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Encyclopedia > George Orwell
Eric Arthur Blair


Pseudonym George Orwell
Born Eric Arthur Blair
25 June 1903(1903-06-25)
Motihari, Bihar, India
Died 21 January 1950 (aged 46)
London, England
Occupation Writer; author, journalist
Notable work(s) Animal Farm (1945)
Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949)

George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2]21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Alias. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... , Motihari is the headquarters of Poorvi Champaran (East Champaran) district in the state of Bihar, in India. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about work. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... W. Somerset Maugham as photographed in 1934 by Carl Van Vechten. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist intellectual. ... Dickens redirects here. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... For other persons named Jack London, see Jack London (disambiguation). ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... mile Zola (April 2, 1840 - September 29, 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Thomas Henry (Tom) Wintringham (1898-1949) was a British soldier, military historian, journalist, poet, Marxist, politician and author. ... Yevgeny Zamyatin by Boris Kustodiev (1923) Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin (Евге́ний Ива́нович Замя́тин sometimes translated into English as Eugene Zamyatin) (February 1, 1884 – March 10, 1937) was a Russian author, most famous for his novel We, a story of dystopian future which influenced George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four and Aldous Huxleys Brave... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Upton Sinclair Jr. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... Margaret Eleanor Atwood, OC (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian writer. ... For other uses, see Camus. ... Ignazio Silone (May 1, 1900 - August 22, 1978) was the pseudonym of Secondo Tranquilli, an Italian author. ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ...


George Orwell is one of the most admired English-language essayists of the twentieth century, and most famous for two novels critical of totalitarianism in general (Nineteen Eighty-Four), and Stalinism in particular (Animal Farm), which he wrote and published towards the end of his life.[3] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... An essayist is an author who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Eric Arthur Blair was born on 25 June 1903 to British parents[4] in Motihari, Bengal Presidency, British India. His father, Richard Walmesley Blair, worked in the Opium Department of the Civil Service. His mother, Ida Mabel Blair (née Limouzin), took him to England when he was one year old. He did not see his father again until 1907, during Richard's three-month visit to England. Eric had two sisters; Marjorie, the elder, and Avril, the younger. He later described his family as "lower-upper-middle class".[5] is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... , Motihari is the headquarters of Poorvi Champaran (East Champaran) district in the state of Bihar, in India. ... Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... This article is about the drug. ... Indian Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym ICS, was the elite civil service of the Indian Government. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...


Education

At six, Eric attended the Anglican parish school in Henley-on-Thames, where he impressed the teachers. Blair's mother wanted him to have a good public school education, but the family finances were against this unless he could obtain a scholarship. Her brother Charles Limouzin, who lived on the South Coast, recommended St Cyprian's School, Eastbourne, Sussex. The headmaster undertook to help Blair to win a scholarship, and made a private financial arrangement which allowed Blair's parents to pay only half the normal fees. At the school, Blair formed a life-long friendship with Cyril Connolly (future editor of Horizon magazine, who later published many of his essays). Years later, Blair mordantly recalled the school in the essay "Such, Such Were the Joys". However, while there he wrote two poems that were published in his local newspaper, came second to Connolly in the Harrow History Prize, had his work praised by the school's external examiner, and earned scholarships to Wellington and Eton. The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... , Henley-on-Thames is a town on the north side of the River Thames in south Oxfordshire, England, about 10 miles downstream and north-east from Reading, 10 miles upstream and west from Maidenhead. ... St Cyprians was an expensive and exclusive preparatory school for boys, founded in 1899, which operated in the early twentieth century in Eastbourne, East Sussex, England. ... For other places with the same name, see Eastbourne (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the historic county in England. ... Cyril Vernon Connolly (10 September 1903 - 26 November 1974) was an English intellectual. ... Such, Such Were the Joys is a long autobiographical essay by English writer George Orwell, probably written in 1946 or 1947 but not published until 1952, after the authors death. ... Wellington College, the national monument to the Duke of Wellington, is an English co-educational public school located in the Berkshire village of Crowthorne. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, near Windsor in England, north of Windsor Castle, and...


After a term at Wellington College, Blair transferred to Eton College, where he was a King's Scholar (1917–1921), and Aldous Huxley was his French tutor. Later, Blair wrote of having been relatively happy at Eton, because it allowed students much independence. His academic performance reports indicate that he ceased serious work there, and various explanations have been offered for this. His parents could not afford to send him to Oxbridge without another scholarship, and they concluded from the poor results that he would not be able to obtain one. A Kings Scholar is a scholar of Eton College, who has passed the Kings Scholarship Examinations and is therefore admitted into a house, College, which is the oldest Eton house and comprised solely of Kings Scholars. ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... Oxbridge is a name used to refer to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the two oldest in the United Kingdom and the English-speaking world. ...


Burma and the early novels

On finishing school at Eton, the family could not finance university; his father thought his scholarship prospects poor, so, in 1922, Eric Arthur Blair joined the Indian Imperial Police, serving at Katha and Moulmein in Burma. His imperial policeman's life led him to hate imperialism; on leave in England, he resigned from the Indian Imperial Police in 1927, to become a writer. The Indian Police Service (IPS) is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India; other two services being the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Foreign Service (IFS). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Mawlamyine (formerly Moulmein) is the capital and largest city in Mon State, Myanmar. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ...


The Burma police experience yielded the novel Burmese Days (1934) and the essays "A Hanging" (1931) and "Shooting an Elephant" (1936). In England, he wrote to family acquaintance, Ruth Pitter and she and a friend found him rooms in Portobello Road (today, a blue plaque commemorates his residence there), where he began writing. From there, he sallied to the Limehouse Causeway (following Jack London's footsteps) spending his first night in a common lodging house, probably George Levy's 'kip'. For a while he "went native" (in his own country), dressing like a tramp, making no concessions to middle class mores and expectations, and recorded his experiences of the low life in "The Spike", his first published essay, and the latter half of his first book, Down and Out in Paris and London (1933). Burmese Days is a novel by British writer George Orwell. ... A Hanging is a short story written by George Orwell. ... Shooting an Elephant is an essay by George Orwell, written during the autumn of 1936. ... Emma Thomas Ruth Pitter (7 November 1897 - 29 February 1992) was a British poet. ... Portobello Road Portobello Road is a road in the Notting Hill district of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in west London. ... A blue plaque showing information about The Spanish Barn at Torre Abbey in Torquay. ... , Limehouse Town Hall Limehouse is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ... For other persons named Jack London, see Jack London (disambiguation). ... A boarding house can also be called a Rooming house (mainly in the United states) or a Lodging house. It is a house (often a family home) in which holiday-makers (people on vacation in American English) or lodgers rent one or more rooms for one or more nights, and... For other uses, see Tramp (disambiguation). ... Down and Out in Paris and London is George Orwells semi-autobiographical account of living in poverty in both cities. ...


He moved to Paris in spring of 1928, where his Aunt Nellie lived (and later died), hoping to earn a freelance writer's living; failure reduced him to menial jobs such as dishwasher in the fashionable Hotel X, on the rue de Rivoli in 1929, all told in Down and Out in Paris and London. The record does not indicate if he had the book in mind as the terminus of those low life experiences. Rue de Rivoli is one of the most famous streets of Paris, a commercial street whose shops include the most fashionable names in the world. ...


In later 1929, he returned to England, to his parents' house in Southwold, Suffolk, ill and penniless, where he wrote Burmese Days, and also frequently foraying to tramping in researching a book on the life of society's poorest people. Meanwhile, he regularly contributed to John Middleton Murry's New Adelphi magazine. Statistics Population: 1,458 (2001 Census) Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TM510763 Administration District: Waveney Shire county: Suffolk Region: East of England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Suffolk Historic county: Suffolk Services Police force: Suffolk Constabulary Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: {{{Ambulance}}} Post office and... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... John Middleton Murry (August 6, 1889 - 1957) was an English author and writer. ...


