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (Public Law No. ... There are several publicly funded health services in various countries called Medicare: Medicare (Canada) is a comprehensive, universal (for all the citizens and permanent residents in the country) public health financing system. ... Current logo for AARP, in use since January 2007 For the AppleTalk protocol developed by Apple Computer, see AppleTalk address resolution protocol (AARP). ...

President Bush speaks at the United States Coast Guard Academy commencement, May 2007

Bush began his second term by outlining a major initiative to reform Social Security,[96] which was facing record deficit projections beginning in 2005. Bush made it the centerpiece of his domestic agenda despite opposition from some in the U.S. Congress.[96] In his 2005 State of the Union Address, Bush discussed the potential impending bankruptcy of the program and outlined his new program, which included partial privitization of the system,[96] personal Social Security accounts,[96] and options to permit Americans to divert a portion of their Social Security tax (FICA) into secured investments. Despite emphasizing safeguards and remaining open to other plans, Democrats opposed the proposal to partially privatize the system.[96] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (4,288 × 2,848 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (4,288 × 2,848 pixels, file size: 1. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... For other uses, see Graduation (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: George W. Bushs Fifth State of the Union Address The 2005 State of the Union Address was delivered by United States President George W. Bush on February 1, 2005, in Washington DC to a joint session of the U.S. Congress...


Bush embarked on a 60-day national tour, campaigning vigorously for his initiative in media events, known as the "Conversations on Social Security", in an attempt to gain support from the general public.[97] Despite the energetic campaign, public support for the proposal declined[98] and the House Republican leadership decided not to put Social Security reform on the priority list for the remainder of their 2005 legislative agenda.[99] The proposal's legislative prospects were further diminished by the political fallout from the Hurricane Katrina in the fall of 2005.[100] After the Democrats gained control of both houses of the Congress as a result of the 2006 mid-term elections, the prospects of any further congressional action on the Bush proposal appeared to be dead for the remainder of his term in office. This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ...


Environmental and energy policies

Main article: Domestic policy of the George W. Bush administration#Environment

Upon arriving in office in 2001, Bush stated his opposition to the Kyoto Protocol, an amendment to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change which seeks to impose mandatory targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, citing that the treaty exempted 80 percent of the world's population[101] and would have cost tens of billions of dollars per year.[102] He also cited that the Senate had voted 95–0 in 1997 on a resolution expressing its disapproval of the protocol. This article discusses the domestic policy of the George W. Bush administration, from January 20, 2001 to the present day. ... The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases that cause climate change. ... UN redirects here. ...


In 2002, Bush announced the Clear Skies Initiative,[103] aimed at amending the Clean Air Act to reduce air pollution through the use of emissions trading programs. It was argued, however, that this legislation would have weakened the original legislation by allowing higher levels of pollutants than were permitted at that time.[104] The initiative was introduced to Congress, but failed to make it out of committee. The Clear Skies Initiative calls for a reduction on the limits to pollutants. ... Smog over Shanghai. ... Emissions trading (or cap and trade) is an administrative approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. ...

President George W. Bush with Vice President Dick Cheney addressing the media at the State Department, August 14, 2006

President Bush believes that global warming is real[105] and has noted that global warming is a serious problem, but he asserted there is a "debate over whether it's manmade or naturally caused".[106] The Bush Administration's stance on global warming has remained controversial in the scientific and environmental communities. Many accusations have been made against the administration[107] for allegedly misinforming the public and not having done enough to reduce carbon emissions and deter global warming.[108] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Department of State redirects here. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


In 2006 Bush declared the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands a national monument, creating the largest marine reserve to date. The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument comprises 84 million acres (340,000 km²) and is home to 7,000 species of fish, birds and other marine animals, many of which are specific to only those islands.[109] The move was hailed by conservationists for "its foresight and leadership in protecting this incredible area."[110] The Hawaiian island chain. ... The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (formerly the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument) is the largest Marine Protected Area in the world and was named by the American television show Good Morning America and newspaper USA Today as one of the New Seven Wonders of the World [1...


In his 2007 State of the Union Address, Bush renewed his pledge to work toward diminished reliance on foreign oil by reducing fossil fuel consumption and increasing alternative fuel production.[111] Amidst high gas prices in 2008, Bush lifted a ban on offshore drilling.[112] The move was largely symbolic, however, as there is still a federal law banning offshore drilling. Bush said, "This means that the only thing standing between the American people and these vast oil reserves is action from the U.S. Congress."[112] Bush had said in June 2008, "In the long run, the solution is to reduce demand for oil by promoting alternative energy technologies. My administration has worked with Congress to invest in gas-saving technologies like advanced batteries and hydrogen fuel cells... In the short run, the American economy will continue to rely largely on oil. And that means we need to increase supply, especially here at home. So my administration has repeatedly called on Congress to expand domestic oil production."[113] George W. Bush during the speech, with Dick Cheney and Nancy Pelosi behind him. ...


In his 2008 State of the Union Address, Bush announced that the U.S. would commit US$2 billion over the next three years towards a new international fund to promote clean energy technologies and fight climate change, saying, "along with contributions from other countries, this fund will increase and accelerate the deployment of all forms of cleaner, more efficient technologies in developing nations like India and China, and help leverage substantial private-sector capital by making clean energy projects more financially attractive." He has also announced plans to reaffirm the United States' commitment to work with major economies, and, through the United Nations, to complete an international agreement that will slow, stop, and eventually reverse the growth of greenhouse gases; he stated, "this agreement will be effective only if it includes commitments by every major economy and gives none a free ride."[114] George W. Bush during the 2008 State of the Union speech, with Vice President Dick Cheney and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi. ... Greenhouse gases are gaseous components of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect. ...


Stem cell research and first use of veto power

Federal funding for medical research involving the creation or destruction of human embryos through the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institutes of Health has been forbidden by law since the Republican Revolution of 1995.[115] Bush has said that he supports stem cell research, but only to the extent that human embryos are not destroyed in order to harvest additional cells.[116] On August 9, 2001, Bush signed an executive order lifting the ban on federal funding for the 71 existing "lines" of stem cells,[117] but the ability of these existing lines to provide an adequate medium for testing has been questioned. Testing can only be done on twelve of the original lines, and all of the approved lines have been cultured in contact with mouse cells, which makes it unlikely the FDA would approve them for administration to humans.[118] On July 19, 2006, Bush used his veto power for the first time in his presidency to veto the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act. The bill would have repealed the Dickey Amendment, thereby permitting federal money to be used for research where stem cells are derived from the destruction of an embryo.[119] The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ... The Republican Revolution refers to the success of Republican Party in the 1994 U.S. midterm elections, which resulted in a net gain of 54 seats in the House of Representatives, and a pickup of eight seats in the Senate. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker. ... FDA redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act was the first bill ever vetoed by United States President George W. Bush, more than five years after his inauguration. ... The Dickey Amendment is the name of a piece of federal legislation passed by United States Congress in 1995 which prohibits the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) from using appropriated funds for the creation of human embryos for research purposes or for research in which human embryos are...


Immigration

President Bush discusses border security near the El Paso, Texas, United States-Mexico border, November 2005

In 2006, going beyond calls from conservatives to secure the border, Bush demanded that Congress allow more than twelve million illegal immigrants to work in the United States with the creation of a "temporary guest-worker program." Bush does not support amnesty for illegal immigrants,[120] but argues that the lack of legal status denies the protections of U.S. laws to millions of people who face dangers of poverty and exploitation, and penalizes employers despite a demand for immigrant labor. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... El Paso redirects here. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The President urged Congress to provide additional funds for border security, and committed to deploying 6,000 National Guard troops to the Mexico–United States border.[121] In May-June 2007 Bush strongly supported the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 which was written by a bipartisan group of Senators with the active participation of the Bush administration.[122] The bill envisioned a legalization program for undocumented immigrants, with an eventual path to citizenship; establishing a guest worker program; a series of border and work site enforcement measures; a reform of the green card application process and the introduction of a point-based "merit" system for green cards; elimination of "chain migration" and of the Diversity Immigrant Visa; and other measures. Bush contended that the proposed bill did not amount to amnesty.[123] The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... The border between Mexico and the United States spans four U.S. states, six Mexican states, and has over twenty commercial railroad crossings. ... The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, or, in its full name, the Secure Borders, Economic Opportunity and Immigration Reform Act of 2007 (S. 1348) was a bill discussed in the 110th United States Congress that would have provided legal status and a path to legal citizenship for the approximately... The Diversity Immigrant Visa program is a United States congressionally mandated lottery program for receiving a United States Permanent Resident Card. ...


A heated public debate followed, which resulted in a substantial rift within the Republican Party, the majority of conservatives opposed it because of its legalization or amnesty provisions.[124] The bill was eventually defeated in the Senate on June 28, 2007, when a cloture motion failed on a 46-53 vote.[125] President Bush expressed disappointment upon the defeat of one of his signature domestic initiatives.[126] The Bush administration later proposed a series of immigration enforcement measures that do not require a change in law.[127]


Civil liberties and terrorist detainees

Following the events of September 11, Bush issued an executive order authorizing the NSA to monitor communications between suspected terrorists outside the U.S. and parties within the U.S. without obtaining a warrant pursuant to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act,[128] maintaining that the warrant requirements of FISA were implicitly superseded by the subsequent passage of the Authorization for Use of Military Force.[129] The program proved to be controversial, as critics of the administration, as well as organizations such as the American Bar Association, claimed it was illegal.[130] In August 2006, a U.S. district court judge ruled that the Terrorist Surveillance Program was unconstitutional,[131] but the decision was later reversed.[132] On January 17, 2007, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales informed U.S. Senate leaders that the program would not be reauthorized by the President, but would be subjected to judicial oversight.[133] NSA redirects here. ... The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978 is a U.S. federal law prescribing procedures for the physical and electronic surveillance and collection of foreign intelligence information between foreign powers and agents of foreign powers (which may include American citizens and permanent residents suspected of being engaged in espionage... The Authorization for Use of Military Force (Public law 107-40) was a joint resolution passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 2001, authorizing the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the attacks on September 11, 2001. ... For the related controversy about data-mining of domestic call records see NSA call database. ... American Bar Associations Washington, DC office The American Bar Association (ABA) is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with NSA warrantless surveillance controversy. ...


