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Encyclopedia > George Sand
George Sand sewing, portrait by Eugène Delacroix (1838). Originally part of a larger painting showing both Sand and Frédéric Chopin.
George Sand sewing, portrait by Eugène Delacroix (1838). Originally part of a larger painting showing both Sand and Frédéric Chopin.

Amantine Aurore Lucile Dupin, Baronne Dudevant (July 1, 1804June 8, 1876), best known by her pseudonym George Sand, was a French novelist and feminist. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x2066, 250 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Frédéric Chopin George Sand Eugène Delacroix ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x2066, 250 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Frédéric Chopin George Sand Eugène Delacroix ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... “Chopin” redirects here. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ...

Contents

Early life and family

Sand's father was of aristocratic lineage (a granddaughter of Maurice, comte de Saxe and a distant relative of Louis XVI); her mother was a commoner. Sand was born in Paris but raised for much of her childhood by her grandmother at the family estate, Nohant, in the French region of Berry. She later used the setting in many of her novels. In 1822 she married Baron M. Casimir Dudevant (17951871), and they had two children: Maurice (18231889) and Solange (18281899). In 1835 Sand was legally separated from her husband, which prompted her lifelong search for true liberty and independence. Maurice, comte de Saxe (German Moritz Graf von Sachsen) (October 28, 1696 – November 30, 1750), Marshal General of France, the natural son of Augustus II of Poland and of the countess Aurora Königsmark, was born at Goslar. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Nohant-Vic is a village in the Indre département of central France. ... Berry was a province of France until the provinces were replaced by départements on March 4, 1790. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... François Casimir Dudevant (b. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Contemporary perception

George Sand, after a portrait by Luigi Colamatta
George Sand, after a portrait by Luigi Colamatta

Her reputation was questioned when she began sporting menswear in public, the clothes being far sturdier and less expensive than a noble woman's dress. Also, she was one of the few female pipe smokers of her time. This male "disguise" also enabled Sand to circulate more freely about Paris, and gave her increased access to venues that might have been denied to a woman of her social standing. This was an exceptional practice for the 19th century, where social codes—especially in the upper class—were of the highest importance. George Sand - From the portrait by L. Colamatta This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... George Sand - From the portrait by L. Colamatta This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As a consequence Sand lost many of the privileges attached to being a Baroness. Ironically, the mores of this period allowed women of higher classes to live physically separated from their husbands without losing face, provided they did not show any blatant irregularity to the outer world. Baroness could refer to: Female equivalent of Baron. ... Mores are strongly held norms or customs. ...


The poet Charles Baudelaire is one example of a contemporary critic of George Sand: "She is stupid, heavy and garrulous. Her ideas on morals have the same depth of judgment and delicacy of feeling as those of janitresses and kept women... The fact that there are men who could become enamoured of this slut is indeed a proof of the abasement of the men of this generation." [1] “Baudelaire” redirects here. ...


Relationships

She was linked romantically with Alfred de Musset (summer 1833-March 1834), Franz Liszt and Frédéric Chopin (1837-1847). Later in life, she corresponded with Gustave Flaubert; despite their obvious differences in temperament and aesthetic preference, they eventually became close friends. Tomb of Alfred de Musset in Le Père Lachaise cemetery. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... “Liszt” redirects here. ... “Chopin” redirects here. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ...


She was engaged in an intimate friendship with actress Marie Dorval, which led to widespread but unconfirmed rumors of a lesbian affair. [2] Marie Dorval Marie Dorval (Jan. ...


In Majorca one can still visit the (then abandoned) Carthusian monastery of Valldemossa, where she spent the winter of 1838–39 with Frédéric Chopin and her children. [3] This trip to Mallorca was described by her in Un Hiver à Majorque ("A Winter in Mallorca"), published in 1855. Location Location of Mallorca in Balearic Islands Coordinates : 39° 30’N , 3°0E Time Zone : CET (UTC+1) - summer: CEST (UTC+2) General information Native name Mallorca (Catalan) Spanish name Mallorca Postal code 07001-07691 Area code 34 (Spain) + 971 (Illes Balears) Website http://www. ... Coat of arms of the Carthusian order Monasterio de la Cartuja, a former Carthusian monastery in Seville The Carthusian Order, also called the Order of St. ... Valldemossa Valldemossa is a village and municipality on the island of Majorca, part of the Spanish autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


