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Encyclopedia > George Stoneman
Portrait of George Stoneman during the Civil War
Portrait of George Stoneman during the Civil War

George Stoneman (August 22, 1822September 5, 1894) was a career U.S. Army officer, a Union cavalry general in the American Civil War, and the Governor of California between 1883 and 1887. Download high resolution version (687x1024, 126 KB)Portrait of Maj. ... Download high resolution version (687x1024, 126 KB)Portrait of Maj. ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederate) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties Killed in action: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 Killed in action: 93,000 Total dead: 258... Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gray Davis with President George W. Bush (2003) Seal of the Governor of California (without the Roman numerals designating the governors sequence) See also: List of pre-statehood governors of California, List of Governors of California The Governor of California is the highest executive authority...

Contents


Early life

Stoneman was born on a family farm in Busti, New York, the first child of ten. His parents were George Stoneman, Sr., a lumberman and justice of the peace, and Catherine Rebecca Cheney. He studied at the Jamestown Academy and graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1846; his roommate at West Point was future Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. His first assignment was with the 1st U.S. Dragoons with which he served across the West and in California. He fought in the Indian Wars and was responsible for survey parties mapping the Sierra Nevada range for railroad lines. Busti is a town located in Chautauqua County, New York. ... A Justice of the Peace (JP) is an inferior magistrate appointed by means of a commission of the peace (mandate) to keep the peace. ... The United States Military Academy, also known as West Point, or simply USMA (or Army, for NCAA purposes), is a United States Army fort and military academy. ... Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven southern states seceded from the United States (with four more to follow). ... Stonewall Jackson Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson (January 20 or 21[1], 1824–May 10, 1863) was an American teacher and soldier. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Combatants Native Americans USA Indian Wars is the name used by historians in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the United States and Native American peoples (Indians) of North America. ... The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range that is almost entirely in eastern California. ... The Pacific Railroad Surveys (1853-1855) explored possible routes for a transcontinental railroad across North America. ...


Civil War

At the start of the Civil War Stoneman was in command of Fort Brown, Texas, and refused the order of Maj. Gen. David E. Twiggs to surrender to the newly established Confederate authorities there, escaping to the north with most of his command. Returning east, he served as a major of the 1st U.S. Cavalry and then adjutant to Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan in western Virginia. As the cavalry was being organized in the Army of the Potomac, he commanded the Cavalry Reserve and then the Cavalry Division, with the title Chief of Cavalry. He was promoted to brigadier general on August 13, 1861. He did not relate well to McClellan, who did not understand the proper use of cavalry in warfare, relegating it to assignment in small units to infantry brigades. This organization fared poorly in the Peninsula Campaign and the Seven Days Battles of 1862, where the centralized Confederate cavalry under Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart ran rings around their Union counterparts. Early Years In 1845 building was started on the United States side of the Rio Grande River on a fort then known as Fort Texas. ... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 660 miles (1,065 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... David Emanuel Twiggs (1790 – July 15, 1862) was a United States soldier during the War of 1812 and Mexican War and a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... An adjutant (from the Latin adiutor, itself from the verb adiutare, to help) is an officer who assists a more senior officer. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... George McClellan George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Lee and McClellan of the Seven Days The Seven Days Battles was a series of six major battles over the seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, in the American Civil War. ... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ...


On November 22, 1861, Stoneman married Mary Oliver Hardisty of Baltimore. They eventually had four children. November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United...


After the Peninsula, Stoneman was an infantry commander, commanding a division in the II Corps and the III Corps. At the Battle of Fredericksburg, Stoneman commanded the III Corps. He was promoted to major general of volunteers on November 29, 1862. However, following Fredericksburg a new commanding general took over the Army of the Potomac: Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker. Hooker had a better understanding of the strategic value of a centralized Cavalry Corps and he named Stoneman to lead it. The centralized corps could undertake long raids into enemy territory, destroying supplies, and gathering intelligence about the enemy forces. They were not subject to the commanders of small infantry units. There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps (Second Corps) during the American Civil War. ... Daniel Sickles and staff after the Battle of Gettysburg There were four formations in the Union Army designated as III Corps (or Third Corps) during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Portrait of Joseph Hooker Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ...