He completed Down and Out in Paris and London in 1932; it was published early the next year, while he taught at Frays College, near Hayes, Middlesex. He took the job to escape dire poverty; during this period, he obtained the literary agent services of Leonard Moore. Just before publication of Down and Out in Paris and London, Eric Arthur Blair adopted the nom de plume George Orwell. In a letter to Moore (dated 15 November) he left the choice of pseudonym to him and to publisher Victor Gollancz. Four days later, he wrote to Moore, suggesting these pseudonyms: P. S. Burton (a tramping name), Kenneth Miles, George Orwell, and H. Lewis Allways.[6] , For other places with the same name, see Hayes. ... The Middlesex Guildhall at Westminster Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and was the second smallest (after Rutland). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... Victor Gollancz (April 9, 1893–February 8, 1967) was a British publisher, socialist, and humanitarian. ...


As a writer, George Orwell drew upon his life as a teacher and on life in Southwold for the novel A Clergyman's Daughter (1935), written in 1934 at his parents' house after sickness and parental urging forced his foregoing the teaching life. From late 1934 to early 1936 he was a part-time assistant in the Booklover's Corner, a second-hand bookshop in Hampstead. Having led a lonely, solitary existence, he wanted to enjoy the company of young writers; Hampstead was an intellectual's town with many houses offering cheap bedsit rooms. Those experiences germinated into the novel Keep the Aspidistra Flying (1936). A Clergymans Daughter is a novel by George Orwell. ... For other places with the same name, see Hampstead (disambiguation). ... A bedsit, also known as a bed-sitting room, is a form of rented accommodation common in Great Britain consisting of a single room with a shared bathroom and lavatory; they are part of a legal category of dwellings referred to as Houses in multiple occupation. ... Book cover Keep the Aspidistra Flying, first published 1936, is a grimly comic novel by George Orwell. ...


The Road to Wigan Pier

In early 1936, Victor Gollancz, of the Left Book Club, commissioned George Orwell to write an account of working class poverty in economically depressed northern England. His account, The Road to Wigan Pier was published in 1937. Orwell did his leg-and-homework as a social reporter: he gained entry to many houses to see how people lived; took systematic notes of housing conditions and wages earned; and spent days in the local public library consulting public health records and reports on mine working conditions. The Left Book Club, founded in 1936, was a key left-wing institution of the late 1930s and 1940s in the United Kingdom. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Northern England, The North or North of England is a rather ill-defined term, with no universally accepted definition. ... The Road to Wigan Pier was written by George Orwell and published in 1937. ...


The first half of The Road to Wigan Pier documents his sociologic investigations of Lancashire and Yorkshire. It begins with an evocative description of working life in the coal mines. The second half is a long essay of his upbringing, and the development of his political conscience, including a denunciation of the Left's irresponsible elements. Publisher Gollancz feared the second half would offend Left Book Club readers; he inserted a mollifying preface to the book while Orwell was in Spain. Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England. ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming. ...


Soon after researching the The Road to Wigan Pier, George Orwell married Eileen O'Shaughnessy. Eileen Maud OShaughnessy (September 25, 1905 - March 29, 1945) was the first wife of British writer George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair). ...


The Spanish Civil War, and Catalonia

In December 1936, Orwell went to Spain as a fighter for the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War that was provoked by Francisco Franco's Fascist uprising. In conversation with Philip Mairet, editor of New English Weekly, Orwell said: 'This fascism . . . somebody's got to stop it'. [7] To Orwell, liberty and democracy went together, guaranteeing, among other things, the freedom of the artist; the present capitalist civilization was corrupt, but fascism would be morally calamitous. Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... “Franco” redirects here. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... Artistic Freedom is the right (or privilege, when working with anothers work) to create art without restrictions regarding content or style. ...


John McNair (1887–1968), quotes him: 'He then said that this [writing a book] was quite secondary, and [that] his main reason for coming was to fight against Fascism'. Orwell went alone; his wife, Eileen, joined him later. He joined the Independent Labour Party contingent, which consisted of some twenty-five Britons who had joined the militia of the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM - Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista), a revolutionary communist party. The POUM, and the radical wing of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT (Catalonia's dominant left-wing force), believed General Franco could be defeated only if the Republic's working class overthrew capitalism — a position at fundamental odds with the Spanish Communist Party, and its allies, which (backed by Soviet arms and aid) argued for a coalition with the bourgeois parties to defeat the fascist Nationalists. After July 1936 there was profound social revolution in Catalonia, Aragón, and wherever the CNT was strong, an egalitarian spirit sympathetically described in Homage to Catalonia. The British Independent Labour Party sent a small contingent to fight in the Spanish Civil War. ... A POUM poster urges Workers: to victory! A POUM poster appeals to peasants: Peasants: the land is yours The Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM, Spanish: Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista; Catalan: Partit Obrer dUnificació Marxista) was a Spanish communist political party formed during the Second Republic, and... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Anarcho-syndicalist flag. ... The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour or CNT), founded in Barcelona, Spain, in 1910, was at one time that countrys largest labour union. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... The term social revolution may have different connotations depending on the speaker. ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Capital Zaragoza Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 11th  1 217 514  2,9%  25,51/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 AR Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... Homage to Catalonia is political journalist and novelist George Orwells personal account of his experiences and observations in the Spanish Civil War, written in the first person. ...


Fortuitously, Orwell joined the POUM, rather than the Communist International Brigades, but his experiences — especially Eileen's narrow escaping a June 1937 Communist purge in Barcelona — much increased his sympathies for the POUM, making him a life-long anti-Stalinist and firm believer in what he termed Democratic Socialism, socialism with free debate and free elections. The three-pointed red star, symbol of the International Brigades The International Brigades were Republican military units in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries who traveled to Spain, to fight for the republic in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. ... The term anti-Stalinist left refers to elements of the political left which have been critical of the policies of Joseph Stalin and of the political system that developed in the Soviet Union under his rule. ... Democratic socialism advocates socialism as a basis for the economy and democracy as a governing principle. ...


In combat, Orwell was shot through the neck and nearly killed. At first, he feared his voice would be reduced to a permanent, painful whisper; this was not to be so, though the injury affected his voice, giving it "a strange, compelling quietness". [8] He wrote in Homage to Catalonia that people frequently told him he was lucky to survive, but that he personally thought "it would be even luckier not to be hit at all".


George and Eileen Orwell then lived in Morocco for half a year so he could recover from his wound. In that time, he wrote Coming Up for Air, his last novel before World War II. It is the most English of his novels; alarums of war mingle with images of idyllic Thames-side Edwardian childhood of protagonist George Bowling. The novel is pessimistic; industrialism and capitalism have killed the best of Old England, and there were great, new external threats. In homely terms, Bowling posits the totalitarian hypotheses of Borkenau, Orwell, Silone and Koestler: "Old Hitler's something different. So's Joe Stalin. They aren't like these chaps in the old days who crucified people and chopped their heads off and so forth, just for the fun of it . . . They're something quite new — something that's never been heard of before". Coming Up for Air book cover Coming Up for Air is a novel by George Orwell, published before World War II and predicting that conflict. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period 1901 to 1910, the reign of King Edward VII. It is sometimes extended to include the period to the start of World War I in 1914 or even the end of the war in 1918. ...