On October 17, 2006 Bush signed into law the Military Commissions Act of 2006,[134] a bill passed in the wake of the Supreme Court's decision on Hamdan v. Rumsfeld,[135] which allows the U.S. government the ability to prosecute unlawful enemy combatants by military commission rather than the standard trial. The bill also denies them access to habeas corpus and, while barring torture of detainees, allows the president to determine what constitutes torture.[134] President George W. Bush signs into law S. 3930, the Military Commissions Act of 2006, during a ceremony on October 17, 2006 in the East Room of the White House. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... For the case involving a United States citizen, see Hamdi v. ... The term unlawful combatant (also unlawful enemy combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent) denotes a person denied the privileges of prisoner of war (POW) designation, in accordance with the Geneva Conventions; one to whom protection is recognised as due is a lawful or privileged combatant. ... For other uses, see Habeas corpus (disambiguation). ...


On March 8, 2008, Bush vetoed H.R. 2082,[136] a bill that would have expanded Congressional oversight over the intelligence community and banned the use of waterboarding as well as other forms of enhanced interrogation techniques, saying that "[t]he bill Congress sent me would take away one of the most valuable tools in the war on terror."[137] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Painting of waterboarding at Cambodias Tuol Sleng Prison, by former inmate Vann Nath. ...


President Bush has consistently stated that the United States does not torture. Bush can authorize the CIA to use the simulated-drowning method under extraordinary circumstances.[138] The CIA once considered certain enhanced interrogation techniques, such as waterboarding, legally permissible.[139] The CIA has exercised the technique on certain key terrorist suspects and were given permission to do so from a memo from the Attorney General. While the Army Field Manual argues "that harsh interrogation tactics elicit unreliable information",[139] the Bush administration states that these enhanced interrogations have "provided critical information" to preserve American lives.[140][141]


Hurricane Katrina

Hurricane Katrina, which was one of the worst natural disasters in U.S. history, struck early in Bush’s second term. Katrina formed in late August during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season and devastated much of the north-central Gulf Coast of the United States, particularly New Orleans.[142] The devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina has already begun to have significant political effects manifested in the failure of the US Army Corps flood protection that experts agree should have held against Katrinas storm surge as well as criticism of government response. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... The Gulf of Mexico is a major body of water bordered and nearly landlocked by North America. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...

Bush shakes hands with New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin on September 2, 2005 after viewing the devastation of Hurricane Katrina.

Bush declared a state of emergency in Louisiana on August 27,[143] and in Mississippi and Alabama the following day;[144] he authorized the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to manage the disaster, but his announcement failed to spur these agencies to action.[145] The eye of the hurricane made landfall on August 29, and New Orleans began to flood due to levee breaches; later that day, Bush declared that a major disaster existed in Louisiana,[146] officially authorizing FEMA to start using federal funds to assist in the recovery effort. On August 30, DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff declared it "an incident of national significance,"[147] triggering the first use of the newly created National Response Plan. Three days later, on September 2, National Guard troops first entered the city of New Orleans.[148] The same day, Bush toured parts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama and declared that the success of the recovery effort up to that point was "not enough."[149] Image File history File links President George W. Bush says goodbye to New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin Friday, Sept. ... Image File history File links President George W. Bush says goodbye to New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin Friday, Sept. ... NOLA redirects here. ... fuck you // Fuck you Fuck you fuck you Fuck you Fuck you Fuck you Fuck you Fuck you Fuck you Fuck you Fuck you btw Mister Nagin, don`t be angry. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... DHS redirects here. ... FEMA redirects here. ... [[Category:Articles needing additional references from August 2007]] Michael Chertoff (born November 28, 1953) is the current United States Secretary of Homeland Security. ... The National Response Plan is the Department of Homeland Securitys plan to handle terrorist attacks, natural disasters or other large-scale emergency. ...


As the disaster in New Orleans intensified, critics claimed that the president was misrepresenting his administration's role in what they saw as a flawed response. Leaders attacked the president for having appointed perceived incompetent leaders to positions of power at FEMA, notably Michael D. Brown;[150] it was also argued that the federal response was limited as a result of the Iraq War[151] and President Bush himself did not act upon warnings of floods.[152][153][154] Bush responded to mounting criticism by accepting full responsibility for the federal government's failures in its handling of the emergency.[148] Michael Brownie Brown For other people of the same name, see Michael Brown (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


Midterm dismissal of U.S. attorneys

During Bush's second term, a controversy arose over the Justice Department's midterm dismissal of seven United States Attorneys.[155] The White House maintains the U.S. attorneys were fired for poor performance.[156] Attorney General Alberto Gonzales would later resign over the issue, along with other senior members of the Justice Department.[157][158] The House Judiciary Committee issued subpoenas for advisers Harriet Miers and Josh Bolten to testify regarding this matter, but Bush directed Miers and Bolten to not comply with those subpoenas, invoking his right of executive privilege. Bush has maintained that all of his advisers are protected under a broad executive privilege protection to receive candid advice. The Justice Department has determined that the President's order was legal.[159] In November 2007, the chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT), stated that the executive privilege claim was strange considering "the President had no involvement in these firings." The dismissal of U.S. Attorneys controversy is an ongoing political dispute initiated by the unprecedented dismissal of seven United States Attorneys by the George W. Bush administrations Department of Justice (DOJ) on December 7, 2006, and their replacement by interim appointees under provisions of the 2005 Patriot Act... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... United States Attorneys (also known as federal prosecutors) represent the U.S. federal government in United States district court and United States court of appeals. ... Alberto Gonzales (born August 4, 1955), is the 80th and current Attorney General of the United States. ... U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, or (more commonly) the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... A subpoena is a command to appear at a certain time and place to give testimony upon a certain matter. ... Harriet Ellan Miers (born August 10, 1945 in Dallas, Texas) is an American lawyer, and former White House Counsel. ... Categories: People stubs | Directors of the Office of Management and Budget | American lawyers | 1955 births ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary (informally Senate Judiciary Committee) is a standing committee of the United States Senate, the upper house of the United States Congress. ... Patrick Joseph Leahy (born March 31, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Vermont. ...


Although Congressional investigations have focused on whether the Justice Department and the White House were using the U.S. Attorney positions for political advantage, no official findings have been released. On March 10, 2008, the Congress filed a federal lawsuit to enforce their issued subpoenas.[160] On July 31, 2008, a United States district court judge ruled that President Bush's top advisers are not immune from Congressional subpoenas.[161] The Executive Office of the President consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff. ... Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ...


Public views and perception

See also: Movement to impeach George W. Bush and Fictionalized portrayals of George W. Bush
     approve      disapprove      unsure Gallup/USA Today Bush public opinion polling from February 2001 to October 2008. Blue denotes approve, red disapprove, and green unsure. Large increases in approval followed the September 11 attacks, the beginning of the 2003 Iraq conflict, and the capture of Saddam Hussein.

Bush began his presidency with approval ratings near 50%.[162] Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, Bush gained an approval rating of greater than 85%, maintaining 80–90% approval for four months after the attacks. Since then, his approval ratings and approval of his handling of domestic and foreign policy issues have steadily dropped. Bush has received heavy criticism for his handling of the Iraq War, his response to Hurricane Katrina, and to the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse, NSA warrantless surveillance of terrorists or individuals suspected of involvement with terrorist groups, Scooter Libby/Plamegate, and Guantanamo Bay detainment camp controversies.[163] George W. Bush, the 43rd President of the United States, has drawn significant domestic and international criticism since his election in 2000. ... CBS News/New York Times Bush public opinion polling from February 2001 to December 2006. ... The movement to impeach George W. Bush refers to actions and commentary within the public and private spheres tending towards support for the impeachment of United States President George W. Bush. ... On UK television show 2DTV, a parody of George W. Bush inserts a video cassette into a toaster. ... Image File history File links George_W_Bush_approval_ratings. ... Image File history File links George_W_Bush_approval_ratings. ... See: Gallup poll (opinion poll) Gallup, New Mexico ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... Opinion polls are surveys of opinion using sampling. ... An approval rating is a polling term which reflects the percent of respondents to an opinion poll who approve of a particular person or program. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... An approval rating is a polling term which reflects the percent of respondents to an opinion poll who approve of a particular person or program. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina has already begun to have significant political effects manifested in the failure of the US Army Corps flood protection that experts agree should have held against Katrinas storm surge as well as criticism of government response. ... {{{mWf}}} Caution: This article contains several potentially morbid photographs that depict nude, abused, and deceased persons. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... I. Lewis Libby I. Lewis Scooter Libby Jr. ... Valerie Plame and Joseph C. Wilson The Plame Affair began in July 2003 when journalist Robert Novak wrote a column concerning a CIA-sponsored trip to Niger by former United States Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson, in which Novak asserted that Wilsons wife, Valerie Plame, was an Agency operative on... Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 Guantánamo Bay detainment camp serves as a joint military prison and interrogation center under the leadership of Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF-GTMO), has occupied a portion of the United States Navys base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba since 2002. ...