She left Chopin shortly before he died from tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or TuBerculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


Writing career

French literature
By category
French literary history

Medieval
16th century - 17th century
18th century -19th century
20th century - Contemporary Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Medieval French literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in Oïl languages (including Old French and early Middle French) during the period from the eleventh century to the end of the fifteenth century. ... French Renaissance literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French (Middle French) from the French invasion of Italy in 1494 to 1600, or roughly the period from the reign of Charles VIII of France to the ascension of Henri IV of France to the throne. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) French literature of the 17th century spans the reigns of Henry IV of France, the Regency of Marie de Medici, Louis XIII of France, the Regency of Anne of Austria (and the civil war called the Fronde) and the... French literature of the 18th century spans the period from the death of Louis XIV of France, through the Régence (during the minority of Louis XV) and the reigns of Louis XV of France and Louis XVI of France to the start of the French Revolution. ... French literature of the nineteenth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1799 to 1900. ... French literature of the twentieth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1895 to 1990. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

French Writers

Chronological list
Writers by category
Novelists - Playwrights
Poets - Essayists
Short story writers Chronological list of French language authors (regardless of nationality), by date of birth. ...

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Her first published novel, Rose et Blanche (1831) was written in collaboration with Jules Sandeau, from whom she allegedly took her pen name, Sand. Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... An engraving of Sandeau from 1873. ...


Drawing from her childhood experiences of the countryside, she wrote the rural novels La Mare au Diable (1846), François le Champi (18471848), La Petite Fadette (1849), and Les Beaux Messieurs Bois-Doré (1857). 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Her other novels include Indiana (1832), Lélia (1833), Mauprat (1837), Le Compagnon du Tour de France (1840), Consuelo (18421843), and Le Meunier d'Angibault (1845). Indiana was written by George Sand in 1831. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Consuelo (1861)[verification needed] is a novel by George Sand. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Further theatre pieces and autobiographical pieces include Histoire de ma vie (1855), Elle et Lui (1859) (about her affair with Musset), Journal Intime (posthumously published in 1926), and Correspondence. Sand often performed her theatrical works in her small private theatre at the Nohant estate. Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In addition, Sand authored literary criticism and political texts. Her most widely used quote being, "There is only one happiness in life, to love and be loved."


She was known well in far reaches of the world, and her social practices, her writings and her beliefs prompted much commentary, often by other luminaries in the world of arts & letters. A few excerpts demonstrate much of what was often said about George Sand:

"She was a thinking bosom and one who overpowered her young lovers, all Sybil — a Romantic."
V.S. Pritchett (writer)
"What a brave man she was, and what a good woman."
Ivan Turgenev (novelist)
"The most womanly woman."
Alfred de Musset (poet)

Death

George Sand died at Nohant, near Châteauroux, in the Indre département of France on June 8, 1876 at the age of 72 and was buried in the grounds of her home there. In 2004, controversial plans were suggested to move her remains to the Panthéon in Paris. Nohant-Vic is a village in the Indre département of central France. ... Châteauroux is a commune of central France, préfecture (capital) of the Indre département. ... Indre is a département in the center of France named after the Indre River. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Panthéon The Panthéon is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. ...


Works

George Sand in 1864 (photo by Nadar)
George Sand in 1864 (photo by Nadar)
  • Voyage En Auvergne (1827, Autobiographical sketch)
  • Compagnon Du Tour De France (1840)
  • La Petite Fadette (1848)
  • Chateau Des Désertes (1850)
  • Histoire De Ma Vie (1855, Autobiography up to the revolution of 1848)

Download high resolution version (720x889, 672 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (720x889, 672 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Nadar (self-portrait). ...