World War II and Animal Farm

After the Spanish ordeal, and writing about it, Orwell's formation ended; his finest writing, best essays, and great fame lay ahead. In 1940, Orwell closed his Wallington house, and he and Eileen moved No. 18 Dorset Chambers, Chagford Street, in the genteel Marylebone neighbourhood near Regent's Park, central London, Orwell supporting himself as a freelance reviewer for the New English Weekly (mainly), Time and Tide, and the New Statesman. Soon after the war began, he joined the Home Guard (and was awarded the "British Campaign Medals/Defence Medal") attending Tom Wintringham's home guard school and championing Wintringham's socialist vision for the Home Guard. Marylebone (sometimes written St. ... This article is about Regents Park in London. ... Central London is a much-used but unofficial and vaguely defined term for the most inner part of London, the capital of England. ... Time and Tide is a 1982 album by New Zealand New Wave band Split Enz. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Thomas Henry (Tom) Wintringham (1898-1949) was a British soldier, military historian, journalist, poet, Marxist, politician and author. ...


In 1941, Orwell worked for BBC's Eastern Service, supervising Indian broadcasts meant to stimulate India's war participation against the approaching Japanese army. About being a propagandist, he wrote of feeling like "an orange that's been trodden on by a very dirty boot". Still, he devoted much effort to the opportunity of working closely with the likes of T. S. Eliot, E. M. Forster, Mulk Raj Anand, and William Empson; the war-time Ministry of Information, at Senate House, University of London, inspired the Ministry of Truth in the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Japans honor guard often marches to greet the arrival of foreign dignitaries. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... Edward Morgan Forster, OM (January 1, 1879 – June 7, 1970), was an English novelist, short story writer, and essayist. ... Mulk Raj Anand (December 12, 1905 - September 28, 2004) was an Indian English language author, who depicted the lives of the poorer castes in traditional Indian society. ... William Empson Sir William Empson (27 September 1906 – 15 April 1984) was an English literary critic and poet, reckoned by some to be the greatest English literary critic after Samuel Johnson and William Hazlitt and fitting heir to their mode of witty, fiercely heterodox and imaginatively rich criticism. ... The term Ministry of Information may refer to the following: Minister of Information - A British government position during the First and Second World War. ... Senate House is a term frequently used to describe the main administrative building of a university. ... Website http://www. ... Senate House, supposed inspiration for the Ministry of Truth The Ministry of Truth (or Minitrue, in Newspeak) is one of the four ministries that govern Oceania in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. ...


Orwell's BBC resignation followed a report confirming his fears about the broadcasts: few Indians listened. He wanted to become a war correspondent, and was impatient to begin working on Animal Farm. Despite the good salary, he resigned from BBC in September 1943, and in November became literary editor of the left-wing weekly magazine Tribune, then edited by Aneurin Bevan and Jon Kimche (Kimche had been Box to Orwell's Cox when they were half-time assistants at the Booklover's Corner book shop in Hampstead, 1934–35). Orwell was on staff until early 1945, writing the regular column "As I Please". Anthony Powell and Malcolm Muggeridge had returned from overseas to finish the war in London; the three regularly lunched together at either the Bodega, off the Strand, or the Bourgogne, in Soho, sometimes joined by Julian Symons (then seemingly true disciple to Orwell) and David Astor, editor-owner of The Observer. A war correspondent is a journalist who covers stories firsthand from a war zone. ... For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ... A literary editor is an editor in a newspaper or similar publication who deals with aspects concerning literature and books, especially reviews. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Tribune is a democratic socialist weekly, currently a magazine though in the past more often a newspaper, published in London. ... A statue of Bevan in Cardiff. ... Jon Kimche (17 June 1909 - 9 March 1994) was a journalist and author. ... Cox and Box (video tape cover) Cox and Box is a comic opera with a libretto by by Francis Cowley Burnand and music by Arthur Sullivan, based on the farce Box and Cox, by John Maddison Morton. ... Cox and Box (video tape cover) Cox and Box is a comic opera with a libretto by by Francis Cowley Burnand and music by Arthur Sullivan, based on the farce Box and Cox, by John Maddison Morton. ... Anthony Dymoke Powell, CH (December 21, 1905 - March 28, 2000) was a British novelist best known for his A Dance to the Music of Time duodecalogy published between 1951 and 1975. ... Thomas Malcolm Muggeridge (March 24, 1903–November 14, 1990) was a British journalist, author, satirist, media personality, soldier-spy and Christian scholar. ... Strand, May 2001 St. ... Cast-iron architecture in Greene Street SoHo is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... Julian Gustave Symons (1912 - 1994) was a British writer, best known for crime fiction. ... The Honourable Francis David Langhorne Astor (March 5, 1912, London – December 7, 2001, London) was a newspaper publisher and member of the prominent Astor family. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


In 1944, Orwell finished the anti-Stalinist allegory Animal Farm published (Britain, 17 August 1945, U.S., 26 August 1946) to critical and popular success. Harcourt Brace Editor Frank Morley went to Britain soon after the war to learn what currently interested readers, clerking a week or so at the Cambridge book shop Bowes and Bowes. The first day, customers continually requested a sold-out book — the second impression of Animal Farm; on reading the shop's remaining copy, he went to London and bought the American publishing rights; the royalties were George Orwell's first, proper, adult income. Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ... Harcourt Trade Publishers is a U.S. publishing firm with a long history of publishing fiction and nonfiction for children and adults. ...


With Animal Farm at the printer's, with war's end in view, Orwell's desire to be in the thick of the action quickened. David Astor asked him to be the Observer war correspondent reporting the liberation of France and the early occupation of Germany; Orwell quit Tribune. The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Tribune is a democratic socialist weekly, currently a magazine though in the past more often a newspaper, published in London. ...


He and Astor were close; he is believed to be the model for the rich publisher in Keep the Aspidistra Flying; Orwell strongly influenced Astor's editorial policies. Astor died in 2001 and is buried in the grave beside Orwell's. Orwell never revealed his pen name, keeping his identity secret and thinking his work did not need a revealed author.


Nineteen Eighty-Four and final years

Orwell and his wife adopted a baby boy, Richard Horatio Blair, born in May 1944. Orwell was taken ill again in Cologne in spring 1945. While he was sick there, his wife died in Newcastle during an operation to remove a tumour. She had not told him about this operation due to concerns about the cost and the fact that she thought she would make a speedy recovery. For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... // Newcastle refers primarily to the following places: Newcastle upon Tyne, England Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia Newcastle (or New Castle) can refer to the following places: Newcastle, New South Wales Division of Newcastle, an electoral district in the Australian House of Representatives, in New South Wales, located around the city. ...


For the next four years Orwell mixed journalistic work — mainly for the Tribune, the Observer and the Manchester Evening News, though he also contributed to many small-circulation political and literary magazines — with writing his best-known work, Nineteen Eighty-Four, which was published in 1949. Originally, Orwell was undecided between titling the book The Last Man in Europe and Nineteen Eighty-Four but his publisher, Fredric Warburg, helped him choose. The title was not the year Orwell had initially intended. He first set his story in 1980, but, as the time taken to write the book dragged on (partly because of his illness), that was changed to 1982 and, later, to 1984.[9] The Manchester Evening News is an English daily newspaper published each week day evening and on Saturdays. ... A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature in a broad sense. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... Fredric John Warburg (November 27, 1898 - May 25, 1981) was a publisher best known for his association with the British author George Orwell. ...


He wrote much of the novel while living at Barnhill,[10] a remote farmhouse on the island of Jura which lies in the Gulf stream off the west coast of Scotland. It was an abandoned farmhouse with outbuildings near to the northern end of the island, situated at the end of a five-mile (8 km), heavily rutted track from Ardlussa, where the laird, or landowner, Margaret Fletcher lived, and where the paved road, the only one on the island, came to an end. Jura shown within Argyll Satellite picture of Jura Jura (Scottish Gaelic Diùra) is a Scottish island, in the Inner Hebrides. ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... This article is about the country. ... A lord is a male who has power and authority. ...


