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Encyclopedia > George Marshall
General of the Army George C. Marshall, U.S. Army
December 31, 1880October 16, 1959 (aged 78)
George Marshall
Place of birth Uniontown, Pennsylvania
Place of death Washington, D.C.
Allegiance United States of America
Years of service 1901–1945
Rank General of the Army
Commands Army Chief of Staff
Battles/wars Philippines,
World War I,
World War II
Awards Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star
Other work Secretary of State; Secretary of Defense

George Catlett Marshall, Jr. (December 31, 1880October 16, 1959) was an American military leader, Secretary of State, and the third Secretary of Defense. Once noted as the "organizer of victory" by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II, Marshall supervised the U.S. Army during the war and was the chief military advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. As Secretary of State he gave his name to the Marshall Plan, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953. This article is about the United States Army rank General of the Army. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (891x1350, 426 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): George Marshall Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Uniontown is a city in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, 50 miles (80 km) south by east of Pittsburgh. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... General of the Army is a military rank used in some countries of the world to denote a senior military leader, usually a General in command of a nations Army. ... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the professional head of the United States Army who is responsible for ensuring readiness of the Army. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Distinguished Service Medal is a military award of the United States Army which is presented to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States military, has distinguished himself or herself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility. ... The Silver Star is the fourth highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of any branch of the United States Armed Forces. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... George Marshall (1880–1959) was an American General and Secretary of State. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... Churchill redirects here. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... FDR redirects here. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...

Contents

Early life

George C. Marshall was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. Marshall was a scion of an old Virginia family and a distant relation of Chief Justice John Marshall. Marshall graduated from the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), where he was initiated into the Kappa Alpha Order, in 1901. Uniontown is a city in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, 50 miles (80 km) south by east of Pittsburgh. ... For other persons named John Marshall, see John Marshall (disambiguation). ... The Virginia Military Institute (VMI), located in Lexington, Virginia, is the oldest state military college in the United States. ... The Kappa Alpha Order (KA) is a secret collegiate Order of Knights. ...


World War I

Following graduation from VMI, Marshall was commissioned a Second Lieutenant the U.S. Army. Until World War I, he was posted to various positions in the US and the Philippines, and was trained in modern warfare. During the war, he had roles as a planner of both training and operations. He went to France in the summer of 1917 as the director of training and planning for the 1st Infantry Division. In mid-1918, he was promoted to American Expeditionary Forces headquarters, where he worked closely with his mentor General John J. Pershing and was a key planner of American operations. He was instrumental in the design and coordination of the Meuse-Argonne offensive, which contributed to the defeat of the German Army on the Western Front. The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... The 1st Infantry Division of the United States Army —nicknamed “The Big Red One” after its shoulder patch—is the oldest continuously serving division in the United States Army. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... Combatants United States German Empire Commanders John J. Pershing Georg von der Marwitz Strength American Expeditionary Force German Fifth Army Casualties 26,277 killed 95,786 wounded 122,066 total 28,000 killed 92,250 wounded 120,250 total The Meuse-Argonne Offensive was the final offensive of World War... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


Between WWI and the Eve of World War II

In 1919, he became an aide-de-camp to General John J. Pershing. Between 1920 and 1924, while Pershing was Army Chief of Staff, Marshall worked in a number of positions in the US Army, focusing on training and teaching modern, mechanized warfare. Between WWI and World War II, he was a key planner and writer in the War Department, spent three years in China, and taught at the Army War College. From June 1932 - June 1933 he was the Commanding Officer at Fort Screven, Savannah Beach, Georgia, now named Tybee Island. In 1934, then-Col. Marshall directed the publication of Infantry in Battle. a book that codified the lessons of World War I. Infantry in Battle is still used as an officer's training manual in the Infantry Officer's Course, and was the training manual for most of the infantry officers and leaders of World War II. John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... Line drawing of the Department of Wars seal. ... Aerial View of Tybee Island Tybee Island is a city located in Chatham County, Georgia near the city of Savannah, Georgia. ...