The plan for the Battle of Chancellorsville was strategically daring. Hooker assigned Stoneman a key role in which his Cavalry Corps would raid deeply into Robert E. Lee's rear areas and destroy vital railroad lines and supplies, distracting Lee from Hooker's main assaults. However, Stoneman was a disappointment in this strategic role. The Cavalry Corps got off to a good start in May, 1863, but quickly bogged down after crossing the Rapidan River. During the entire battle, Stoneman accomplished little and he must be considered one of the principal reasons for the Union defeat the Chancellorsville. At least that is the version that Joseph Hooker promulgated widely, always on the lookout for a scapegoat. Hooker needed to deflect criticism from himself and relieved Stoneman from his cavalry command, sending him back to Washington, D.C., for medical treatment, where in July he became a Chief of the U.S. Cavalry Bureau, a desk job. A large cavalry supply and training depot on the Potomac River was named Camp Stoneman in his honor. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 16,839 (1,574 killed, 9,554 wounded, 5,711 missing) 13,156 (1,683 killed, 9,277 wounded, 2,196 missing) The Battle of Chancellorsville was... For the author of Inherit the Wind and other works, see Robert Edwin Lee. ... The Rapidan River is a river in Virginia that flows from the Blue Ridge Mountains into the Rappahannock River. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ...


In early 1864, Stoneman was impatient with garrison duty in Washington and requested another field command from his old friend general John Schofield, who was in command of the Department of the Ohio. Although originally slated for an infantry corps, Stoneman assumed command of the Cavalry Corps of what would be known as the Army of the Ohio. As the army fought in the Atlanta Campaign under Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, Stoneman and his aide were humiliated to be captured by Confederate soldiers outside Macon, Georgia, becoming the highest ranking Union prisoner of war. He was a prisoner for three months. Portrait of John Schofield during the Civil War John McAllister Schofield (September 29, 1831 – March 4, 1906) was an American soldier who held major commands during the Civil War. ... The Department of the Ohio was an administrative military district created by the United States War Department early in the American Civil War to administer the troops in the Northern states near the Ohio River. ... The Army of the Ohio was the name of two Union armies in the American Civil War. ... Palisades and chevaux-de-frise in front of the Potter House, Atlanta, Georgia, 1864. ... Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ... Macon is a city located in Bibb County, Georgia, USA. It lies near the geographic center of Georgia, approximately 80 miles (129 km) south of Atlanta, hence the citys nickname as the Heart of Georgia. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Stoneman was exchanged relatively quickly based on the personal request of Sherman to the Confederates and he returned to duty. In December 1864 he led a raid from East Tennessee into southwestern Virginia. He led raids into Virginia and North Carolina in 1865, took Charlotte and other towns, and at Salisbury captured about 1,400 prisoners. In recognition of his service he was brevetted major general in the regular army. His command nearly captured Confederate president Jefferson Davis during his flight from Richmond, Virginia. In June 1865, he was appointed commander of the Department of Tennessee and administered occupied Memphis. There, riots broke out among the still feisty citizens who were angry at the presence of colored Federal soldiers in the military government. Stoneman was criticized for inaction and was investigated by a congressional committee, although he was exonerated. Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 500 miles (805 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 9. ... Flag Nickname: The Queen City, The Hornets Nest Location Location in Mecklenburg County in the state of North Carolina Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States North Carolina Mecklenburg County, North Carolina Mayor Pat McCrory, (R) Geographical characteristics Area     City 280. ... Downtown Salisbury Salisbury is a city located in Rowan County in North Carolina, a state of the United States of America. ... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... The Regular Army is the name given to the permanent force of the United States Army that is maintained during peacetime. ... Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808–December 6, 1889) was an American soldier and politician, most famous for serving as the only President of the Confederate States, leading the Confederate States of America to defeat during the American Civil War, 1861-65. ... Flag Seal Nickname: River City Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra Location Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates , Government Country State County United States Virginia Independent City Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 62. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The River City, The Bluff City, M-Town Location Location in Shelby County and the state of Tennessee Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Tennessee Shelby County Mayor W. W. Herenton (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 294. ... The United States Colored Troops (USCT) were those regiments of the United States Army during the American Civil War which were made up of African-American soldiers. ...