In 1948, he co-edited a collection entitled British Pamphleteers with Reginald Reynolds. Reginald Arthur Reynolds (1905-1958) was an English left wing writer, a Quaker and husband of left wing novelist Ethel Mannin, who he married in 1938. ...


In 1949, Orwell was approached by a friend, Celia Kirwan, who had just started working for a Foreign Office unit, the Information Research Department, which the Labour government had set up to publish anti-communist propaganda. He gave her a list of 37 writers and artists he considered to be unsuitable as IRD authors because of their pro-communist leanings. The list, not published until 2003, consists mainly of journalists (among them the editor of the New Statesman, Kingsley Martin) but also includes the actors Michael Redgrave and Charlie Chaplin. Orwell's motives for handing over the list are unclear, but the most likely explanation is the simplest: that he was helping a friend in a cause — anti-Stalinism — that they both supported. There is no indication that Orwell abandoned the democratic socialism that he consistently promoted in his later writings — or that he believed the writers he named should be suppressed. Orwell's list was also accurate: the people on it had all made pro-Soviet or pro-communist public pronouncements. In fact, one of the people on the list, Peter Smollett, the head of the Soviet section in the Ministry of Information, was later (after the opening of KGB archives) proven to be a Soviet agent, recruited by Kim Philby, and "almost certainly the person on whose advice the publisher Jonathan Cape turned down Animal Farm as an unhealthily anti-Soviet text", although Orwell was unaware of this.[11] The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... The Information Research Department, founded in 1946, was a department of the British Foreign Office set up to counter Russian propaganda and infiltration, particularly amongst the western labour movement. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... Kingsley Martin (1897–1969) was a British journalist who edited the left-leaning political magazine the New Statesman for thirty years, from 1930 to 1960. ... Sir Michael Scudamore Redgrave CBE (March 20, 1908—March 21, 1985) was an English actor of great renown. ... Charles Chaplin redirects here. ... Democratic socialism advocates socialism as a basis for the economy and democracy as a governing principle. ... Soviet redirects here. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Kim Philby Harold Adrian Russell Kim Philby or H.A.R. Philby (OBE: 1946-1965), (1 January 1912 – 11 May 1988) was a high-ranking member of British intelligence, a communist, and spy for the Soviet Unions NKVD and KGB. In 1963, Philby was revealed as a member of... Jonathan Cape has been since 1987 an imprint of Random House. ...


In October 1949, shortly before his death, he married Sonia Brownell. [12] Sonia Brownell (1918-1980) was the second and last wife of writer George Orwell. ...


Death

George Orwell's grave
George Orwell's grave

Orwell died in London from tuberculosis, at the age of 46. [3] He was in and out of hospitals for the last three years of his life. Having requested burial in accordance with the Anglican rite, he was interred in All Saints' Churchyard, Sutton Courtenay, Oxfordshire with the simple epitaph: "Here lies Eric Arthur Blair, born June 25, 1903, died January 21, 1950"; no mention is made on the gravestone of his more famous pen-name. He had wanted to be buried in the graveyard of the closest church to wherever he happened to die, but the graveyards in central London had no space. Fearing that he might have to be cremated, against his wishes, his widow appealed to his friends to see if any of them knew of a church with space in its graveyard. Orwell's friend David Astor lived in Sutton Courtenay and negotiated with the vicar for Orwell to be buried there, although he had no connection with the village. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... All Saints Church Sutton Courtenay is a village and civil parish, between Didcot and Abingdon, currently in the English county of Oxfordshire, but before administrative boundary changes in 1974, part of Berkshire. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Orwell's son, Richard Blair, was raised by an aunt after his father's death. He maintains a low public profile, though he has occasionally given interviews about the few memories he has of his father. Blair worked for many years as an agricultural agent for the British government.


Legacy

Literary criticism

Throughout his life Orwell continually supported himself as a book reviewer, writing works so long and sophisticated they have had an influence on literary criticism. In the celebrated conclusion to his 1940 essay on Charles Dickens one seems to see Orwell himself: Dickens redirects here. ...

"When one reads any strongly individual piece of writing, one has the impression of seeing a face somewhere behind the page. It is not necessarily the actual face of the writer. I feel this very strongly with Swift, with Defoe, with Fielding, Stendhal, Thackeray, Flaubert, though in several cases I do not know what these people looked like and do not want to know. What one sees is the face that the writer ought to have. Well, in the case of Dickens I see a face that is not quite the face of Dickens's photographs, though it resembles it. It is the face of a man of about forty, with a small beard and a high colour. He is laughing, with a touch of anger in his laughter, but no triumph, no malignity. It is the face of a man who is always fighting against something, but who fights in the open and is not frightened, the face of a man who is generously angry — in other words, of a nineteenth-century liberal, a free intelligence, a type hated with equal hatred by all the smelly little orthodoxies which are now contending for our souls."

Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish priest, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer, and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and A Tale of a Tub. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was a British writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... Stendhal. ... William Makepeace Thackeray (July 18, 1811 – December 24, 1863) was a British novelist of the 19th century. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ...

Rules for writers

In "Politics and the English Language," George Orwell provides six rules for writers:[13] Politics and the English Language (1946) is an essay by George Orwell wherein he criticizes ugly and inaccurate contemporary written English, and asserts that it was both a cause and an effect of foolish thinking and dishonest politics. ...

  • Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.
  • Never use a long word where a short one will do.
  • If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.
  • Never use the passive voice where you can use the active.
  • Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.
  • Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.

In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... Voice, in grammar, is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ...

Political views

Orwell's political views shifted over time, but he was a man of the political left throughout his life as a writer. In his earlier days he occasionally described himself as a "Tory anarchist". His time in Burma made him a staunch opponent of imperialism, and his experience of poverty while researching Down and Out in Paris and London and The Road to Wigan Pier turned him into a socialist. "Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism, as I understand it," he wrote in 1946. Left wing redirects here. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Democratic socialism advocates socialism as a basis for the economy and democracy as a governing principle. ...


It was the Spanish Civil War that played the most important part in defining his socialism. Having witnessed the success of the anarcho-syndicalist communities, and the subsequent brutal suppression of the anarcho-syndicalists and other revolutionaries by the Soviet-backed Communists, Orwell returned from Catalonia a staunch anti-Stalinist and joined the Independent Labour Party.


At the time, like most other left-wingers in the United Kingdom, he was still opposed to rearmament against Nazi Germany — but after the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact and the outbreak of the Second World War, he changed his mind. He left the ILP over its pacifism and adopted a political position of "revolutionary patriotism". He supported the war effort but detected (wrongly as it turned out) a mood that would lead to a revolutionary socialist movement among the British people. "We are in a strange period of history in which a revolutionary has to be a patriot and a patriot has to be a revolutionary," he wrote in Tribune, the Labour left's weekly, in December 1940. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ...


By 1943, his thinking had moved on. He joined the staff of Tribune as literary editor, and from then until his death was a left-wing (though hardly orthodox) Labour-supporting democratic socialist. He canvassed for the Labour Party in the 1945 general election and was broadly supportive of its actions in office, though he was sharply critical of its timidity on certain key questions and despised the pro-Soviet stance of many Labour left-wingers. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...


Although he was never either a Trotskyist or an anarchist, he was strongly influenced by the Trotskyist and anarchist critiques of the Soviet regime and by the anarchists' emphasis on individual freedom. He wrote in The Road to Wigan Pier that 'I worked out an anarchistic theory that all government is evil, that the punishment always does more harm than the crime and the people can be trusted to behave decently if you will only let them alone.' In typical Orwellian style, he continues to deconstruct his own opinion as 'sentimental nonsense'. He continues 'it is always necessary to protect peaceful people from violence. In any state of society where crime can be profitable you have got to have a harsh criminal law and administer it ruthlessly'. Many of his closest friends in the mid-1940s were part of the small anarchist scene in London.[citation needed] Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... The Road to Wigan Pier was written by George Orwell and published in 1937. ... The adjective Orwellian describes the situation, idea, or societal condition that George Orwell identified as being inimical to the welfare of a free-society. ...