World War II

Marshall with Secretary of War Henry Stimson
Marshall with Secretary of War Henry Stimson

Marshall was promoted to Brigadier General in October 1936. Nominated by President Franklin Roosevelt to be Army Chief of Staff, Marshall was promoted to full General and sworn in on September 1, 1939, the day German forces invaded Poland, which began World War II. He would hold this post until the end of the war in 1945. Image File history File links George_marshall&henry_stimson. ... Image File history File links George_marshall&henry_stimson. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 - October 20, 1950) was an American politician. ... FDR redirects here. ... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the professional head of the United States Army who is responsible for ensuring readiness of the Army. ... Lieutenant General, General, General of the Army, General of the Air Force, and General of the Armies of the United States are high ranks in the United States military. ...


As Chief of Staff, Marshall oversaw the largest military expansion in U. S. history, inheriting an outmoded, poorly equipped army of 200,000 men and, partly drawing from his experience teaching and developing techniques of modern warfare as an instructor at the Army War College, coordinated the large-scale expansion and modernization of the U. S. army into a force of over eight million soldiers by 1942 (a fortyfold increase within three years).


On December 16, 1944, Marshall became the first American general to be promoted to 5 star rank, the newly created General of the Army. He was the second American to be promoted to a 5 star rank, as William Leahy was promoted to Fleet Admiral the previous day. This position is the American equivalent rank to Field Marshal. Marshall once joked that he was glad the U.S. never created a Field Marshal rank during World War II, since he would then have to be addressed as Marshal Marshall. [citation needed] is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An officer of 5 star rank is a very senior commander in any of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-10. ... General of the Army is a military rank used in some countries of the world to denote a senior military leader, usually a General in command of a nations Army. ... William Leahy, circa 1945 William Daniel Leahy (May 6, 1875 - July 20, 1959) was an American naval officer and the first such officer ever to hold the rank of Fleet Admiral and the first ever to hold five-star rank in the U.S. armed forces. ... A Fleet Admiral in the United States Navy is an Admiral considered the equivalent of the United States Armys General of the Army. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ...


During World War II, Marshall was instrumental in getting the U.S. Army and Army Air Corps reorganized and ready for combat. Marshall wrote the document that would become the central strategy for all Allied operations in Europe, selected Dwight Eisenhower as Supreme Commander in Europe, and designed Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy. His success in working with Congress and President Franklin D. Roosevelt, along with his refusal to lobby for the position, ultimately resulted in his being passed over as the Supreme Allied Commander in charge of the D-Day invasion. At the time, the President told him: "I couldn't sleep nights, George, if you were out of Washington." Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Supreme Allied Commander is the title given to the most senior commander of some multinational organisations. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ...


Throughout the remainder of World War II, Marshall coordinated Allied operations in Europe and the Pacific. He was characterized as the organizer of Allied victory by Winston Churchill. Time Magazine named Marshall Man of the Year in 1944. Marshall resigned his post of Chief of Staff in 1945, but did not retire, as regulations stipulate that Generals of the Army remain on active duty for life. Churchill redirects here. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could...


Post War: China and Secretary of State

George C. Marshall

In office
21 January 1947 – 20 January 1949
President Harry S. Truman
Preceded by James F. Byrnes
Succeeded by Dean Acheson

In office
21 September 1950 – 12 September 1951
President Harry S. Truman
Preceded by Louis A. Johnson
Succeeded by Robert A. Lovett

Born December 31, 1880(1880-12-31)
Died October 16, 1959
Political party Democratic
Religion Episcopalian[1]