A March 13, 2008 poll by the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press reported that 53% of Americans—a slim majority—believe that "the U.S. will ultimately succeed in achieving its goals" in Iraq.[164] That figure is up from 42 percent in September 2007 and the highest it has been since 2006.[164]


In May 2004, Gallup reported that 89% of the Republican electorate approved of Bush.[165] This support has since waned, however, due mostly to a minority of Republicans' frustration with him on issues of spending, illegal immigration, and Middle Eastern affairs.[166] Within the United States Military, the president was strongly supported in the 2004 presidential elections.[167] When compared with Democratic challenger John Kerry, 73% of military personnel said that they would vote for Bush, versus 18% for Kerry.[167] According to Peter Feaver, a Duke University political scientist who has studied the political leanings of the U.S. military, members of the armed services supported Bush because they found him more likely to prosecute the War in Iraq than Kerry.[167] The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Duke University is a private research university located in Durham, North Carolina, United States. ...

President Bush thanks American military personnel, September 2007

Bush's approval rating has been below the 50% mark in AP-Ipsos polling since December 2004.[168] Polls conducted in 2006 showed an average of 37% approval ratings for Bush;[169] the lowest for any second term president in this point of term since Harry S. Truman in March 1951, when his approval rating was 28%,[168][170] which contributed to what Bush called the "thumping" of the Republican Party in the 2006 mid-term elections.[171] Throughout 2007, Bush's approval rating hovered in the mid-thirties percentile,[172] although in a Reuters poll of October 17, 2007, Bush received a lower approval rating of 24%,[173] the lowest point of his presidency.[174] In response to the numbers, during a February 10, 2008 interview on Fox News Sunday Bush stated, "I frankly don't give a damn about the polls".[175] By April 2008, Bush's disapproval ratings were the highest ever recorded in the 70-year history of the Gallup poll for any president, with 69% of those polled disapproving of the job Bush was doing as president and 28% approving.[176] In September 2008, Bush's approval rating ranges from 19%[177] to 34% in polls performed by different agencies.[178] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 473 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,562 × 2,106 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 473 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,562 × 2,106 pixels, file size: 2. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The 2006 United States midterm elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... FOX News Sunday is public affairs magazine on Fox, airing on Sunday mornings. ... A Gallup Poll is an opinion poll conducted by The Gallup Organization and frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ... An approval rating is a polling term which reflects the percent of respondents to an opinion poll who approve of a particular person or program. ...


In 2006, 744 professional historians surveyed by Siena College regarded Bush's presidency as follows: Great: 2%; Near Great: 5%; Average: 11%; Below Average: 24%; Failure: 58%.[179] Thomas Kelly, professor emeritus of American studies at Siena College, said that "In this case, current public opinion polls actually seem to cut the President more slack than the experts do."[179] Similar outcomes were retrieved by two informal surveys done by the History News Network in 2004[180] and 2008.[181] The historian who organized the HNN polls said of the results: "It is in no sense a scientific sample of historians. The participants are self-selected, although participation was open to all historians. Among those who responded are several of the nation’s most respected historians, including Pulitzer and Bancroft Prize winners."[181] In response to the "worst president" accusations,[182][183] Bush said, "to assume that historians can figure out the effect of the Bush administration before the Bush administration has ended is... in my mind... not an accurate reflection upon how history works."[175] Siena College is a nationally recognized independent Catholic Liberal Arts College situated on US 9 in the suburban community of Loudonville, New York, two miles (3. ... History News Network is a project of the Center for History and New Media at George Mason University. ...


Calls for Bush's impeachment have been made, though most polls have shown a plurality of Americans do not support impeachment.[184] The reasoning behind impeachment usually centers on the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy,[185] the Bush administration's justification for the war in Iraq,[186] and alleged violations of the Geneva Conventions.[187] Representative Dennis Kucinich, a Democrat from Ohio, introduced 35 articles of impeachment on the floor of the House of Representatives against President Bush on June 9, 2008, but Speaker Nancy Pelosi has said that impeachment is "off the table".[188] Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... For the related controversy about data-mining of domestic call records see NSA call database. ... Original document. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Dennis John Kucinich (IPA: ) (born October 8, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic party and a candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in both 2004 and 2008. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer—or speaker—of the United States House of Representatives. ... Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi (born March 26, 1940) is currently the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. ...


Bush's intellectual capacity has been satirized by the media,[189] comedians, and other politicians.[190] Detractors tended to cite linguistic errors made by Bush during his public speeches, which are colloquially termed as Bushisms.[191] Some publications refer to Bush as "The worst president ever."[192][193][194][195][196] George W. Bush. ...


In 2000 and again in 2004, Time magazine named George W. Bush as its Person of the Year, a title awarded to someone who the editors believe "for better or for worse, … has done the most to influence the events of the year."[197] TIME redirects here. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could...


Foreign policy

President George W. Bush, then-President of Mexico Vicente Fox and Canada's Prime Minister Stephen Harper stand in front of "El Castillo" in Chichen Itza, March 30, 2006

During his campaign for election as President, Bush's foreign policy platform included support for a stronger economic and political relationship with Latin America, especially Mexico, and a reduction of involvement in "nation-building" and other small-scale military engagements. The administration pursued a national missile defense.[198] Bush was president on September 11, 2001, when terrorists hijacked passenger aircraft and flew them into the World Trade Center, killing roughly three thousand people. In response, Bush launched the War on Terror, in which the United States military and an international coalition invaded Afghanistan and later Iraq, which has in turn lead to the toppling of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and the removal of Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq as well as the deaths of many Iraqis, with surveys indicating between four hundred thousand to over one million dead, including tens of thousands of civilian Afghans. George W. Bush with Vice President Dick Cheney addressing the media at the U.S. State Department after a series of meetings discussing Americas foreign policy, August 14, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bush_Fox_Harper. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bush_Fox_Harper. ... Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942) was the President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... El Castillo, Chichen Itza West side of El Castillo Plumed Serpent Ballcourt, from El Castillo El Castillo (Spanish for The Castle) is the nickname of a spectacular Mesoamerican step-pyramid that dominates the center of the Chichen Itza archaeological site in the Mexican state of Yucatán. ... Temple of the Warriors Chichen Itza is the largest of the Pre-Columbian archaeological sites in Yucat n, Mexico. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... This article or section should be merged with nation-building Nation building is the use of armed force in the aftermath of a conflict to underpin an enduring transition to democracy. ... A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... Afghanistan has been invaded many times, and its boundaries and legitimate government have almost always been in dispute. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... This article is about casualties for the war beginning in 2003. ...


Bush began his second term with an emphasis on improving strained relations with European nations. He appointed long-time adviser Karen Hughes to oversee a global public relations campaign. Bush lauded the pro-democracy struggles in Georgia and Ukraine. In March 2006, he visited India, leading to renewed ties between the two countries, particularly in areas of nuclear energy and counter-terrorism cooperation.[199] Midway through Bush's second term, it was questioned whether Bush was retreating from his freedom and democracy agenda, highlighted in policy changes toward some oil-rich former Soviet republics in central Asia.[200] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Karen Parfitt Hughes (born December 27, 1956 in Paris, France) is a Republican U.S. political professional from the state of Texas. ... This article concerns the energy stored in the nuclei of atoms; for the use of nuclear fission as a power source, see Nuclear power. ...


September 11, 2001

President Bush addresses rescue workers at Ground Zero in New York, September 14, 2001

The September 11 terrorist attacks were a major turning point in Bush's presidency. That evening, he addressed the nation from the Oval Office, promising a strong response to the attacks but emphasizing the need for the nation to come together and comfort the families of the victims. On September 14, he visited Ground Zero, meeting with Mayor Rudy Giuliani and firefighters, police officers, and volunteers. Bush addressed the gathering via a megaphone while standing on a heap of rubble: Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The World Trade Center site destruction, 2001 The World Trade Center site is the 16 acre (65,000 m²) real estate on which the WTC complex stood in New York until the September 11, 2001 attacks. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... The Oval Office from above in 2003, during the administration of George W. Bush. ... The World Trade Center site destruction, 2001 The World Trade Center site is the 16 acre (65,000 m²) real estate on which the WTC complex stood in New York until the September 11, 2001 attacks. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Rudolph William Louis Rudy Giuliani (pronounced ;[1] born May 28, 1944) is an American lawyer, businessman, and politician from the state of New York who was Mayor of New York City from 1994 to 2001. ...

I can hear you. The rest of the world hears you. And the people who knocked these buildings down will hear all of us soon.[201]

In a September 20, 2001 speech, Bush condemned Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda, and issued an ultimatum to the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, where bin Laden was operating, to "hand over the terrorists, or… share in their fate."[202] Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... An ultimatum (Latin: ) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance. ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ...