Orwell had little sympathy with Zionism and opposed the creation of the state of Israel. In 1945, Orwell wrote that "few English people realise that the Palestine issue is partly a colour issue and that an Indian nationalist, for example, would probably side with the Arabs". This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


While Orwell was concerned that the Palestinian Arabs be treated fairly, he was equally concerned with fairness to Jews in general: writing in the spring of 1945 a long essay titled "Antisemitism in Britain," for the "Contemporary Jewish Record." Antisemitism, Orwell warned, was "on the increase," and was "quite irrational and will not yield to arguments." He thought "the only useful approach" would be a psychological one, to discover "why" antisemites could "swallow such absurdities on one particular subject while remaining sane on others." (pp 332-341, As I Please: 1943-1945.) In his magnum opus, Nineteen Eighty-Four, he showed the Party enlisting antisemitic passions in the Two Minute Hates for Goldstein, their archetypal traitor. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster Anti-Semitism (alternatively spelled antisemitism) is hostility towards or prejudice against Jews (not, in common usage, Semites in general — see the Scope section below). ...


Orwell was also a proponent of a federal socialist Europe, a position outlined in his 1947 essay 'Toward European Unity', which first appeared in Partisan Review. Partisan Review was an American political and literary quarterly published from 1934 to 2003. ...


Work

During the majority of his career, Orwell was best known for his journalism, in essays, reviews, columns in newspapers and magazines and in his books of reportage: Down and Out in Paris and London (describing a period of poverty in these cities), The Road to Wigan Pier (describing the living conditions of the poor in northern England, and the class divide generally) and Homage to Catalonia. According to Newsweek, Orwell "was the finest journalist of his day and the foremost architect of the English essay since Hazlitt." Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... Down and Out in Paris and London is George Orwells semi-autobiographical account of living in poverty in both cities. ... The Road to Wigan Pier was written by George Orwell and published in 1937. ... Homage to Catalonia is political journalist and novelist George Orwells personal account of his experiences and observations in the Spanish Civil War, written in the first person. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... // William Hazlitt (10 April 1778 – 18 September 1830) was an English writer remembered for his humanistic essays and literary criticism, often esteemed the greatest English literary critic after Samuel Johnson. ...


Modern readers are more often introduced to Orwell as a novelist, particularly through his enormously successful titles Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four. The former is often thought to reflect developments in the Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution; the latter, life under totalitarian rule. Elements in Nineteen Eighty-Four satirize "opium for the masses" found as central-character Winston Smith does (witness the newspapers filled with "sex, sport, and astrology" which the Ministry of Truth peddles to the proles). Nineteen Eighty-Four is often compared to Brave New World by Aldous Huxley; both are powerful dystopian novels warning of a future world filled with state control, the former was written later and considers perpetual war preparation in a nuclear age; the latter is more optimistic. For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... Senate House, supposed inspiration for the Ministry of Truth The Ministry of Truth (or Minitrue, in Newspeak) is one of the four ministries that govern Oceania in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... Proles is a Newspeak term in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four to describe the proletariat class. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... This article is about the philosophical concept and literary form. ...


Influence on the English language

Some of Nineteen Eighty-Four's lexicon has entered into the English language. This article is about the Orwell novel. ...

  • Orwell expounded on the importance of honest and clear language (and, conversely, on how misleading and vague language can be a tool of political manipulation) in his 1946 essay Politics and the English Language. The language of Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four is Newspeak: a thoroughly politicised and obfuscatory language designed to make coherent thought impossible by limiting acceptable word choices.
  • Another phrase is 'Big Brother', or 'Big Brother is watching you'. Today, security cameras are often thought to be modern society's big brother. The current television reality show Big Brother carries that title because of Nineteen Eighty-Four.
  • The same novel spawned the title of another television series, Room 101.
  • The phrase 'thought police' is also derived from Nineteen Eighty-Four, and might be used to refer to any alleged violation of the right to the free expression of opinion. It is particularly used in contexts where free expression is proclaimed and expected to exist.
  • Doublethink is a Newspeak term from Nineteen Eighty-Four, and is the act of holding two contradictory beliefs simultaneously, fervently believing both.

Variations of the slogan "all animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others", from Animal Farm, are sometimes used to satirise situations where equality exists in theory and rhetoric but not in practice with various idioms. For example, an allegation that rich people are treated more leniently by the courts despite legal equality before the law might be summarised as "all criminals are equal, but some are more equal than others". This appears to echo the phrase Primus inter pares - the Latin for "First amongst equals", which is usually applied to the head of a democratic state. Politics and the English Language (1946) is an essay by George Orwell wherein he criticizes ugly and inaccurate contemporary written English, and asserts that it was both a cause and an effect of foolish thinking and dishonest politics. ... Newspeak is a fictional language in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... Big Brother is a reality television format. ... This page is about the TV series Room 101. ... Doublethink is an integral concept in George Orwells dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, and is the act of holding two contradictory beliefs simultaneously, fervently believing both. ... For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ... First among equals redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Although the origins of the term are debatable, Orwell may have been the first to use the term cold war. He used it in an essay titled "You and the Atomic Bomb" on October 19, 1945 in Tribune, he wrote: For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

"We may be heading not for general breakdown but for an epoch as horribly stable as the slave empires of antiquity. James Burnham's theory has been much discussed, but few people have yet considered its ideological implications — this is, the kind of world-view, the kind of beliefs, and the social structure that would probably prevail in a State which was at once unconquerable and in a permanent state of 'cold war' with its neighbours."

James Burnham (1905–1987) was an American popular political theorist, former Communist activist and intellectual, known for his work The Managerial Revolution, published in 1941, which heavily influenced George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four. // Burnham was of English Catholic stock, although he was an atheist for much of his life...

Literary influences

In an autobiographical sketch Orwell sent to the editors of Twentieth Century Authors in 1940, he wrote:

The writers I care about most and never grow tired of are: Shakespeare, Swift, Fielding, Dickens, Charles Reade, Flaubert and, among modern writers, James Joyce, T. S. Eliot and D. H. Lawrence. But I believe the modern writer who has influenced me most is Somerset Maugham, whom I admire immensely for his power of telling a story straightforwardly and without frills.

Elsewhere, Orwell strongly praised the works of Jack London, especially his book The Road. Orwell's investigation of poverty in The Road to Wigan Pier strongly resembles that of Jack London's The People of the Abyss, in which the American journalist disguises himself as an out-of-work sailor in order to investigate the lives of the poor in London. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... Dickens redirects here. ... Charles Reade (June 8, 1814 - April 11, 1884) was an English novelist and dramatist, best known for The Cloister and the Hearth. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was an English writer of the 20th century, whose prolific and diverse output included novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, paintings, translations, literary criticism, and personal letters. ... W. Somerset Maugham as photographed in 1934 by Carl Van Vechten. ... For other persons named Jack London, see Jack London (disambiguation). ...


In the essay "Politics vs. Literature: An Examination of Gulliver's Travels" (1946) he wrote: "If I had to make a list of six books which were to be preserved when all others were destroyed, I would certainly put Gulliver's Travels among them." First Edition of Gullivers Travels Gullivers Travels (1726, amended 1735), officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts. ...