In December 1945, Truman sent Marshall to China to broker a coalition government between the Communists under Mao Zedong and America's Nationalist allies under Chiang Kai-shek. Marshall had no leverage over the Communists, but threatened to withdraw American aid essential to the Nationalists. Both sides rejected his proposals and the Chinese Civil War escalated, with the Communists winning in 1948. His mission a failure, he returned in January of 1947.[2] As Secretary of State in 1947-48, Marshall seems to have disagreed with strong opinions in the Pentagon and State department that Chiang's success was vital to American interests, insisting that U.S. troops not become involved. Seal of the United States Department of State. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina. ... Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer; as United States Secretary of State in the late 1940s he played the central role in defining American foreign policy for the Cold War. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Louis Arthur Johnson (January 10, 1891 - April 24, 1966) was the second United States Secretary of Defense, serving in the cabinet of President Harry S. Truman from March 28, 1949 to September 19, 1950. ... Robert A. Lovett Robert Abercrombie Lovett (14 September 1895 - 7 May 1986) was the fourth United States Secretary of Defense, serving in the cabinet of President Harry S. Truman from 1951 to 1953 and in this capacity, directed the Korean War. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... This article is about the Episcopal Church in the United States. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Mao redirects here. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War...


On his return in early 1947, Truman appointed Marshall Secretary of State. He became the spokesman for the State Department's ambitious plans to rebuild Europe. On June 5, 1947 at a speech at Harvard University, he outlined the American plan. The European Recovery Plan, which became known as the Marshall Plan, would help Europe quickly rebuild and modernize its economy on American lines. Truman wanted to call the plan the Truman Plan, but was warned that the plan would sink before it took off if named that. Truman thought of the idea to call it the Marshall Plan. The Soviet Union forbade its satellites to participate. Seal of the United States Department of State. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ...


Marshall was again named TIME's Man of the Year in 1948, and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953. As Secretary of State, Marshall strongly opposed recognizing the State of Israel, telling President Truman, "If you (recognize the state of Israel) and if I were to vote in the election, I would vote against you." [1][2] In 1949, he resigned from the State Department and was named president of the American National Red Cross. Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Department of State redirects here. ... A WWII-era poster encouraged American women to volunteer for the Red Cross as part of the war effort. ...


Secretary of Defense; attacked by McCarthy

When the early months of the Korean War showed how poorly prepared the Defense Department was, Truman fired Secretary Louis A. Johnson and named Marshall as Secretary of Defense in September 1950. His main role was to restore confidence. He served in that post for less than one year, retiring from politics for good in September 1951. In 1953, he represented America at the coronation of Elizabeth II. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Louis Arthur Johnson (January 10, 1891 - April 24, 1966) was the second United States Secretary of Defense, serving in the cabinet of President Harry S. Truman from March 28, 1949 to September 19, 1950. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...


On June 14, 1951, as the Korean war stalemated in heavy fighting between American and Chinese forces, Republican Senator Joe McCarthy attacked. He charged that Marshall was directly responsible for the "loss of China," as China turned from friend to enemy.[3] McCarthy said the only way to explain why the U.S. "fell from our position as the most powerful Nation on earth at the end of World War II to a position of declared weakness by our leadership" was because of "a conspiracy so immense and an infamy so black as to dwarf any previous such venture in the history of man."[4] McCarthy said that "If Marshall were merely stupid, the laws of probability would dictate that part of his decisions would serve this country's interest." McCarthy argued that General Albert Coady Wedemeyer had prepared a wise plan that would keep China a valued ally, but that it had been sabotaged; "only in treason can we find why evil genius thwarted and frustrated it." [5] McCarthy suggested that Marshall was old and feeble and easily duped; he did not charge Marshall with treason. Specifically McCarthy alleged: Joseph McCarthy This article is about the American politician. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

"When Marshall was sent to China with secret State Department orders, the Communists at that time were bottled up in two areas and were fighting a losing battle, but that because of those orders the situation was radically changed in favor of the Communists. Under those orders, as we know, Marshall embargoed all arms and ammunition to our allies in China. He forced the opening of the Nationalist-held Kalgan Mountain pass into Manchuria, to the end that the Chinese Communists gained access to the mountains of captured Japanese equipment. No need to tell the country about how Marshall tried to force Chiang Kai-shek to form a partnership government with the Communists."[6]