War on Terrorism

Main article: War on Terrorism

After September 11, Bush announced a global War on Terrorism. The Afghan Taliban regime was not forthcoming with Osama bin Laden, so Bush ordered the invasion of Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban regime.[203] In his January 29, 2002 State of the Union address, he asserted that an "axis of evil" consisting of North Korea, Iran, and Iraq was "arming to threaten the peace of the world" and "pose[d] a grave and growing danger".[204] The Bush Administration proceeded to assert a right and intention to engage in preemptive war, also called preventive war, in response to perceived threats.[205] This would form a basis for what became known as the Bush Doctrine. The broader "War on Terror", allegations of an "axis of evil", and, in particular, the doctrine of preemptive war, began to weaken the unprecedented levels of international and domestic support for Bush and United States action against al Qaeda following the September 11 attacks.[206] This article is about the U.S.-led campaign against the spread of terrorism. ... This article is about the U.S.-led campaign against the spread of terrorism. ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... Alternative meanings in State of the Union (disambiguation) The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate). ... For other uses, see Axis of evil (disambiguation). ... Preemptive war (or preemptive attack) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war. ... Preventive war is a war launched in anticipation of a future loss of security or strategic advantage. ... President Bush makes remarks in 2006 during a press conference in the Rose Garden about Irans nuclear ambitions and discusses North Koreas nuclear test. ...


Some national leaders alleged abuse by U.S. troops and called for the U.S. to shut down the Guantanamo Bay detention camp and other such facilities. Dissent from, and criticism of, Bush's leadership in the War on Terror increased as the war in Iraq expanded.[207][208][209] In 2006, a National Intelligence Estimate expressed the combined opinion of the United States' own intelligence agencies, concluding that the Iraq War had become the "cause celebre for jihadists" and that the jihad movement was growing.[210][211] Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is a controversial[1] United States detention center operated by Joint Task Force Guantanamo since 2002 in Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, which is on the shore of Guantánamo Bay, Cuba. ... National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs), produced by the National Intelligence Council, express the coordinated judgments of the US Intelligence Community made up of 16 intelligence agencies, and thus represent the most authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) with respect to a particular national security issue. ... Cause c bre is a French phrase, literally meaning famous case, referring to events, frequently famous legal cases, that attract public attention and controversy. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ...


Afghanistan

Main article: War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
President George W. Bush and President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan appear together in 2006 at a joint news conference at the Presidential Palace in Kabul.

On October 7, 2001, U.S. and Australian forces initiated bombing campaigns that led to the arrival on November 13 of Northern Alliance troops in Kabul. The main goals of the war were to defeat the Taliban, drive al Qaeda out of Afghanistan, and capture key al Qaeda leaders. In December 2001, the Pentagon reported that the Taliban had been defeated[212] but cautioned that the war would go on to continue weakening Taliban and al-Qaeda leaders.[212] Later that month the UN had installed the Afghan Interim Authority chaired by Hamid Karzai.[213][214] For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Hamid Karzai (Persian: حامد کرزى and Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ... Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (also al-Qaida or al-Qaida or al-Qaidah) (Arabic: ‎ , translation: The Base) is an international alliance of terrorist organizations founded in 1988[4] by Osama bin Laden and other veteran Afghan Arabs after the Soviet War in... UN redirects here. ... After Taliban were ousted by Northern Alliance(Former Mujahideen Groups such as Massoud, Rabbani, Dostum, Mohammed Atta, Karim Khalili, Sayaff, Islmail Khan and others joined a coalition to destroy the ultra Islamic Taliban Regime) helped by U.S fighter jets, An Interim Government. ... Hamid Karzai (Persian: حامد کرزى and Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ...


Efforts to kill or capture al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden failed as he escaped a battle in December 2001 in the mountainous region of Tora Bora, which the Bush Administration later acknowledged to have resulted from a failure to commit enough U.S. ground troops.[215] Bin Laden and al Qaeda's number two leader, Ayman al-Zawahiri, as well as the leader of the Taliban, Mohammed Omar, remain at large. Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Combatants United States, United Kingdom, Afghan Northern Alliance Taliban, al-Qaeda Commanders Bismillah Khan Tommy Franks Dan McNeill Osama bin Laden Strength n/a Unknown Casualties No Coalition deaths reported; Northern Alliance N/A At least 200 killed The Battle of Tora Bora was a military engagement that took place... Ayman Muhammad Rabaie al-Zawahiri (Arabic: ) or closer to the original Arabic pronunciation al-Zawahri (born June 19, 1951) is an extremist Muslim leader and prominent member of al-Qaeda, and was the second and last emir of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, having succeeded Abbud al-Zummar in the latter role... Mullah Mohammed Omar (Pashto: ملا محمد عمر) (born c. ...


Despite the initial success in driving the Taliban from power in Kabul, by early 2003 the Taliban was regrouping, amassing new funds and recruits.[216] In 2006 the Taliban insurgency appeared larger, fiercer, and better organized than expected, with large-scale allied offensives such as Operation Mountain Thrust attaining limited success.[217][218][219] As a result, President Bush commissioned 3,500 additional troops to the country in March 2007.[220] For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Combatants United States, Canada, UK,  Romania, Netherlands, Afghan National Army Taliban insurgents, al-Qaeda Commanders Brig. ...


Iraq

Main article: Iraq War

Beginning with his January 29, 2002 State of the Union address, Bush began publicly focusing attention on Iraq, which he labeled as part of an "axis of evil" allied with terrorists and posing "a grave and growing danger" to U.S. interests through possession of weapons of mass destruction.[204] In the latter half of 2002, CIA reports contained assertions of Saddam Hussein's intent of reconstituting nuclear weapons programs, not properly accounting for Iraqi biological and chemical weapons, and that some Iraqi missiles had a range greater than allowed by the UN sanctions.[221][222] Claims that the Bush Administration manipulated or exaggerated the threat and evidence of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction capabilities would eventually become a major point of criticism for the president.[223][224] For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Axis of evil (disambiguation). ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs), produced by the National Intelligence Council, express the coordinated judgments of the US Intelligence Community made up of 16 intelligence agencies, and thus represent the most authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) with respect to a particular national security issue. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ...


In late 2002 and early 2003, Bush urged the United Nations to enforce Iraqi disarmament mandates, precipitating a diplomatic crisis. In November 2002, Hans Blix and Mohamed ElBaradei led UN weapons inspectors in Iraq, but were forced to depart the country four days prior to the U.S. invasion, despite their requests for more time to complete their tasks.[225] The U.S. initially sought a UN Security Council resolution authorizing the use of military force but dropped the bid for UN approval due to vigorous opposition from several countries.[226] Disarmament means the act of reducing or depriving arms i. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...

President Bush, with Naval Flight Officer Lieutenant Ryan Philips, in the flight suit he wore for his televised arrival and speech aboard the USS Abraham Lincoln in 2003.

The war effort was joined by more than 20 other nations (most notably the United Kingdom), designated the "coalition of the willing".[227] The invasion of Iraq commenced on March 20, 2003 and the Iraqi military was quickly defeated. The capital, Baghdad, fell on April 9, 2003. On May 1, Bush declared the end of major combat operations in Iraq. The initial success of U.S. operations increased his popularity, but the U.S. and allied forces faced a growing insurgency led by sectarian groups; Bush's "Mission Accomplished" speech was later criticized as premature.[228] From 2004 through 2007, the situation in Iraq deteriorated further, with some observers arguing that the country was engaged in a full scale civil war.[229] Bush's policies met with criticism, including demands domestically to set a timetable to withdraw troops from Iraq. The 2006 report of the bipartisan Iraq Study Group, led by James Baker, concluded that the situation in Iraq was "grave and deteriorating". While Bush admitted that there were strategic mistakes made in regards to the stability of Iraq,[230] he maintained he would not change the overall Iraq strategy.[231][232] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 465 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (515 × 664 pixels, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) move approved by: User:Siebrand This image was moved from Image:20030501-15 d050103-2-664v. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 465 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (515 × 664 pixels, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) move approved by: User:Siebrand This image was moved from Image:20030501-15 d050103-2-664v. ... A Naval Flight Officer in the United States Navy and Marine Corps is an officer of the line, meaning they can screen for command in the naval aviation community. ... President George W. Bush addresses sailors during the Mission Accomplished speech, May 1, 2003. ... USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72), nicknamed Abe, is the fifth Nimitz-class supercarrier in the United States Navy. ... The Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I), is a military command, led by the United States, that is fighting the Iraq War against the multitude of Iraqi insurgents. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... President George W. Bush addresses sailors during the Mission Accomplished speech, May 1, 2003. ... Combatants Iraqi Sunni Arabs Al-Qaeda in Iraq Jaish Ansar al-Sunna Islamic Army in Iraq Black Banner Organization Mohammads Army former Baath Loyalists Jaish al-Rashideen Abu Theeb group Shiite Arab militias Mahdi Army Badr Organization Commanders Abu Musab al-Zarqawi Abu Ayyub al-Masri Ishmael Jubouri... Cover of the report The Iraq Study group (ISG), also known as the Baker-Hamilton Commission,[1] was a ten-person bipartisan panel appointed on March 15, 2006, by the United States Congress, that was charged with assessing the situation in Iraq and the US-led Iraq War and making... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930) served as the Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W. Bush. ...

President Bush shakes hands with Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki.