Other writers admired by Orwell included Ralph Waldo Emerson, G. K. Chesterton, George Gissing, Graham Greene, Herman Melville, Henry Miller, Tobias Smollett, Mark Twain, Joseph Conrad and Yevgeny Zamyatin.[14] He was both an admirer and a critic of Rudyard Kipling[15][16], praising Kipling as a gifted writer and a "good bad poet" whose work is "spurious" and "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting," but undeniably seductive and able to speak to certain aspects of reality more effectively than more enlightened authors.[17] Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ... George Gissing (November 22, 1857 – December 28, 1903) was a British novelist. ... This article is about the writer. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... Henry Miller photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1940 Henry Valentine Miller (December 26, 1891 – June 7, 1980) was an American writer and, to a lesser extent, painter. ... Tobias Smollett Tobias George Smollett (March 19, 1721 - September 17, 1771) was a Scottish author, best known for his picaresque novels, such as Roderick Random and Peregrine Pickle. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born English novelist. ... Yevgeny Zamyatin by Boris Kustodiev (1923) Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin (Евге́ний Ива́нович Замя́тин sometimes translated into English as Eugene Zamyatin) (February 1, 1884 – March 10, 1937) was a Russian author, most famous for his novel We, a story of dystopian future which influenced George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four and Aldous Huxleys Brave... This article is about the British author. ...


Orwell also publicly defended P. G. Wodehouse against charges of being a Nazi sympathiser; a defence based on Wodehouse's disinterest in and ignorance of politics. Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, KBE (15 October 1881 – 14 February 1975) (IPA: ) was a comic writer who has enjoyed enormous popular success for more than seventy years. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Called English literatures performing flea, P. G. Wodehouse, pictured in 1904, became famous for his complex plots, ingenious wordplay, and prolific output. ...


Intelligence

Expectedly, the Special Branch in the UK, the police intelligence group, spied on Orwell during the greater part of his life.[1]. The dossier published by Britain's National Archives mentions that according to one investigator, Orwell's tendency of clothing himself "in Bohemian fashion," revealed that the author was "a Communist":[2] Special Branch is the arm of the British, Irish and many Commonwealth police forces that deals with national security matters. ... More than one country maintains a national archive: The Canadian Library and Archives Canada The New Zealand Archives New Zealand (formerly National Archives) The United States National Archives and Records Administration The United Kingdom National Archives This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might...

"This man has advanced Communist views, and several of his Indian friends say that they have often seen him at Communist meetings. He dresses in a bohemian fashion both at his office and in his leisure hours."[3]

Conversely, there has been speculation about the extent of Orwell's links to Britain's secret service, MI5, and some have even claimed that he was in the service's employ.[18] The evidence for this claim is contested. MI-5 redirects here. ...


Orwell also had an NKVD file due to his involvement with the POUM militia during the Spanish Civil War.[citation needed] The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... The Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM, Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista) was a Spanish political party around the time of the Spanish Civil War. ...


Personal life

George Orwell and Cyril Connolly were contemporaries at St Cyprian's and at Eton, though they hardly spoke at Eton as they were in separate years.[19] They later became friends; Connolly helping a prep school companion by introducing him to London literary circles. The St Cyprian's Headmaster saw that Eric "was made to study like a dog" to earn a scholarship; Eric alleged that was solely to enhance the school's prestige with parents, so accounting for his lackadaisical approach to studies at Eton. Cyril Vernon Connolly (10 September 1903 - 26 November 1974) was an English intellectual. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, near Windsor in England, north of Windsor Castle, and... Preparatory school or prep school may refer to: University-preparatory school, in North America, is a private secondary school designed to prepare a student for higher education. ...


The Blair family lived at Shiplake before World War I, and Eric was friendly with the Buddicom family, especially Jacintha Buddicom with whom he read and wrote poetry, and dreamt of intellectual adventures. Simultaneously, he enjoyed shooting, fishing, and birdwatching with Jacintha’s brother and sister. He told her that he might write a book in similar style to that of H. G. Wells's A Modern Utopia. Jacintha Buddicom repudiated Orwell's schoolboy misery described in Such, Such Were the Joys, claiming he was a specially happy child, yet acknowledging he was a boy, aloof and undemonstrative, who did not need a wide circle of friends. He and she lost touch shortly after Orwell went to Burma, becoming unsympathetic to him because of letters he wrote complaining about his life; she ceased replying. [20] Shiplake (and Lower Shiplake) is a village in Oxfordshire, England on the River Thames, near Henley-on-Thames and opposite the village of Wargrave. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... A Modern Utopia was a book written by the famous science fiction author H.G. Wells in 1905. ... Such, Such Were the Joys is a long autobiographical essay by English writer George Orwell, probably written in 1946 or 1947 but not published until 1952, after the authors death. ...


Whilst living in poor lodgings on Portobello Road on returning from Burma, his family friend recalls:

That winter was very cold. Orwell had very little money, indeed. I think he must have suffered in that unheated room, after the climate of Burma . . . Oh yes, he was already writing. Trying to write that is – it didn't come easily . . . To us, at that time, he was a wrong-headed young man who had thrown away a good career, and was vain enough to think he could be an author. But the formidable look was not there for nothing. He had the gift, he had the courage, he had the persistence to go on in spite of failure, sickness, poverty, and opposition, until he became an acknowledged master of English prose. [Ruth Pitter, BBC Overseas Service broadcast, 3 January 1956]

In The Road to Wigan Pier he writes of tramping and poverty:

When I thought of poverty, I thought of it in terms of brute starvation. Therefore my mind turned immediately towards the extreme cases, the social outcasts: tramps, beggars, criminals, prostitutes. These were the 'lowest of the low', and these were the people with whom I wanted to get into contact. What I profoundly wanted at that time was to find some way of getting out of the respectable world altogether.

The business relationship between Orwell and Victor Gollancz, his first publisher, was stiff: for example, in letters, Orwell always addressed him by surname, as "Gollancz". Two items in their relation are of particular interest. The first, Orwell apparently never voiced objection to Gollancz's apologetic preface to A Road to Wigan Pier; the second, he released Orwell from his contract (at Orwell's request) so that Secker & Warburg could publish his fiction. Gollancz's refusal to publish Animal Farm considerably delayed that the book's publication. As a Soviet sympathizer, Gollancz was more interested in his non-fiction writing, finding Animal Farm politically too hot.


Eileen O'Shaughnessy was warned off Orwell by friends who warned that she did not know what she was taking on. After her death during a hysterectomy, in a letter to a friend, Orwell refers to her as 'a faithful old stick'; the depth of his love for her remains ambiguous. Eileen's symptoms may partly account for Orwell's infidelities in the war's last years, but, in a letter to a woman to whom he proposed marriage: 'I was sometimes unfaithful to Eileen, and I also treated her badly, and I think she treated me badly, too, at times, but it was a real marriage, in the sense that we had been through awful struggles together and she understood all about my work, etc.'[21] Bernard Crick compares them to Thomas Hardy and Emma Gifford: 'Certainly with a great writer the writing comes first. One thinks of Thomas Hardy, subtle in his characters, but obtuse to the actual suffering of his first wife.' Nevertheless, Orwell was very lonely after Eileen's death, and desperate for a wife, both as companion for himself and as mother for Richard; he proposed marriage to four women, eventually, Sonia Brownwell accepted. Sir Bernard Crick (born 16 December 1929) is a British political theorist whose views are often summarised as politics is ethics done in public. He seeks to arrive at a politics of action, as opposed to a politics of thought or of ideology. ...


Bob Edwards, who fought with him in Spain, said: 'He had a phobia against rats. We got used to them. They used to gnaw at our boots during the night, but George just couldn't get used to the presence of rats and one day, late in the evening, he caused us great embarrassment . . . he got out his gun and shot it . . . the whole front, and both sides, went into action.'