Public opinion became bitterly divided along party lines on Marshall's record. In 1952, Eisenhower while campaigning for president denounced the Truman administration's failures in Korea, campaigned alongside McCarthy, and refused to defend Marshall's policies.[7]


Marshall died on Friday October 16, 1959. Marshall's achievements were on a grand scale. Like Eisenhower, he is recognized as a great American soldier despite never actually seeing combat. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery. is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Family life

He married Elizabeth Carter Cole of Lexington, Virginia, in 1902. She died in 1927. In 1930, he married Katherine Boyce Tupper. George Marshall maintained a home, known as Dodona Manor (now restored), in Leesburg, Virginia. Lexington is an independent city within the confines of Rockbridge County in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Leesburg is a historic town and is the county seat of Loudoun County, Virginia, United States of America. ...


Bibliography

  • Cray, Ed. General of the Army: George C. Marshall, Soldier and Statesman. Norton, 1990. 847 pp.
  • Harold I. Gullan; "Expectations of Infamy: Roosevelt and Marshall Prepare for War, 1938-41." Presidential Studies Quarterly Volume: 28#3 1998. pp 510+ online edition
  • May, Ernest R. "1947-48: When Marshall Kept the U.S. out of War in China." Journal of Military History 2002 66(4): 1001-1010. Issn: 0899-3718 Fulltext: in Swetswise and in Jstor
  • Levine, Steven I. "A New Look at American Mediation in the Chinese Civil War: the Marshall Mission and Manchuria." Diplomatic History 1979 3(4): 349-375. Issn: 0145-2096
  • Parrish, Thomas. Roosevelt and Marshall: Partners in Politics and War. 1989. 608 pp.
  • Steele, Richard W. The First Offensive, 1942: Roosevelt, Marshall, and the Making of American Strategy. 1973. 239 pp.
  • Mark C. Stoler, George C. Marshall: Soldier-Statesman of the American Century. (1989) 252pp
  • Forrest Pogue, Viking, (1963–87) Four-volume authorized biography: complete text is online

Forrest C. Pogue (1912 – 1996) was an official US Army historian during World War II. He was a proponet of oral history techniques, and collected many oral histories from the war. ...

Primary Sources

  • The Papers of George Catlett Marshall: (Larry I. Bland and Sharon Ritenour Stevens, eds.)

Vol. 1: The Soldierly Spirit," December 1880-June 1939. (1981) Vol. 2: "We Cannot Delay," July 1, 1939-December 6, 1941. (1986) Vol. 3: The Right Man for the Job, December 7, 1941-May 31, 1943. (1991) Vol. 4: "Aggressive and Determined Leadership," June 1, 1943-December 31, 1944. (1996) Vol. 5: "The Finest Soldier," January 1, 1945-January 7, 1947. (2003)

  • Bland, Larry; Jeans, Roger B.; and Wilkinson, Mark, ed. George C. Marshall's Mediation Mission to China, December 1945-January 1947. Lexington, Va.: George C. Marshall Found., 1998. 661 pp.
  • Marshall, George C. George C. Marshall: Interviews and Reminiscences for Forrest C. Pogue. Lexington, Va.: George C. Marshall Found., 1991. 698 pp. online edition
  • George Catlett Marshall. Memoirs of My Services in the World War, 1917-1918 (1976)
  • Greg Behrman. The Most Noble Adventure: The Marshall Plan and the Time When America Helped Save Europe Free Press, 2007.

