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Encyclopedia > George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle
George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 16651666.

George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, Earl of Torrington, Baron Monck of Potheridge, Beauchamp And Teyes KG (6 December 16083 January 1670) was an English soldier and politician and a key figure in the restoration of Charles II. Download high resolution version (700x860, 77 KB)George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life... Download high resolution version (700x860, 77 KB)George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life... Sir Peter Lely (14 September 1618 - 30 November 1680) was a painter of Dutch origin. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...

Contents

Early life and career

He was born at Potheridge, near Torrington, in Devon, second son of Sir Thomas Monck, a gentleman of a good Devon family but in straitened financial circumstances. Having assaulted the under-sheriff of the county in revenge for a wrong done to his father, he was forced to go abroad. Becoming a soldier, he served as a volunteer in the expedition to Cádiz (1626), and the next year fought well at the siege of the Île de Ré (an abortive attempt to aid French Protestants in the city of La Rochelle). The old Town Hall (now the town museum) in the centre of Great Torrington. ... “Devonshire” redirects here. ... The term gentleman (from Latin gentilis, belonging to a race or gens, and man, cognate with the French word gentilhomme, the Spanish gentilhombre and the Italian gentil uomo or gentiluomo), in its original and strict signification, denoted a man of good family, the Latin generosus (its invariable translation in English... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... The quays at Saint Martin en Ré. ÃŽle de Ré (formerly also ÃŽle de Rhé; in English Isle of Rhé) is an island off the west coast of France near La Rochelle, on the northern side of the Pertuis dAntioche strait. ... La Rochelle is a city and commune of western France, and a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean (population 78,000 in 2004). ...


In 1629 Monck went to the Netherlands, then a centre of warfare, and there he gained a high reputation as a leader and a disciplinarian. In 1638 he threw up his commission in consequence of aborn quarrel with the civil authorities of Dordrecht, and returned to England. He obtained the lieutenant-colonelcy of Newport's regiment. The word leadership can refer to: the process of leading. ... Satellite image of part of the Rhine-Meuse delta, showing the Island of Dordrecht and the eponymous city (7) Dordrecht (population 119,649 (2004)), or in English: Dort, is a city in the Dutch province of South Holland, the third largest city of the province. ...


Service in the Royalist cause

During the operations on the Scottish border in the Bishops' Wars (16391640) he showed his skill and coolness in the dispositions by which he saved the English artillery at the Battle of Newburn (1640), though he had little ammunition. Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English (de facto)1; Gaelic[1]2 and Scots3 (recognised minority... The Bishops’ Wars—Bellum Episcopale—refers to two armed encounters between Charles I and the Scottish Covenanters in 1639 and 1640, which helped to set the stage for the English Civil War and the subsequent Wars of the Three Kingdoms // The Scottish Reformation in 1560 was intended to settle the... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... The Battle of Newburn took place in 1640 during the Bishops Wars. ...


At the outbreak of the Irish rebellion (1641) Monck became colonel of Lord Leicester's regiment under the command of Ormonde. All the qualities for which he was noted through life—his talent of making himself indispensable, his imperturbable temper and his impenetrable secrecy—were fully displayed in this post. The governorship of Dublin stood vacant, and Leicester appointed Monck. Irish Rebellion may refer to: The Geraldine Rebellion (1534) and the FitzGerald Rebellion against Henry VIII 1535 to 1537 to do with who was supreme head of the church[1] The Desmond Rebellions, that occurred in the 1560s, 1570s and 1580s in Munster. ... Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester (December 1, 1595 – November 2, 1677), was the son of Robert Sidney, 1st Earl of Leicester, and his first wife, Barbara Gamage. ... James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (October 19, 1610 – July 21, 1688), was an Anglo-Irish statesman and soldier. ... The Spire at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: 01, +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ...


Charles I, however, overruled the appointment in favour of Lord Lambart, and Monck with great shrewdness surrendered the appointment without protest. The Duke of Ormonde, however, viewed him with suspicion as one of two officers who refused to take the oath to support the Royal cause in England, and sent him under guard to Bristol. Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Charles Lambart, 1st Earl of Cavan (1600- 1660) was an MP for the rotten borough of Bossiney and a military commander. ... James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (October 19, 1610 – July 21, 1688), was an Anglo-Irish statesman and soldier. ... This article is about the English city. ...