On Sundays, Orwell liked very rare roast beef, and Yorkshire pudding dripping with gravy, and good Yarmouth kippers at high tea. (p.501) . . . He liked his tea, as well as his tobacco, strong, sometimes putting twelve spoonfuls into a huge brown teapot requiring both hands to lift.[22]


His wardrobe was famously casual: 'an awful pair of thick corduroy trousers', a pair of thick, grey flannel trousers, a 'rather nice' black corduroy jacket, a shaggy, battered, green-grey Harris tweed jacket, and a 'best suit' of dark-grey-to-black herringbone tweed of old-fashioned cut. [23]


Younger sister, Avril, joined him at Barnhill, Jura, as housekeeper. Like her brother, she was of tough character, and eventually drove away Richard Orwell's nanny, because the house was too small for both women. Orwell also nearly died during an unfortunate boating expedition in that time.


Of Orwell, Bernard Crick writes: Sir Bernard Crick (born 16 December 1929) is a British political theorist whose views are often summarised as politics is ethics done in public. He seeks to arrive at a politics of action, as opposed to a politics of thought or of ideology. ...

... he was both a brave man and one who drove himself hard, for the sake, first, of 'writing' and then more and more for an integrated sense of what he had to write. Orwell was unusually reticent to his friends about his background and his life, his openness was all in print for literary or moral effect; he tried to keep his small circle of good friends well apart – people are still surprised to learn who else at the time he knew; he did not confide in people easily, not talk about his emotions – even to women with whom he was close; he was not fully integrate as a person, not quite comfortable within his own skin, until late in his life – and he was many-faceted, not a simple man at all.

Shelden noted Orwell’s obsessive belief in his failure, and the deep inadequacy haunting him through his career:

Playing the loser was a form of revenge against the winners, a way of repudiating the corrupt nature of conventional success – the scheming, the greed, the sacrifice of principles. Yet, it was also a form of self-rebuke, a way of keeping one’s own pride and ambition in check.[24]

According to T.R. Fyvel:

His crucial experience . . . was his struggle to turn himself into a writer, one which led through long periods of poverty, failure and humiliation, and about which he has written almost nothing directly. The sweat and agony was less in the slum-life than in the effort to turn the experience into literature.[25]

Bibliography

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Author:George Orwell

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Novels

Burmese Days is a novel by British writer George Orwell. ... A Clergymans Daughter is a novel by George Orwell. ... Book cover Keep the Aspidistra Flying, first published 1936, is a grimly comic novel by George Orwell. ... Coming Up for Air book cover Coming Up for Air is a novel by George Orwell, published before World War II and predicting that conflict. ... For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ...

Books based on personal experiences

Down and Out in Paris and London is George Orwells semi-autobiographical account of living in poverty in both cities. ... The Road to Wigan Pier was written by George Orwell and published in 1937. ... Homage to Catalonia is political journalist and novelist George Orwells personal account of his experiences and observations in the Spanish Civil War, written in the first person. ...

Essays

Penguin Books George Orwell: Essays, with an Introduction by Bernard Crick George Orwell (pseudonym of Eric Arthur Blair, the influential English author and critic) published two volumes of his essays during his life, Inside the Whale and Other Essays in 1940, and Critical Essays in 1946. ...

  • "The Spike" (1931) — [13]
  • "A Nice Cup of Tea" (1946) — [14]
  • "A Hanging" (1931) — [15]
  • "Shooting an Elephant" (1936) — [16]
  • "Charles Dickens" (1939) — [17]
  • "Boys' Weeklies" (1940) — [18]
  • "Inside the Whale" (1940) — [19]
  • "The Lion and The Unicorn: Socialism and the English Genius" (1941) — [20]
  • "Wells, Hitler and the World State" (1941) — [21]
  • "The Art of Donald McGill" (1941) — [22]
  • "Looking Back on the Spanish War" (1943) — [23]
  • "W. B. Yeats" (1943) — [24]
  • "Benefit of Clergy: Some notes on Salvador Dali" (1944) — [25]
  • "Arthur Koestler" (1944) — [26]
  • "Notes on Nationalism" (1945) — [27]
  • "How the Poor Die" (1946) — [28]
  • "Politics vs. Literature: An Examination of Gulliver's Travels" (1946) — [29]
  • "Politics and the English Language" (1946) — [30]
  • "Second Thoughts on James Burnham" (1946) — [31]
  • "Decline of the English Murder" (1946) — [32]
  • "Some Thoughts on the Common Toad" (1946) — [33]
  • "A Good Word for the Vicar of Bray" (1946) — [34]
  • "In Defence of P. G. Wodehouse" (1946) — [35]
  • "Why I Write" (1946) — [36]
  • "The Prevention of Literature" (1946) — [37]
  • "Such, Such Were the Joys" (1946) — [38]
  • "Lear, Tolstoy and the Fool" (1947) — [39]
  • "Reflections on Gandhi" (1949) — [40]
  • "Bookshop Memories" (1936) — [41]
  • "The Moon Under Water" (1946) — [42]
  • "Rudyard Kipling" (1942) — [43]
  • "Raffles and Miss Blandish" (1944) — [44]

The Spike is the name of two books: The Spike (1980) - novel by Arnaud de Borchgrave and Robert Moss The Spike (1997) - nonfiction book by Damien Broderick It is also the name of an essay The Spike (essay) by George Orwell. ... A Nice Cup of Tea is an essay by British writer George Orwell, first published in the Evening Standard newspaper of January 12, 1946. ... A Hanging is a short story written by George Orwell. ... Shooting an Elephant is an essay by George Orwell, written during the autumn of 1936. ... Inside the Whale is an essay in three parts. ... The Lion and the Unicorn: Socialism And The English Genius is a 1940 essay by George Orwell. ... Politics and the English Language (1946) is an essay by George Orwell wherein he criticizes ugly and inaccurate contemporary written English, and asserts that it was both a cause and an effect of foolish thinking and dishonest politics. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Such, Such Were the Joys is a long autobiographical essay by English writer George Orwell, probably written in 1946 or 1947 but not published until 1952, after the authors death. ... Lear, Tolstoy and the Fool this is an essay on a pamphlet written by Leo Tolstoy. ... The Moon Under Water in Hounslow The Moon Under Water was a 1946 essay by George Orwell. ... This article is about the British author. ...

Poems

  • "Romance"
  • "A Little Poem"
  • "Awake! Young Men of England"
  • "Kitchener"
  • "Our Minds are Married, But we are Too Young"
  • "The Pagan"
  • "The Lesser Evil"
  • "Poem From Burma"