Dates of rank

Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... First Lieutenant is a military rank. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... The National Army was the combined conscript and volunteer force that was was formed by the United States War Department in 1918 to fight in World War I. The National Army was formed from the old corps of the United States Army, augmented by units of the United States National... Lieutenant Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces which is currently used by the United States Army, United States Air Force, United States Marine Corps, and United States National Guard. ... Please see Colonel for other countries which use this rank Insignia of a United States Colonel Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces. ... The Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army or any Countrys army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the professional head of the United States Army who is responsible for ensuring readiness of the Army. ... This article is about the United States Army rank General of the Army. ... The Army of the United States is the official name for the conscription (U.S. term: draft) force of the United States Army that may be raised at the discretion of the United States Congress in the event of the United States entering into a major armed conflict. ...

Awards and decorations

U. S. military honors

This article concerns the United States Army Distinguished Service Medal. ... Bronze and Silver oak leaf clusters An Oak leaf cluster is a common device which is placed on military awards and decorations to denote those who have received more than one bestowal of a particular decoration. ... The Silver Star is the fourth highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of any branch of the United States Armed Forces. ... Army and Navy versions of the Philippine Campaign Medal The Philippine Campaign Medal is a military decoration of the United States Armed Forces which was created to denote service of U.S. military members in the Philippine-American War between the years of 1898 and 1913. ... The World War I Victory Medal is a decoration of the United States military which was first created in 1919. ... Campaign Clasp Examples A Campaign clasp is an attachment to a military award consisting of a metal bar which is pinned to the upper cloth portion of an award medal. ... The Army of Occupation of Germany Medal is a decoration of the United States military which was created by an act of the United States Congress on November 21, 1941. ... The American Defense Service Medal is a decoration of the United States military which was created in 1941 by Executive Order of President Franklin Roosevelt. ... American Campaign Medal The American Campaign Medal was a decoration of the United States military which was first created in 1942 by order of President Franklin Roosevelt. ... WWII Victory Medal The World War II Victory Medal is a decoration of the United States military which was created by an act of Congress in July 1945. ... Ribbon for the National Defense Service Medal The National Defense Service Medal is a military decoration of the United States military originally commissioned by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ...

Foreign military honors

Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... French Legion of Honor The Légion dhonneur (in Legion of Honor (AmE) or Legion of Honour (ComE)) is an Order of Chivalry awarded by the President of France. ... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ... The Order of Suvorov, named after Aleksandr Suvorov, was established on July 29, 1942 during World War II. The medal was created to award army personnel for exceptional duty in combat operations. ... The Order of Military Merit is an Order (decoration) issued by Canada to members of the Canadian Forces whom have demonstrated dedication and devotion beyond the call of duty. ... Order of Ouissam Alaouite in the grade of Officer The Order of Ouissam Alaouite is a military decoration of Morocco which is bestowed upon those civilians and military officers who have displayed heroism in combat or have contributed meritorious service to the Moroccan state. ... The Order of George I was formally a Order of Greece named after King George I of Greece. ... The badge of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus. ...

Civilian honors

  • In 1948, he was awarded the Distinguished Achievement Award for his role and contributions during and after World War II.
  • Nobel Peace Prize 1953 for the Marshall Plan
  • 1959 Karlspreis (International Charlemagne Prize of the city of Aachen)
  • The British Parliament established the Marshall Scholarship in recognition of Marshall's contributions to Anglo-American relations.
  • Many building and streets throughout the U.S. and other nations are named in his honor.
  • George C. Marshall Award, the highest award given to a chapter in Kappa Alpha Order
  • George C. Marshall High School, founded in 1962 and located in Falls Church, Virginia, is the only public school in the United States named for Marshall. The nickname of the school -- "The Statesmen" -- appropriately reflects his life and contributions.

Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Bill Clinton received the Karlspreis in 2000. ... The official logo of the Marshall Scholarship is a blended image of the US and UK flags. ...