Monck justified himself to Charles in person, and his astute criticisms of the conduct of the Irish war impressed the king, who gave him a command in the army brought over from Ireland during the English Civil War. Taken prisoner by the Roundheads at the Battle of Nantwich in 1644, he spent the next two years in the Tower. He spent his imprisonment writing his Observations on Military and Political Affairs. The Roundheads was the nickname given to supporters of the Parliamentarian cause in the English Civil War. ... The Battle of Nantwich designates a fight of the English Civil War between the forces of Parliament and of King Charles I to the northwest of the town of Nantwich in Cheshire on 26 January 1644 (some sources say 24 January). ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ...


Career under the republic

Monck's experience in Ireland, however, led to his release. He was made major general in the army sent by parliament against the Irish rebels. Making a distinction like other soldiers of the time[citation needed] between fighting the Irish and taking arms against the king, he accepted the offer and swore loyalty to the parliamentary cause. He made little headway against the Irish and concluded an armistice (called then a "convention") with the rebel leaders upon terms which he knew the parliament would not ratify[citation needed]. The convention was indeed a military expedient to deal with a military necessity, and although most of his army went over to the Royalist cause, he himself remained faithful to his employers and returned to England.


Although parliament, as expected, disavowed the terms of the truce, no blame was attached to Monck's recognition of military necessity. He next fought at Oliver Cromwell's side in Scotland at the Battle of Dunbar, a resounding victory. Made commander-in-chief in Scotland by Cromwell, Monck completed the subjugation of the country. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England, Scotland and Ireland into a republican Commonwealth and for the brutal war exercised in his conquest of Ireland. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English (de facto)1; Gaelic[1]2 and Scots3 (recognised minority... Cromwell at Dunbar, Andrew Carrick Gow The Battle of Dunbar (3 September 1650) was a battle of the Third English Civil War. ...


In February 1652 Monck left Scotland to recover his broken health at Bath, and in November of the same year he became a general at sea in the First Anglo-Dutch War, which ended in a decisive victory for the Commonwealth's fleet and marked the beginning of England's climb to supremacy over the Dutch at sea. Bath is a city in Somerset, England most famous for its baths fed by three hot springs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395...


On his return to shore Monck married Anne Clarges. Next year he returned to Scotland, methodically beating down a Royalist insurrection in the Highlands. At Cromwell's request, Monck remained in Scotland as governor. The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ...


In 1654, the timely discovery of a plot fomented by Robert Overton, his second in command, gave Monck an excuse for purging his army of all dissident religious elements, then called "enthusiasts", deemed "dangerous" to the Cromwell regime. Major General Robert Overton (abt 1609–1678) He was a Major General in the New Model Army. ...


In 1655 he received a letter from Charles II, a copy of which he at once sent to Cromwell, who is said to have written to Monck in 1657 in the following terms: "There be [those] that tell me that there is a certain cunning fellow in Scotland called George Monck, who is said to lye in wait there to introduce Charles Stuart; I pray you, use your diligence to apprehend him, and send him up to me." Monck's personal relations with Cromwell were those of sincere friendship on both sides. Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


Restoration of the monarchy

During the confusion which followed Cromwell's death on 3 September 1658, Monck remained silent and watchful at Edinburgh, careful only to secure his hold on his troops. At first he contemplated armed support of Richard Cromwell, but on realising the young man's incapacity for government, he gave up this idea and renewed his waiting policy. In July 1659 direct and tempting proposals were again made to him by the king. Monck's brother Nicholas, a clergyman, brought to him the substance of Charles's letter. He bade his brother go back to his books, and refused to entertain any proposal. No bribe could induce him to act one moment before the right time. is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... , Edinburgh (() pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second largest city. ... Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ...


That right time came when Gen. John Lambert declared against the Rump Parliament. On 23 October 1659, Monck at once took measures of active opposition to this repetition of Pride's Purge. John Lambert (1619 - 1684) served as an English Parliamentary general in the English Civil War. ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... Prides Purge was the occasion when troops under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the House of Commons all those who were not supporters of Oliver Cromwell. ...


Holding Lambert in play without fighting until Lambert's army began to melt away for want of pay, Monck received the commission of commander-in-chief of the parliamentary forces on 24 November 1659. He entered the capital on 3 February 1660. In all this his ultimate purpose remained mysterious. At one moment he secretly encouraged the demands of the Royalist City of London, at another he urged submission to the existing parliament, then again he refused to swear an oath abjuring the house of Stuart, and further he hinted to the Rump of the Long Parliament the urgent necessity of a dissolution. is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... The City of London is a geographically-small city within Greater London, England. ... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ...