Novels

  • Indiana (1831)
  • Rose Et Blanche (1831, with Jules Sandeau)
  • Lélia (1833)
  • Andrea (1833)
  • Mattea (1833)
  • Jacques (1833)
  • Kourroglou| Epopee Persane (1833)
  • Leone Leoni (1833)
  • Simon (1835)
  • Mauprat (1837)
  • les Maîtres Mosaïtes (1837)
  • l'Oreo (1838)
  • l'Uscoque (1838)
  • Un Hiver À Majorque (1839)
  • Pauline (1839)
  • Horace (1840)
  • Consuelo (1842)
  • la Comtesse De Rudolstady (1843, a sequel to Consuelo)
  • Jeanne (1844)
  • Teverino (1845)
  • Pêche de M Antoine (1845)
  • Le Meunier D'Angibault (1845)
  • La Mare Au Diable (1846)
  • Lucrezia Floriani (1846)
  • François Le Champi (1847)
  • Les Maîtres Sonneurs (1853)
  • La Daniella (1857)
  • Elle Et Lui (1859)
  • Jean De La Roche (1859)
  • L'Homme De Neige (1859)
  • La ville Noire (1860)
  • Marquis De Villemer (1860)
  • Mademoiselle La Quintinie (1863)
  • Laura, Voyage Dans Le Cristal (1864)
  • Le Dernier Amour (1866, dedicated to Flaubert)

Indiana was written by George Sand in 1831. ... Consuelo (1861)[verification needed] is a novel by George Sand. ...

Plays

  • Gabriel (1839)
  • François Le Champi (1849)
  • Claudie (1851)
  • Le Mariage De Victorine (1851)
  • Le Pressoir (1853, Play)
  • French Adaptation of As You Like It (1856)
  • Le Marquis De Villemer (1864)
  • L'Autre (1870, with Sarah Bernhardt)

Legacy

In literature

Frequent literary references to George Sand can be found in "Possession," by A.S. Byatt. The great American poet Walt Whitman cited her novel Consuelo as a personal favorite and the sequel to this novel La Comtesse De Rudolstady contains a at least a couple of passages that appears to have had a very direct influence on him. Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861), English poet, produced two poems entitled " To George Sand: A Desire" and "To George Sand: A Recognition."


In music, film and television

Charles Vidor (July 27, 1900 – June 4, 1959) was a film director. ... Cornel Wilde Cornelius Louis Wilde (October 13, 1915 – October 16, 1989) was an American actor. ... Merle Oberon (February 19, 1911 – November 23, 1979), born Estelle Merle OBrien Thompson, was an Academy Award-nominated Anglo-Indian film actress. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... A miniseries (sometimes mini-series), in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... Rosemary Harris (born September 19, 1930[1] in Ashby, Suffolk, England) is an Academy Award nominated English actress and a member of the American Theatre Hall of Fame. ... George Chakiris (born September 16, 1934 in Norwood, Ohio) is a Greek-American dancer and film actor. ... The popular music group Ambrosia was formed in the early 1970s, and have ventured into a variety of styles during their history. ... Impromptu is a 1991 movie written by Sarah Kernochan, directed by James Lapine, produced by Daniel A. Sherkow and Stuart Oken, and starring Hugh Grant as Chopin and Judy Davis as George Sand. ... Judy Davis (born 23 April 1955) is an Academy Award-nominated and 3-time Emmy Award-winning Australian actress. ... Hugh John Mungo Grant[1] (born September 9, 1960) is a Golden Globe-winning English actor. ... True tale of the tumultuous love affair between two French literary icons of the 19th Century, novelist George Sand (Juliette Binoche) and poet Alfred de Musset (Benoit Magimel). ... Juliette Binoche (French IPA: ) (born March 9, 1964 in Paris) is an Oscar-winning and Golden Globe nominated French film actress. ... Benoît Magimel (born May 11, 1974) is a French actor. ... Tomb of Alfred de Musset in Le Père Lachaise cemetery. ... Jerzy Antczak (centre) Jerzy Antczak (born 25 December 1929) is a Polish film director. ... Piotr Adamczyk (b. ... Céline Marie Claudette Dion, OC, OQ (born March 30, 1968) is a Canadian Grammy, Juno, and Oscar award-winning pop singer and occasional songwriter and actress. ... Tomb of Alfred de Musset in Le Père Lachaise cemetery. ... Delles (meaning About Them) is the title of Céline Dions most recent French language album. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Baudelaire, Charles; Ed. Peter Quennell. Trans. Norman Cameron (1975). My Heart Laid Bare. Haskell House. ISBN 0-8383-1870-3. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]

General references

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Gustave Flaubert, by whom she was befriended, leading to an intimate correspondence.
  • Saint-Benoît-du-Sault

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Saint-Benoît-du-Sault is a little town and commune of the Indre département, in central France. ...

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