In January 2005, free, democratic elections were held in Iraq for the first time in fifty years.[233] According to Iraqi National Security Advisor Mowaffak al-Rubaie, "This is the greatest day in the history of this country."[233] Bush praised the event as well, saying that the Iraqis "have taken rightful control of their country's destiny."[233] This led to the election of Jalal Talabani as President and Nouri al-Maliki as Prime Minister of Iraq. A referendum to approve a constitution in Iraq were held in October 2005, supported by the majority Shiites and many Kurds.[234] Image File history File linksMetadata Bush_al-Maliki_handshake. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bush_al-Maliki_handshake. ... Nouri Kamel Mohammed Hassan al-Maliki (Arabic: نوري كامل المالكي, transliterated NÅ«rÄ« Kāmil al-MālikÄ«; born July 20, 1950), also known as Jawad al-Maliki, is the Prime Minister of Iraq and the secretary-general of the Islamic Dawa Party. ... Dr Mowaffak Baqer al-Rubaie (alternative transliterations Muwaffaq al-Rubaie and Muwaffaq al-Rubayi) (Arabic: موفق الربيعي ) is an Iraqi politician, and the current Iraqi National Security Advisor in the government of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki. ... Jalal Talabani (Kurdish: / Celal Talebanî / Jelal Talebaní Arabic: , ) (born 1933), is an Iraqi politician, who was elected State President of Iraq on April 6, 2005, (sworn in the next day, April 7, and once again on April 22, 2006, by the Iraqi National Assembly). ... The President of Iraq is Iraqs head of state. ... Nouri Kamel Mohammed Hassan al-Maliki (Arabic: نوري كامل المالكي, transliterated NÅ«rÄ« Kāmil al-MālikÄ«; born July 20, 1950), also known as Jawad al-Maliki, is the Prime Minister of Iraq and the secretary-general of the Islamic Dawa Party. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...


On January 10, 2007 Bush addressed the nation from the Oval Office regarding the situation in Iraq. In his speech he announced a surge of 21,500 more troops for Iraq, as well as a job program for Iraqis, more reconstruction proposals, and US$1.2 billion for these programs.[235] On May 1, 2007, Bush used his veto for only the second time in his presidency, rejecting a congressional bill setting a deadline for the withdrawal of U.S. troops.[236] Five years after the invasion, Bush called the debate over the conflict "understandable" but insisted that a continued U.S. presence there is crucial.[237] The Oval Office from above in 2003, during the administration of George W. Bush. ... The New Way Forward redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In March 2008 Bush praised the Iraqi government's "bold decision" to launch the Battle of Basra against the Mahdi Army, calling it "a defining moment in the history of a free Iraq".[238] He said he will carefully weigh recommendations from his commanders General David Petraeus and Ambassador Ryan Crocker about how to proceed after the military buildup ends in the summer of 2008. He also praised the Iraqis' legislative achievements, including a pension law, a revised de-Baathification law, a new budget, an amnesty law and a provincial powers measure that, he said, sets the stage for the Iraqi governorate elections, 2008.[239] Belligerents Iraq Support from: United States United Kingdom Mahdi Army[1] Commanders Nouri al-Maliki Lt. ... Members parade in Sadr City The Mahdi Army, also known as the Mahdi Militia, Mehdi Army or Jaish al Mahdi (Arabic جيش المهدي) , is a militia force created by the Iraqi Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr in June of 2003. ... David Howell Petraeus (born November 7, 1952) is a general in the United States Army and commander of Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I), the four-star post that oversees all U.S. forces in the country. ... Ryan C. Crocker, U.S. Ambassador to Iraq Ryan Clark Crocker (born on June 19, 1949 in Spokane, Washington) is the current United States Ambassador to Iraq. ... Governorate elections are expected to be held in Iraq in late 2008. ...


On July 31, 2008, Bush announced that with the end of July, American troop deaths had reached their lowest number—thirteen—since the war began in 2003.[240] Due to increased stability in Iraq, Bush announced the withdrawal of additional American forces, which reflected an emerging consensus between the White House and the Pentagon that the war has "turned a corner".[240] He also described what he saw as the success of the 2007 troop surge.[240]


North Korea

Main article: North Korea–United States relations

Bush publicly condemned Kim Jong-il of North Korea, naming North Korea one of three states in an "axis of evil," and saying that "[t]he United States of America will not permit the world's most dangerous regimes to threaten us with the world's most destructive weapons."[204] Within months, "both countries had walked away from their respective commitments under the U.S.-DPRK Agreed Framework of October 1994."[241] North Korea's October 9, 2006 detonation of a nuclear device further complicated Bush's foreign policy, which centered for both terms of his presidency on "[preventing] the terrorists and regimes who seek chemical, biological or nuclear weapons from threatening the United States and the world."[204] Bush condemned North Korea's claims, reaffirmed his commitment to "a nuclear-free Korean Peninsula," and stated that "transfer of nuclear weapons or material by North Korea to states or non-state entities would be considered a grave threat to the United States," for which North Korea would be held accountable.[242] On May 7, 2007, North Korea agreed to shut down its nuclear reactors immediately pending the release of frozen funds held in a foreign bank account. This was a result of a series of three-way talks initiated by the United States and including China.[243] On September 2, 2007, North Korea agreed to disclose and dismantle all of its nuclear programs by the end of 2007.[244] North Korea–United States relations developed primarily during the Korean War, but in recent years have been largely defined by the United States suspicions regarding North Koreas nuclear programs and North Koreas desire to normalize relations with the U.S., tempered by a stated perception of an imminent... Kim Jong-il (also written as Kim Jong Il) (born February 16, 1942) is the leader of North Korea. ... For other uses, see Axis of evil (disambiguation). ... The Agreed Framework between the United States of America and the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea was signed on October 21, 1994 between North Korea (DPRK) and the United States. ... The 2006 North Korean nuclear test was the detonation of a nuclear device conducted on October 9, 2006 by the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea. ...


Syria

President Bush has been supportive of expanding economic sanctions on Syria.[245] In early 2007, the Treasury Department, acting on a June 2005 executive order, froze American bank accounts of Syria's Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology, Electronics Institute, and National Standards and Calibration Laboratory. Bush's order prohibits Americans from doing business with these institutions suspected of helping spread weapons of mass destruction[246] and being supportive of terrorism.[247] Under separate executive orders signed by Bush in 2004 and later 2007, the Treasury Department froze the assets of two Lebanese and two Syrians, accusing them of activities to "undermine the legitimate political process in Lebanon" in November 2007. Those designated included: Assaad Halim Hardan, a member of Lebanon's parliament and current leader of the Syrian Socialist National Party; Wi'am Wahhab, a former member of Lebanon's government (Minister of the Environment) under Prime Minister Omar Karami (2004-2005); Hafiz Makhluf, a colonel and senior official in the Syrian General Intelligence Directorate and a cousin of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad; and Muhammad Nasif Khayrbik, identified as a close adviser to Assad.[248] The U.S. Treasury building today. ... The presidential seal was used by Rutherford B. Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a weapon which can kill large numbers of humans and/or cause great damage to man-made structures (e. ... Dr Bashar al-Assad (Arabic: , ) (born 11 September 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary of the Baath Party, and the son of former President Hafez al-Assad. ...


Foreign perceptions

President Bush with President Pervez Musharraf of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in late 2006.

President Bush has been criticized internationally and targeted by the global anti-war and anti-globalization campaigns, particularly for his administration's foreign policy.[249][250] Views of him within the international community are more negative than previous American presidents, with France[251] largely opposed to what he advocates and public opinion in Britain, an American ally since World War II, largely against him. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born 11 August 1943, Delhi) is the current President of Pakistan, Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... Motto: Ø§ØªØ­Ø§Ø¯ØŒ تنظيم، يقين محکم Ittehad, Tanzim, Yaqeen-e-Muhkam(Urdu) Unity, Discipline and Faith Anthem: Qaumi Tarana Capital Islamabad , Largest city Karachi Official languages Urdu (national) English (official)[1] Recognised regional languages Balochi, Pashto, Dari, Punjabi, Sindhi, Siraiki , [2] Demonym Pakistani Government Islamic Republic  -  President Pervez Musharraf  -  Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani  -  Speaker...


Bush was described as having especially close personal relationships with Tony Blair and Vicente Fox, although formal relations were sometimes strained.[252][253][254] Other leaders, such as Afghan president Hamid Karzai,[255] Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni,[256] Spanish prime minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero,[257] and Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez,[258] have openly criticized the president. Later in Bush's presidency, tensions arose between himself and Vladimir Putin, which has led to a cooling of their relationship.[259] For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942) was the President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006. ... Hamid Karzai (Persian: حامد کرزى and Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ... Yoweri Kaguta Museveni (born c. ...   (IPA: ) (born 4 August 1960), better known under his second surname Zapatero, is the Prime Minister of Spain. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Russian pronunciation: ) (born October 7, 1952, in Leningrad, U.S.S.R., now Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian politician who was the 2nd President of the Russian Federation from 2000 to 2008. ...


During the Bush presidency, attitudes towards the United States and the American people have become less favorable around the world.[260] In 2006, a majority of respondents in 18 of 21 countries surveyed around the world were found to hold an unfavorable opinion of Bush. Respondents indicated that they judged his administration as negative for world security.[261][262]

President Bush presents the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Pope John Paul II during a visit to the Vatican, June 2004

A March 2007 survey of Arab opinion conducted by Zogby International and the University of Maryland found that Bush is the most disliked leader in the Arab world. More than three times as many respondents registered their dislike for Bush as for the second most unpopular leader, Ariel Sharon.[263] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The University of Maryland, College Park (also known as UM, UMD, or UMCP) is a public university located in the city of College Park, in Prince Georges County, Maryland, just outside Washington, D.C., in the United States. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ...