He forced the dissolution of the Rump parliament, while at the same time breaking up, as a matter affecting discipline, the political camarillas that had formed in his own regiments. He was now master of the situation. A camarilla is a group of courtiers or favorites which surround a king or ruler. ...


Though he protested his adherence to republican principles, it was a matter of common knowledge that the new parliament would have a strong Royalist colour. Monck himself, now in communication with Charles II, accepted the latter's Declaration of Breda, which was largely based on Monck's recommendations. The new parliament met on 25 April 1660, and on 1 May voted the restoration of the monarchy. Breda in the Netherlands, where King Charles II of England resided during his exile, has given its name to his Declaration of Breda (1660). ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Soldier though he was, he had played the difficult game of politics in a fluid and uncertain situation with incomparable skill. That he was victor sin sanguine, i.e., "without blood", as the preamble of his patent of nobility stated, was generally applauded as the greatest service of all, especially after the violence of the Civil Wars.


Charles II's gratitude

Charles II rewarded Monck suitably for his services in restoring him to his throne. He was knighted, invested with the Order of the Garter, and made Master of the Horse in the King's household. Charles also raised him to the peerage with the titles of Baron Monck, Earl of Torrington and Duke of Albemarle, and he received a pension of £700 a year. The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... The Dukedom of Albemarle has been created twice in the Peerage of England, each time ending in extinction. ...


He entirely concurred in the disbandment of the Model Army, and only the regiment of which he was colonel, the Coldstream (Guards), survives to this day, one of the oldest military formations in the world and the last representing the army of the English Civil War. The Coldstream Guards is a regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division or Household Division. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ...


As a further token of Charles II's gratitude, in 1663 Monck was named one of eight Lords Proprietors given title to a huge tract of land in North America which became the Province of Carolina, the present-day American states of North and South Carolina. Year 1663 (MDCLXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Lord Proprietor was the gubernatorial title for the noble ruling proprietors of certain British proprietary colonies in North America, such as Maryland or Carolina. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Carolina Colony grants Haystack of 1663 and 1665 The Province of Carolina from 1663 to 1729, was a North American British colony. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35°12N...


End of career

His last military services to England were rendered in the Second Anglo-Dutch War when he was appointed commander-in-chief of the English fleet. [1] The Royal Prince and other vessels at the Four Days Fight, 11–14 June 1666 by Abraham Storck depicts a battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ...


After that war's dismal conclusion,[2] he returned to private life (although he officially served as First Lord of the Treasury). He died of edema on 3 January 1670, "like a Roman general with all his officers about him".[citation needed] He is buried in Westminster Abbey. The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not always the Prime Minister. ... This page is about the condition called oedema. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


His dukedom became extinct on the death of his son Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle (16531688). Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle (14 August 1653 - 6 October 1688) was an English statesman and failed soldier. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Monck, George [ "Monck, George, 1st Duke Of Albemarle, Earl Of Torrington, Baron Monck Of Potheridge, Beauchamp And Teyes." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 18 Sept. 2006 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9053325>]
  2. ^ The Age of Louis XIV Will and Ariel Durant, 1963

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Life of Monk, by Dr Gumble, his chaplain (London, 1671)
  • Life of George Monck by Charles Harding Firth, ©1894
  • George Monck and the Restoration: Victory without Bloodshed by Ted Jamison ISBN 0-912646-04-7
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Interregnum
Custos Rotulorum of Devon
1660–1670
Succeeded by
The Earl of Bath
Preceded by
Interregnum
Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex
1662–1670
Succeeded by
The Earl of Craven
Political offices
Preceded by
Edmund Ludlow
(Lord Deputy)
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
1660–1662
Succeeded by
The Duke of Ormonde
Preceded by
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
Master of the Horse
1660–1668
Succeeded by
The Duke of Buckingham
Preceded by
The Earl of Southampton
(Lord High Treasurer)
First Lord of the Treasury
1667–1670
Succeeded by
The Lord Clifford of Chudleigh
(Lord High Treasurer)
Peerage of England
Preceded by
New Creation
Duke of Albemarle
1660–1670
Succeeded by
Christopher Monck

  Results from FactBites:
 
George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1948 words)
George Monk or Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle (6 December 1608 3 January 1670), second son of Sir Thomas Monk, a gentleman of good family but in embarrassed circumstances, was born at Potheridge, near Torrington, in Devon.
Monck was, however, soon taken prisoner, at Nantwich (1644), and spent the next two years in the Tower, where he found it difficult to live owing to his want of means.
In 1663, the Duke of Albemarle was one of eight Lords Proprietors given title to a huge tract of land in North America which became the Province of Carolina.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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