Source: George Orwell's Poems


About George Orwell

  • Anderson, Paul (ed). Orwell in Tribune: 'As I Please' and Other Writings. Methuen/Politico's 2006. ISBN 1-842-75155-7
  • Bowker, Gordon. George Orwell. Little Brown. 2003. ISBN 0-316-86115-4
  • Buddicom, Jacintha. Eric & Us. Finlay Publisher. 2006. ISBN 0-9553708-0-9
  • Caute, David. Dr. Orwell and Mr. Blair, Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-81438-9
  • Crick, Bernard. George Orwell: A Life. Penguin. 1982. ISBN 0-14-005856-7
  • Flynn, Nigel. George Orwell. The Rourke Corporation, Inc. 1990. ISBN 0-86593-018-X
  • Hitchens, Christopher. Why Orwell Matters. Basic Books. 2003. ISBN 0-465-03049-1
  • Hollis, Christopher. A Study of George Orwell: The Man and His Works. Chicago: Henry Regnery Co. 1956. ASIN B000ANO242.
  • Larkin, Emma. Finding George Orwell in Burma. Penguin. 2005. ISBN 1-59420-052-1
  • Lee, Robert A, Orwell's Fiction. University of Notre Dame Press, 1969. LC 74-75151
  • Leif, Ruth Ann, Homage to Oceania. The Prophetic Vision of George Orwell. Ohio State U.P. [1969]
  • Meyers, Jeffery. Orwell: Wintry Conscience of a Generation. W.W.Norton. 2000. ISBN 0-393-32263-7
  • Newsinger, John. Orwell's Politics. Macmillan. 1999. ISBN 0-333-68287-4
  • Shelden, Michael. Orwell: The Authorized Biography. HarperCollins. 1991. ISBN 0-06-016709-2
  • Smith, D. & Mosher, M. Orwell for Beginners. 1984. London: Writers and Readers Publishing Cooperative.
  • Taylor, D. J. Orwell: The Life. Henry Holt and Company. 2003. ISBN 0-8050-7473-2
  • West, W. J. The Larger Evils. Edinburgh: Canongate Press. 1992. ISBN 0-86241-382-6 (Nineteen Eighty-Four – The truth behind the satire.)
  • West, W. J. (ed.) George Orwell: The Lost Writings. New York: Arbor House. 1984. ISBN 0-87795-745-2
  • Williams, Raymond, Orwell, Fontana/Collins, 1971
  • Woodcock, George. The Crystal Spirit. Little Brown. 1966. ISBN 1-55164-268-9

Sir Bernard Crick (born 16 December 1929) is a British political theorist whose views are often summarised as politics is ethics done in public. He seeks to arrive at a politics of action, as opposed to a politics of thought or of ideology. ... Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a product identification number used by Amazon. ... D. J. Taylor is a British critic, novelist and biographer. ... Raymond Henry Williams (31 August 1921 - 26 January 1988) was a Welsh academic, novelist and critic. ... George Woodcock (May 8, 1912 - January 28, 1995) was a Canadian writer. ...

See also

Władysław Stanisław Reymont Władysław Stanisław Reymont (May 7, 1867 – December 5, 1925) (the actual name was Rejment) was a Polish writer who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1924. ... Social criticism analyzes (problematic) social structures and aims at practical solutions by specific measures, radical reform or even revolutionary change. ... Location within the British Isles. ...

References

  1. ^ George Orwell. The Orwell Reader. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  2. ^ George Orwell. History Guide. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  3. ^ a b "George Orwell, Author, 46, Dead. British Writer, Acclaimed for His '1984' and 'Animal Farm,' is Victim of Tuberculosis. Two Novels Popular Here Distaste for Imperialism", New York Times, January 22, 1950, Sunday. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. "London, Jan. 21, 1950. George Orwell, noted British novelist, died of tuberculosis in a hospital here today at the age of 46." 
  4. ^ Michael O'Connor (2003). Review of Gordon Bowker's "Inside George Orwell".
  5. ^ "Moving Up With George Orwell", New York Times, January 22, 1950, Sunday. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. "Despite ill health, politics, and war, all of which combined to hamper, and at times paralyze, his work, George Orwell, at 47, has come a long way. Born in Bengal, of an Anglo-Indian family, he served with the the Indian Imperial police in Burma between 1922 and 1927." 
  6. ^ Orwell, Sonia and Angus, Ian (eds.)Orwell: An Age Like This, letters 31 and 33 (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World)
  7. ^ Letter of Philip Mairet to Ian Angus, 9 Jan. 1964
  8. ^ "George Orwell", Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-08-21. "pseudonym of Eric Arthur Blair English novelist, essayist, and critic famous for his novels Animal Farm (1945) and Nineteen Eighty-four (1949), the latter a profound anti-Utopian novel that examines the dangers of totalitarian rule. Born Eric Arthur Blair, Orwell never entirely abandoned his original name, but his first book (Down and Out in Paris and London) appeared as the work ..." 
  9. ^ (1984) Crick, Bernard. "Introduction to George Orwell", Nineteen Eighty-Three (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
  10. ^ Barnhill is located at 56° 06' 39" N 5° 41' 30" W (British national grid reference system NR705970)
  11. ^ Timothy Garton Ash: "Orwell's List" in "The New York Review of Books", Number 14, 25 September 2003
  12. ^ "George Orwell's Widow; Edited Husband's Works", Associated Press, December 12, 1980, Friday. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. "London, Friday, Dec. 12 (Associated Press) Sonia Orwell, widow of the writer George Orwell, died here yesterday, The Times of London reported today. The newspaper gave no details." 
  13. ^ George Orwell, "Politics and the English Language," 1946
  14. ^ Letter to Gleb Struve, 17th February 1944, Orwell: Essays, Journalism and Letters Vol 3, ed Sonia Brownell and Ian Angus
  15. ^ http://orwell.ru/library/novels/Burmese_Days/english/e_mm_int
  16. ^ http://www.hoover.org/publications/uk/2939606.html
  17. ^ http://orwell.ru/library/reviews/kipling/english/e_rkip
  18. ^ "Orwell and the secret state: close encounters of a strange kind?", by Richard Keeble, Media Lens, Monday, October 10, 2005.
  19. ^ Cyril Connolly Enemies of Promise 1938 ISBN0-233-97936-0
  20. ^ Jacintha Buddicom Eric and Us Frewin 1974.
  21. ^ George Orwell: A Life, Bernard Crick, p.480
  22. ^ George Orwell: A Life, Bernard Crick, p.502
  23. ^ George Orwell: A Life, Bernard Crick, p.504
  24. ^ Michael Shelden Orwell: The Authorised Biography Heinnemann 1991
  25. ^ T.R. Fyvel, A Case for George Orwell?, Twentieth Century, Sept. 1956, pp.257-8

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External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
George Orwell
  • George Orwell at Encyclopædia Britannica
  • George Orwell at the Internet Movie Database
  • The George Orwell Web Source - Essays, novels, reviews and exclusive images of Orwell.
  • "Is Bad Writing Necessary?" - An essay comparing Theodor Adorno and George Orwell's lives and writing styles. In Lingua Franca, (December/January 2000).
  • "Orwell's Burma", an essay in Time
  • Orwell's Century, Think Tank Transcript
  • Thesis statements and important quotes from the novel
  • Films based on Orwell's novels from Internet Movie Database
  • UK National Archives Reveal George Orwell watched by MI5
  • Lesson plans for Orwell's works at Web English Teacher
  • George Orwell at the Internet Book List
  • 'George Orwell: International Socialist?' by Peter Sedgwick
  • 'George Orwell: A literary Trotskyist?'
  • George Orwell in the World of Science Fiction
  • 'Collected Essays of George Orwell'
  • Works of George Orwell
  • Works by or about George Orwell in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
Persondata
NAME Orwell, George
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Blair, Eric Arthur
SHORT DESCRIPTION British author and journalist
DATE OF BIRTH June 25, 1903(1903-06-25)
PLACE OF BIRTH Motihari, Bihar, India
DATE OF DEATH January 21, 1950
PLACE OF DEATH London, England

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  Results from FactBites:
 
George Orwell - Complete works, Biography, Quotes, Essays (89 words)
George Orwell - Complete works, Biography, Quotes, Essays
This site contains the complete works of George Orwell, as well as a biography, pictures and famous quotes.
To submit any content, or to leave any feedback about the site, please contact me.
George Orwell Biography - A Biography of George Orwell (1512 words)
Orwell was shot in the neck (near Huesca) on May 20, 1937, an experience he described in his short essay "Wounded by a Fascist Sniper", as well as in Homage to Catalonia.
Orwell had returned from Catalonia a staunch anti-Stalinist and anti-Communist, but he remained to the end a man of the left and, in his own words, a 'democratic socialist'.
Orwell's concern over the power of language to shape reality is also reflected in his invention of Newspeak, the official language of the imaginary country of Oceania in his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.
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