The Pew Research Center's 2007 Global Attitudes poll found that out of 47 countries, a majority of respondents expressed "a lot of confidence" or "some confidence" in Bush in only nine countries: Israel, India, Ethiopia, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, and Uganda.[264] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ...


During a June 2007 visit to Albania Bush was greeted enthusiastically. The mostly Islamic Eastern European nation with a population of 3.6 million has troops in both Iraq and Afghanistan and the country's government is highly supportive of American foreign policy.[265] A huge image of the President now hangs in the middle of the capital city of Tirana flanked by Albanian and American flags.[266] The Bush administration's support for the independence of Albanian-majority Kosovo, while endearing him to the Albanians, has troubled U.S. relations with Serbia, leading to the February 2008 torching of the U.S. embassy in Belgrade.[267] Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Albania Founded 1614 Elevation 295 ft (90 m) Population (2005 est)[1]  - City 585,756  - Metro 700,000 Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ...


Assassination attempt

On May 10, 2005, Vladimir Arutyunian threw a live hand grenade toward a podium where Bush was speaking at Freedom Square in Tbilisi, Georgia. Georgian President Mikhail Saakashvili was seated nearby. It landed in the crowd about 65 feet (20 m) from the podium after hitting a girl, but it did not detonate. Arutyunian was arrested in July 2005, confessed, was convicted and was given a life sentence in January 2006.[268] Vladimir Arutyunian was born on 12 March 1978 in Tbilisi, Georgia to a family of ethnic Armenians. ... Grenade redirects here. ... Freedom Square under Construction Freedom Square (formerly known as Lenin Square) is located in the center of Tbilisi at the end of Rustaveli Avenue. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... Mikhail Saakashvili briefing the press at UN headquarters Mikhail Saakashvili (Georgian: მიხეილ სააკაშვილი) (born December 21, 1967, in Tbilisi) is a Georgian jurist and politician and the current President of Georgia. ...


Other issues

Bush, Mahmoud Abbas, and Ariel Sharon meet at the Red Sea Summit in Aqaba, Jordan, June 4, 2003

President Bush withdrew U.S. support for several international agreements, including the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) with Russia. Bush emphasized a careful approach to the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians; he denounced Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat for alleged support of violence, but sponsored dialogs between prime ministers Ariel Sharon and Mahmoud Abbas. Bush supported Sharon's unilateral disengagement plan, and lauded the democratic elections held in Palestine after Arafat's death. http://www. ... http://www. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-Ê»Aqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM treaty or ABMT) was a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... PLO redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ...


Bush also expressed U.S. support for the defense of Taiwan following the stand-off in April 2001 with the People's Republic of China over the Hainan Island incident, when an EP-3E Aries II surveillance aircraft collided with one of China's People's Liberation Army Air Force jet, leading to the detention of U.S. personnel. Combatants China United States Strength 2 J-8IIM aircraft 1 F-14A Tomcats Casualties 1 J-8 destroyed, pilot killed 1 EP-3 damaged and unflyable, later recovered, crew survived The Hainan Island incident was the April 1, 2001 collision between a United States Navy EP-3E signals reconnaissance aircraft... EP-3E ARIES II The Lockheed EP-3E ARIES II is the signals reconnaissance version of the P-3C Orion, operated by the United States Navy. ... English Electric Canberra PR.9 photo reconnaissance aircraft CP-140 Aurora long-range patrol aircraft of the Canadian Air Force. ... Flag of the Peoples Liberation Army Air Force The Peoples Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is the aviation branch of the Peoples Liberation Army, the military of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Look up jet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 2003–2004, Bush authorized U.S. military intervention in Haiti and Liberia to protect U.S. interests.


In his State of the Union Address in January 2003, Bush outlined a five-year strategy for global emergency AIDS relief, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Bush announced US$15 billion for this effort—US$3 billion per year for five years—but requested less in annual budgets.[269] State of the Union redirects here. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Presidents Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is a U.S. government fund to combat AIDS by injecting 15 billion American dollars over a five year period from 2003-2008. ...


Bush condemned the attacks by militia forces on the people of Darfur, and denounced the killings in Sudan as genocide.[270] Bush said that an international peacekeeping presence was critical in Darfur, but opposed referring the situation to the International Criminal Court. Belligerents JEM factions NRF alliance Allegedly supported by: Chad Janjaweed Sudan SLM (Minnawi) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Strength N/A N/A Casualties and losses est. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ...


On June 10, 2007, he met with Albanian Prime Minister Sali Berisha and became the first president to visit Albania.[271] Bush has voiced his support for the independence of Kosovo.[272]  (born October 15, 1944) is the Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


In 2002, Bush was the first American president to officially open a Winter Olympic Games. Departing from previous practice, he stood among a group of US athletes rather than from a ceremonial stand or box, saying: "On behalf of a proud, determined, and grateful nation, I declare open the Games of Salt Lake City, celebrating the Olympic Winter Games."[273] In 2008, in the course of a good-will trip to Asia, he attended the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.[274] An athlete carries the Olympic torch during the 2002 torch relay The Winter Olympic Games are a winter multi-sport event held every four years. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be celebrated from August 8, 2008, to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony commencing at 08:08:08 pm CST (12:08:08 UTC) at the Beijing National Stadium in... Peking redirects here. ...


Supreme Court appointments

Main article: George W. Bush Supreme Court candidates

Following the announcement of Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's retirement on July 1, 2005, Bush nominated John G. Roberts to succeed her. On September 5, following the death of Chief Justice William Rehnquist, this nomination was withdrawn and Bush instead nominated Roberts for Chief Justice to succeed Rehnquist. Roberts was confirmed by the Senate as the 17th Chief Justice on September 29, 2005. John Roberts is sworn in as Chief Justice by senior Associate Justice John Paul Stevens in the East Room of the White House on the same day as his confirmation, September 29, 2005. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Associate Justice or Puisne (pronounced puny) Justice is the title for a member of a judicial panel who is not the Chief Justice. ... Sandra Day OConnor (born March 26, 1930) is an American jurist. ... [edit] John G. Roberts, Jr. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ...


On October 3, 2005, Bush nominated White House Counsel Harriet Miers for O'Connor's position; after facing significant opposition, her name was withdrawn on October 27. Four days later, on October 31, Bush nominated federal appellate judge Samuel Alito for the position and he was confirmed as the 110th Supreme Court Justice on January 31, 2006. Harriet Ellan Miers (born August 10, 1945 in Dallas, Texas) is an American lawyer, and former White House Counsel. ... Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr. ...


See also

This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as President of the United States following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect in 1789. ... George W. Bush George W. Bush was the 46th Governor of Texas and is the current President of the United States. ... Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and Presidents Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ... List of United States Presidential names contains lists of nicknames, name origins, and the first, middle, and last names of each President of the United States. ...

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External links

Find more about George W. Bush on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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  • Official White House biography
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  • Extensive essay on George W. Bush and shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs
  • George W. Bush at the Internet Movie Database
Political offices
Preceded by
Ann Richards
Governor of Texas
1995 – 2000
Succeeded by
Rick Perry
Preceded by
Bill Clinton
President of the United States
2001 – present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Jacques Chirac
France
Chair of the G8
2004
Succeeded by
Tony Blair
United Kingdom
Party political offices
Preceded by
Bob Dole
Republican Party presidential candidate
2000, 2004
Succeeded by
John McCain
Order of precedence in the United States of America
First United States order of precedence
President of the United States

2001 – present
Succeeded by
Dick Cheney
Vice President of the United States
Persondata
NAME Bush, George Walker
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Bush, George, Jr.; Bush Jr.
SHORT DESCRIPTION 43rd President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH July 6, 1946
PLACE OF BIRTH New Haven, Connecticut
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