Quotations

  • "We are determined that before the sun sets on this terrible struggle, Our Flag will be recognized throughout the World as a symbol of Freedom on the one hand and of overwhelming force on the other." -- George Marshall (May 29, 1942, Papers of George Catlett Marshall, Vol 3 pp. 212-14.) [3]
  • "There is no limit to the amount of good you can do if you don't care who gets the credit." -- George Marshall [4]
  • "I couldn't sleep nights, George, if you were out of Washington." -Franklin D. Roosevelt, reported by Henry Stimson, 1943
  • “...what a joy it must be to [Marshall] to see how the armies he called into being by his own genius have won immortal renown. He is the true 'organizer of victory.’” Winston Churchill, 1945
  • "A man devoted to the daily study of war on several continents with all the ardour of a certified public accountant." - Alistair Cooke, 1959
  • "Hitherto I had thought of Marshall as a rugged soldier and a magnificent organizer and builder of armies - the American Carnot. But now I saw that he was a statesman with a penetrating and commanding view of the whole scene." - Winston Churchill

FDR redirects here. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 - October 20, 1950) was an American politician. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Alistair Cooke should not be confused with Alastair Cook, English cricketer. ... Lazare Carnot Comte Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot (May 13, 1753—August 2, 1823) was a French politician, engineer, and mathematician. ... Churchill redirects here. ...

References

  1. ^ Entry at www.arlingtoncemetery.net
  2. ^ Mark A. Stoler, George C. Marshall (1989) 145-51; Tang Tsou, America's Failure in China, 1941-50 (1963).
  3. ^ The speech was published as a 169-page booklet, America's Retreat from Victory: The Story of George Catlett Marshall (1951).
  4. ^ Joe McCarthy, Major Speeches and Debates (1951) p. 215
  5. ^ McCarthy, Major Speeches and Debates (1951) pp. 264.
  6. ^ McCarthy, Major Speeches p. 191, from speech of March 14, 1951; see also Thomas C. Reeves, The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy (1982) pp 371-74.
  7. ^ Reeves, McCarthy 437-8

See also

Saving Private Ryan is a 1998 Academy-Award-winning film set in World War II, directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Robert Rodat. ... Aerial view of the test area at Marshall Space Flight Center The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a lead NASA center for propulsion, Space Shuttle propulsion, external fuel tank, crew training and payloads, International Space Station (ISS) design and construction, for computers, networks, and information management. ... George C. Marshall with Mao in Yenan. ... The George C. Marshall Foundation, located in Lexington, Virginia, is a library, archive, and museum dedicated to honor the memory and work of George Catlett Marshall. ... The German Marshall Fund of the United States (GMF) is a non-partisan American public policy and grantmaking institution dedicated to promoting greater cooperation and understanding between the United States and Europe. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... USS (SSBN-654), a Benjamin Franklin-class ballistic missile submarine, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for General of the Army George C. Marshall. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
George Marshall
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George Marshall
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George Marshall
Preceded by
Malin Craig
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
1939-1945
Succeeded by
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Preceded by
James F. Byrnes
United States Secretary of State
Served Under: Harry S. Truman

1947 – 1949
Succeeded by
Dean Acheson
Preceded by
Louis A. Johnson
United States Secretary of Defense
Served Under: Harry S. Truman

1950 – 1951
Succeeded by
Robert A. Lovett
Preceded by
Joseph Stalin
Time's Man of the Year
1943
Succeeded by
Dwight Eisenhower
Preceded by
James F. Byrnes
Time's Man of the Year
1947
Succeeded by
Harry Truman

  Results from FactBites:
 
George Marshall - MSN Encarta (388 words)
George Marshall (1880-1959), American military commander, army chief of staff during World War II; as secretary of state (1947-49) he played an important role in aiding the postwar economic recovery of Western Europe.
George Catlett Marshall was born on December 31, 1880, in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, and was educated at Virginia Military Institute.
Marshall taught in various army schools and organizations from 1927 to 1936, when he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general.
George Marshall (1573 words)
Marshall has never developed any reputation at all among film critics; he might as well be completely invisible in histories of American film.
Marshall, and his audiences, have enormous sympathy for most of the characters in the films.
Marshall's talents seem to lie largely in the comic area, and his crime films are less successful.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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