Postbellum politics

In 1866, Stoneman became opposed to the radical policies of Reconstruction and joined the Democratic Party. As he administered the military government in Petersburg, Virginia, he established a reputation of applying more moderate policies than some of the other military governors in Reconstruction, which eased some of the reconciliation pain for Virginians. He mustered out of volunteer service in September 1866 and reverted to his regular army rank of lieutenant colonel. He took command of the Department of Arizona, First Military District, headquartered at Drum Barracks. He was a controversial commander in that role because of his dealings with Indian uprisings and he was relieved of his command in May 1871. Reconstruction-era military districts in the South For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Location Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates , Government Country State County United States Virginia Independent city Founded December 17, 1748 Mayor Annie M. Mickens Geographical characteristics Area     City 60. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Drum Barracks in Wilmington, California (a district of Los Angeles), is the only major American Civil War landmark in Southern California. ...


California

Official portrait of Governor George Stoneman
Official portrait of Governor George Stoneman

Stoneman moved to California, the place of which he had dreamed since his service as a young officer before the war. He and his wife settled in the San Gabriel Valley on a 400 acre (1.6 km²) estate called Los Robles, which is now a state historical landmark. He was a state railroad commissioner from 1876 to 1878. In 1882 he was elected governor of California and served a single four-year term. He was not renominated by his party for a second term. After his house was destroyed by fire, an event rumored to be the work of his political enemies, Stoneman was broken financially and in poor health. He returned to New York State for medical treatment. He died following a stroke in Buffalo, New York, and is buried in the Bentley Cemetery in Lakewood, New York. Image File history File links GeorgeStoneman. ... Image File history File links GeorgeStoneman. ... San Gabriel Valley within Southern California The San Gabriel Valley is one of the principal valleys of southern California. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Good Neighbors Location Location of Buffalo in New York State Government County Erie County Mayor Byron Brown Geographical characteristics Area     City 136. ... Lakewood is a village in Chautauqua County, New York. ...


In memoriam

Stoneman has been memorialized by songwriter Robbie Robertson of The Band, whose 1969 rock and roll song, The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down, referred to one of Stoneman's 1865 raids: Jaime Robert Robertson (born July 5, 1943 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada) is a songwriter, guitarist and singer, probably best known for his membership in The Band. ... The Band on the cover of their second album: Manuel, Helm, Danko, Hudson, Robertson The Band was an influential Canadian-American rock and roll group of the 1960s and 1970s. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down is a rock and roll song written by Robbie Robertson and first recorded by The Band in 1969. ...

Virgil Caine is the name, and I served on the Danville train,
Til Stoneman's cavalry came and tore up the tracks again...

Stoneman Avenue in Alhambra, California, was named in his honor. Camp Stoneman, near Pittsburg, CA, was the place many GIs shipped out to the Pacific Theater in WWII. Alhambra is a city (incorporated on 11 July 1903) located in the western San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County, California which is approx. ...


References

  • Eicher, John H., & Eicher, David J.: Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3
  • Biography from the State of California
  • Online biography
  • This article incorporates text from an edition of the New International Encyclopedia that is in the public domain.
Preceded by:
George Perkins
Governors of California
1883 - 1887
Succeeded by:
Washington Bartlett
Governors of California Seal of the Governor of California
BurnettMcDougallBiglerJ. JohnsonWellerLathamDowneyStanfordLow • Haight • BoothPachecoIrwinPerkinsStonemanBartlettWaterman • Markham • Budd • Gage • PardeeGillett • H. Johnson • StephensRichardsonYoungRolphMerriamOlsonWarrenKnightP. BrownReaganJ. BrownDeukmejianWilsonDavisSchwarzenegger

 
 

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