The Bush family: President George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush, former First Lady Barbara Bush, and former President George H. W. Bush sit surrounded by family in the Red Room (White House) on January 6, 2005, together to celebrate the senior couples 60th wedding anniversary. ... Samuel Prescott Bush (October 4, 1863 – February 8, 1948) was an American industrialist and entrepreneur, and the patriarch of the Bush political family. ... James Smith Bush (June 15, 1825 – November 11, 1889) was an attorney and Episcopal priest and an ancestor of the Bush political family. ... George Herbert Bert Walker (June 11, 1875 - June 24, 1953) was a wealthy American banker and businessman. ... David Davis Walker David Davis D.D. Walker (19 January 1840 - 4 October 1918), a St. ... Thomas Walker (1758 - 1799) was the father of George E. Walker and an ancestor of the Bush family. ... Prescott Sheldon Bush (May 15, 1895 – October 8, 1972) was a United States Senator from Connecticut and a Wall Street executive banker with Brown Brothers Harriman. ... Dorothy Walker Bush (July 1, 1901 - November 19, 1992) was the mother of the 41st President of the United States, George H. W. Bush, and the grandmother of the 43rd president, George W. Bush. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... For the daughter of President George W. Bush, see Barbara Pierce Bush. ... Nancy Walker Bush Ellis (b. ... Jonathan James Bush (born May 6, 1931), an American banker, a brother of President George H. W. Bush, and an uncle of President George W. Bush. ... William Henry Trotter Bucky Bush (born July 14, 1938 in Greenwich, Connecticut) is the youngest son of Prescott Sheldon Bush and Dorothy Walker Bush, the younger brother of former President George H.W. Bush, and the uncle of current President George W. Bush. ... Laura Lane Welch Bush (born Laura Welch on November 4, 1946 in Midland, Texas) is the wife of the forty-third and current President of the United States George W. Bush, murderess, and current First Lady of the United States. ... John Ellis Jeb Bush (born February 11, 1953) is an American politician, and was the 43rd Governor of Florida. ... Columba Bush (born August 17, 1953) is the wife of former Florida Governor Jeb Bush and the sister-in-law of President George W. Bush. ... Neil Bush Neil Mallon Bush (born January 22, 1955 in Midland, Texas) is the third of five children of former President George Herbert Walker Bush and Barbara Bush (Barbara Lane Pierce). ... Marvin Pierce Bush (born October 22, 1956) is the youngest son of George H. W. Bush and Barbara Pierce, and brother of George W., John (Jeb), Neil and Dorothy. ... Dorothy Bush Koch, often called Doro, (born August 18, 1959), is the daughter of the 41st President of the United States George H. W. Bush and former First Lady Barbara Bush, and the youngest sibling of George W. Bush, the 43rd President. ... Robert Bobby Koch is the President and CEO of the Wine Institute, acting as their chief lobbyist in Washington D.C. In 1992, he married Dorothy Bush, the only living daughter of George H. W. Bush, at a private ceremony held at Camp David. ... William Hall Billy Bush (born October 13, 1971), co-host of the syndicated NBC Universal TV show Access Hollywood. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For the wife of George H.W. Bush, see Barbara Bush. ... Jenna Welch Bush (born November 25, 1981 in Dallas, Texas)[1] is an author and school teacher who is the daughter of U.S. President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush as well as the fraternal twin of Barbara Pierce Bush. ... For other persons of the same name, see George Bush. ... Noelle Lucila Bush (born 26 July 1977 in Texas) is the daughter of former Florida governor Jeb Bush and Columba Bush, the younger sister of George P. Bush, the older sister of Jeb Bush, Jr. ... Lauren Bush Lauren Bush (born June 25, 1984) is a model and the daughter of Neil Bush and Sharon Bush (née Smith) and niece of President of the United States George W. Bush. ... For other persons of the same name, see David Davis. ... The Walkers Point estate The Bush compound, formally Walkers Point, is the summer home of 41st President of the United States George H. W. Bush. ... External Links: - Governor Announces $3 Million for Buckeye Steel (August 27, 2001) - Buckeye Steel files for Ch. ... G.H. Walker was a brokerage firm founded in 1900 by George Herbert Walker, great-grandfather of the first President Bush, and located at 1 Wall Street. ... The Walker family is a family of politicians from the United States. ... Major league affiliations American League (1961–present) West Division (1972–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 26, 34, 42 Name Texas Rangers (1972–present) Washington Senators (1961-1971) Other nicknames None in common use Ballpark Rangers Ballpark in Arlington (1994–present) a. ... Arlington is a city in Tarrant County, Texas (USA) within the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington metropolitan area. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, a title designated by the U.S. Census as of 2003, encompasses 12 counties within the U.S. state of Texas. ... Major league affiliations American League (1961–present) West Division (1972–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 26, 34, 42 Name Texas Rangers (1972–present) Washington Senators (1961-1971) Other nicknames None in common use Ballpark Rangers Ballpark in Arlington (1994–present) a. ... // July 30, 1973, at Oakland, Jim Bibby September 22, 1977, at California, Bert Blyleven June 11, 1990, at Oakland, Nolan Ryan May 1, 1991, vs. ... // 1974 - Jeff Burroughs 1996 - Juan González 1998 - Juan González (2) 1999 - Iván Rodríguez 2003 - Alex Rodriguez 1974 - Mike Hargrove Pitcher Kenny Rogers [4] (2000, 2002, 2004-05) Catcher Jim Sundberg [6] (1976-81) Ivan Rodriguez [10] (1992-2001) First base Rafael Palmeiro (1999) Mark Teixeira [2... Texas Rangers Broadcasters History Texas Rangers Current Broadcasters Categories: | | ... This is a list of the people who have managed the Texas Rangers baseball team since its inception. ...   The following is a list of players, both past and current, who appeared at least in one game for the Texas Rangers American League franchise (1972-present), also known previously as the Washington Senators Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L... Rangers Captain is the mascot of the Texas Rangers. ... The Continental League (or formally the Continental League of Professional Baseball Clubs) was a proposed third major league for baseball, announced in 1959 and scheduled to begin play in the 1961 season. ... Griffith Stadium was a sports stadium that stood in Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1965, at the corner of Georgia Avenue and W Street, NW. An earlier wooden baseball park had stood on the site, built in 1891. ... Not to be confused with John F. Kennedy Stadium. ... Arlington Stadium was a baseball stadium located in Arlington, Texas, located between Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas. ... Rangers Ballpark in Arlington is a baseball stadium in Arlington, Texas, located between Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas. ... Theodore Samuel Williams (August 30, 1918 – July 5, 2002), best known as Ted Williams, nicknamed The Kid, the Splendid Splinter, Teddy Ballgame and The Thumper, was an American left fielder in Major League Baseball. ... Dudley Michael Hargrove (born October 26, 1949 in Perryton, Texas) is a former Major League Baseball player and is the former manager of the Seattle Mariners. ... Alfred Manuel Billy Martin (May 16, 1928 – December 25, 1989) was an American second baseman and manager in Major League Baseball. ... Ferguson Arthur Fergie Jenkins CM (born December 13, 1943[1] in Chatham, Ontario, Canada[2]) is a Canadian right-handed former pitcher in Major League Baseball. ... Robert John Valentine (born May 13, 1950 in Stamford, Connecticut) is a former player and manager in Major League Baseball. ... Lynn Nolan Ryan, Jr. ... Kenneth Scott Rogers also known as The Gambler (born November 10, 1964 in Savannah, Georgia) is a Free Agent left-handed American Major League Baseball pitcher who has played for six Major League Baseball teams since his rookie year in 1989. ... This article is about the Puerto Rican baseball player. ... Iván Rodríguez Torres (born November 30, 1971, in Manatí, Puerto Rico), nicknamed Pudge[1] and I-Rod[2], is a professional baseball player for the Detroit Tigers. ... Alexander Emmanuel Alex Rodriguez (born July 27, 1975, in New York, New York), commonly nicknamed A-Rod, is a Dominican-American baseball infielder. ... Johnny Lane Oates (January 21, 1946 Sylva, North Carolina – December 24, 2004 Richmond, Virginia) was an American catcher and manager in Major League Baseball. ... Michael Brian Young (born October 19, 1976 in Covina, California) is a Major League Baseball shortstop currently playing for the Texas Rangers. ... Hank Joe Blalock (born November 21, 1980 in San Diego, California) is a Major League baseball third baseman who currently plays for the Texas Rangers. ... Josh Hamilton is an actor based in New York who has appeared in Broadway and off Broadway productions. ... Johnny Lane Oates (January 21, 1946 Sylva, North Carolina – December 24, 2004 Richmond, Virginia) was an American catcher and manager in Major League Baseball. ... Lynn Nolan Ryan, Jr. ... Jack Roosevelt Jackie Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) became the first African-American major league baseball player of the modern era in 1947. ... For the English cricketer, see Tom Hicks (cricketer). ... Jon Daniels (born August 24, 1977) is the current general manager (GM) of the U.S. baseball club the Texas Rangers. ... Ronald Washington (born April 29, 1952 in New Orleans, Louisiana) is a former infielder in Major League Baseball and the current manager of the American Leagues Texas Rangers. ... Class-level Triple-A (1962–present) Minor league affiliations Pacific Coast League (1963–1968, 1998–present) American Conference - South Division American Association (1962, 1969–1997) Major league affiliations Texas Rangers (1983–present) Philadelphia Phillies (1976–1982) Cleveland Indians (1973–1975) Houston Colt . ... The Frisco RoughRiders (short form: Riders) are currently the Class AA affiliate of the Texas Rangers major league baseball club. ... The Bakersfield Blaze are a minor league baseball team in Bakersfield, California, USA. They are a high-A class team in the California League, and are a farm team of the Texas Rangers. ... Pittsburgh Pirates National League AAA Indianapolis Indians AA Altoona Curve A Lynchburg Hillcats Hickory Crawdads Williamsport Crosscutters R Bradenton Pirates The Hickory Crawdads are a Minor League Baseball team in Hickory, North Carolina, USA. They are a Class A team in the South Atlantic League, and have been a farm... Texas Rangers American League AAA Oklahoma RedHawks AA Frisco RoughRiders A Bakersfield Blaze Clinton LumberKings Spokane Indians R Arizona Rangers The Spokane Indians are a minor league baseball team in Spokane, Washington, USA. They are a Class A team in the Northwest League, and have been a farm team of... The Arizona League Rangers are a rookie-level minor league baseball team in Surprise, Arizona. ... The 1996 American League Division Series (ALDS), the opening round of the 1996 American League playoffs, began on Tuesday, October 1, and ended on Saturday, October 5, with the champions of the three AL divisions – along with a wild card team – participating in two best-of-five series. ... // New York Yankees vs. ... New York Yankees vs. ... Location D.C. Stadium (Since 1961) Washington D.C. (Since 1961) 1961 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Mickey Vernon Local television Local radio The Washington Senators 1961 season involved the Senators finishing 9th in the American League with a record of 61 wins and 100 losses. ... Location D.C. Stadium (Since 1961) Washington D.C. (Since 1961) 1962 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Mickey Vernon Local television Local radio The Washington Senators 1962 season involved the Senators finishing 10th in the American League with a record of 60 wins and 101 losses. ... Location D.C. Stadium (Since 1961) Washington D.C. (Since 1961) 1963 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Mickey Vernon, Eddie Yost, and Gil Hodges Local television Local radio The Washington Senators 1963 season involved the Senators finishing 10th in the American League with a record of 56 wins and 106... Location D.C. Stadium (Since 1961) Washington D.C. (Since 1961) 1964 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Gil Hodges Local television Local radio The Washington Senators 1964 season involved the Senators finishing 9th in the American League with a record of 62 wins and 100 losses. ... Location D.C. Stadium (Since 1961) Washington D.C. (Since 1961) 1965 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Gil Hodges Local television Local radio The Washington Senators 1965 season involved the Senators finishing 8th in the American League with a record of 70 wins and 92 losses. ... Location D.C. Stadium (Since 1961) Washington D.C. (Since 1961) 1966 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Gil Hodges Local television Local radio The Washington Senators 1966 season involved the Senators finishing 8th in the American League with a record of 71 wins and 88 losses. ... Location D.C. Stadium (Since 1961) Washington D.C. (Since 1961) 1967 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Gil Hodges Local television Local radio The Washington Senators 1967 season involved the Senators finishing 6th in the American League with a record of 76 wins and 85 losses. ... Location D.C. Stadium (Since 1961) Washington D.C. (Since 1961) 1968 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Jim Lemon Local television Local radio The Washington Senators 1968 season involved the Senators finishing 10th in the American League with a record of 65 wins and 96 losses. ... Location RFK Stadium (Since 1961) Washington D.C. (Since 1961) 1969 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Ted Williams Local television Local radio The Washington Senators 1969 season involved the Senators finishing 4th in the American League east with a record of 86 wins and 76 losses. ... Location RFK Stadium (Since 1961) Washington D.C. (Since 1961) 1970 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Ted Williams Local television Local radio The Washington Senators 1970 season involved the Senators finishing 6th in the American League east with a record of 70 wins and 92 losses. ... Location RFK Stadium (Since 1961) Washington D.C. (Since 1961) 1971 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Ted Williams Local television Local radio The Washington Senators 1971 season involved the Senators finishing 5th in the American League east with a record of 63 wins and 96 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1972 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Ted Williams Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1972 season involved the Rangers finishing 6th in the American League west with a record of 54 wins and 100 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1973 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Whitey Herzog, Del Wilber, and Billy Martin Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1973 season involved the Rangers finishing 6th in the American League west with a record of 57 wins and 105 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1974 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Billy Martin Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1974 season involved the Rangers finishing 2nd in the American League west with a record of 84 wins and 76 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1975 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Billy Martin and Frank Lucchesi Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1975 season involved the Rangers finishing 3rd in the American League west with a record of 79 wins and 83 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1976 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Frank Lucchesi Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1976 season involved the Rangers finishing 4th in the American League west with a record of 76 wins and 86 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1977 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Frank Lucchesi, Eddie Stanky, Connie Ryan, and Billy Hunter Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1977 season involved the Rangers finishing 2nd in the American League west with a record of 94 wins and... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1978 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Billy Hunter and Pat Corrales Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1978 season involved the Rangers finishing 2nd in the American League west with a record of 87 wins and 75 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1979 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Pat Corrales Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1979 season involved the Rangers finishing 3rd in the American League west with a record of 83 wins and 79 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1980 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Pat Corrales Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1980 season involved the Rangers finishing 4th in the American League west with a record of 76 wins and 85 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1981 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Don Zimmer Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1981 season involved the Rangers finishing 2nd in the American League west with a record of 57 wins and 48 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1982 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Don Zimmer and Darrell Johnson Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1982 season involved the Rangers finishing 6th in the American League west with a record of 64 wins and 98 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1983 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Doug Rader Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1983 season involved the Rangers finishing 3rd in the American League west with a record of 77 wins and 85 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1984 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Doug Rader Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1984 season involved the Rangers finishing 7th in the American League west with a record of 69 wins and 92 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1985 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Doug Rader and Bobby Valentine Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1985 season involved the Rangers finishing 7th in the American League west with a record of 62 wins and 99 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1986 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Bobby Valentine Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1986 season involved the Rangers finishing 2nd in the American League west with a record of 87 wins and 75 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1987 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Bobby Valentine Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1987 season involved the Rangers finishing 6th in the American League west with a record of 75 wins and 87 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1988 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Bobby Valentine Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1988 season involved the Rangers finishing 6th in the American League west with a record of 80 wins and 91 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1989 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Bobby Valentine Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1989 season involved the Rangers finishing 4th in the American League west with a record of 83 wins and 79 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1990 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Bobby Valentine Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1990 season involved the Rangers finishing 3rd in the American League west with a record of 83 wins and 79 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1991 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Bobby Valentine Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1991 season involved the Rangers finishing 3rd in the American League west with a record of 85 wins and 77 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1992 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Bobby Valentine and Toby Harrah Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1992 season involved the Rangers finishing 4th in the American League west with a record of 77 wins and 85 losses. ... Location Arlington Stadium (Since 1972) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1993 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Kevin Kennedy Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1993 season involved the Rangers finishing 2nd in the American League west with a record of 86 wins and 76 losses. ... Location The Ballpark in Arlington (Since 1994) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1994 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Kevin Kennedy Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1994 season involved the Rangers finishing 1st in the American League west with a record of 52 wins and 62 losses. ... Location The Ballpark in Arlington (Since 1994) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1995 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Johnny Oates Local television Local radio The Texas Rangers 1995 season involved the Rangers finishing 3rd in the American League west with a record of 74 wins and 70 losses. ... Location The Ballpark in Arlington (Since 1994) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1996 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Johnny Oates Local television Local radio KRLD KFLC (Spanish) The Texas Rangers 1996 season involved the Rangers finishing 1st in the American League west with a record of 90 wins and 72 losses. ... Location The Ballpark in Arlington (Since 1994) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1997 Information Owner(s) Manager(s) Johnny Oates Local television Local radio KRLD KFLC (Spanish) The Texas Rangers 1997 season involved the Rangers finishing 3rd in the American League west with a record of 77 wins and 85 losses. ... Location The Ballpark in Arlington (Since 1994) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1998 Information Owner(s) Tom Hicks Manager(s) Johnny Oates Local television Local radio KRLD KFLC (Spanish) The Texas Rangers 1998 season involved the Rangers finishing 1st in the American League west with a record of 88 wins and... Location The Ballpark in Arlington (Since 1994) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 1999 Information Owner(s) Tom Hicks Manager(s) Johnny Oates Local television Local radio KRLD KFLC (Spanish) The Texas Rangers 1999 season involved the Rangers finishing 1st in the American League west with a record of 95 wins and... Location The Ballpark in Arlington (Since 1994) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 2000 Information Owner(s) Tom Hicks Manager(s) Johnny Oates Local television Local radio KRLD KFLC (Spanish) The Texas Rangers 2000 season involved the Rangers finishing 4th in the American League west with a record of 71 wins and... Location The Ballpark in Arlington (Since 1994) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 2001 Information Owner(s) Tom Hicks Manager(s) Johnny Oates and Jerry Narron Local television Local radio KRLD KFLC (Spanish) The Texas Rangers 2001 season involved the Rangers finishing 4th in the American League west with a record of... Location The Ballpark in Arlington (Since 1994) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 2002 Information Owner(s) Tom Hicks Manager(s) Jerry Narron Local television FSN Southwest KDFI (MY 27) KDFW (Fox 4) Local radio KRLD KFLC (Spanish) The Texas Rangers 2002 season involved the Rangers finishing 4th in the American League... Location The Ballpark in Arlington (Since 1994) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 2003 Information Owner(s) Tom Hicks Manager(s) Buck Showalter Local television FSN Southwest KDFI (MY 27) KDFW (Fox 4) Local radio KRLD KFLC (Spanish) The Texas Rangers 2003 season involved the Rangers finishing 4th in the American League... Location Ameriquest Field in Arlington (Since 1994) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 2004 Information Owner(s) Tom Hicks Manager(s) Buck Showalter Local television FSN Southwest KDFI (MY 27) KDFW (Fox 4) Local radio KRLD KFLC (Spanish) The Texas Rangers finished the 2004 season in 3rd place in the West division... Location Ameriquest Field in Arlington (Since 1994) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 2005 Information Owner(s) Tom Hicks Manager(s) Buck Showalter Local television FSN Southwest KDFI (MY 27) KDFW (Fox 4) Local radio KRLD KFLC (Spanish) The Texas Rangers finished the 2005 season in 3rd place in the West division... Location Ameriquest Field in Arlington (Since 1994) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 2006 Information Owner(s) Tom Hicks Manager(s) Buck Showalter Local television FSN Southwest KDFI (MY 27) KDFW (Fox 4) Local radio KRLD KFLC (Spanish) The Texas Rangers finished the 2006 season in 3rd place of the West Division... Major league affiliations American League (Since 1961) Western Division (Since 1972) 2007 Uniform Location Ameriquest Field in Arlington (Since 1994) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 2007 Information Owner(s) Tom Hicks Manager(s) Ron Washington Local Television FSN Southwest Local Radio KRLD The Texas Rangers 2007 season will begin with the... Location Rangers Ballpark in Arlington (Since 1994) Arlington, Texas (Since 1972) 2008 Information Owner(s) Tom Hicks Manager(s) Ron Washington Local television FSN Southwest KDFI (MY 27) KDFW (Fox 4) Local radio KRLD KFLC (Spanish) The 2008 season will be the franchises 36th since moving to Arlington, Texas... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... New Haven redirects here. ...


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