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Encyclopedia > George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney

George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney, KB (14 May 1737 - 31 May 1806) was a British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat. Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Biography

George Macartney was descended from an old Scottish family, the Macartneys of Auchinleck, who had settled in 1649 at Lissanoure, near Loughguile, Ballymoney, County Antrim, Ireland, where he was born. After graduating from Trinity College, Dublin, in 1759, he became a student of the Temple, London. Through Stephen Fox, elder brother of Charles James Fox, he was taken up by Lord Holland. This article is about the country. ... Auchinleck (sometimes pronounced Affleck) is a town with a population of ca. ... Loughguile is a small village in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, 13km to the east of Ballymoney. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 55. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Antrim Area: 2,844 km² Population (est. ... For other institutions named Trinity College, see Trinity College. ... Stephen Fox, 2nd Baron Holland and 2nd Baron Holland Foxley (20 February 1745–26 December 1774) was briefly a British peer. ... Statue of Charles James Fox in Bloomsbury Square, erected 1816. ... Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, (28 September 1705-1 July 1774) was an English statesman. ...


Appointed envoy extraordinary to Russia in 1764, he succeeded in negotiating with Catherine II an alliance between England and that country. After occupying a seat in the English parliament, he was returned in 1769 to the Irish House of Commons as MP for Armagh Borough, in order to discharge the duties of Chief Secretary for Ireland. On resigning this office he was knighted. Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until her death. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For the other body sometimes called the Irish House of Commons, see House of Commons of Southern Ireland. ... The Irish House of Commons Members of the lower House of the Irish Parliament, the Irish House of Commons, were like their British counterparts known as Members of Parliament. ... Armagh Borough (also known as Armagh City) was a constituency represented in the Irish House of Commons from 1613 to 1800. ... The Chief Secretary was the most important position for determining British policy in Ireland after the Lord Lieutenant, and was frequently a cabinet level position in the 19th and early twentieth centuries. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ...


In 1775 he became governor of the Caribbean Islands was created Baron Macartney in the Peerage of Ireland in 1776, and became governor of Madras (now known as Chennai) in 1780. He declined the governor-generalship of India, and returned to England in 1786. This is a list of inhabited islands in the Caribbean. ... The Peerage of Ireland the term used for those peers created by British monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland. ... , “Madras” redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


After being created Earl Macartney in the Irish peerage (1792), he was appointed the first envoy of Britain to China. He led the Macartney Embassy to Beijing in 1793 with a large British delegation on board of a 64-gun man-of-war. He met the Emperor Qianlong, despite his famous refusal to kowtow and insult over a jade gift (which Macartney referred to as a worthless rock), but failed in negotiating the British requests: The Macartney Embassy, also called the Macartney Mission, was a British embassy to China in 1793. ... Peking redirects here. ... The Qianlong Emperor (September 25, 1711–February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... Kowtowing Kowtow, from the Chinese term kòu tóu (Cantonese: kau tàuh) (叩頭), is the act of deep respect shown by kneeling and bowing so low as to touch the head to the ground. ...

  • the relaxation of the restrictions on trade between Britain and China
  • the acquisition by Britain of "a small unfortified island near Chusan for the residence of English traders, storage of goods, and outfitting of ships"
  • the establishment of a permanent British embassy in Beijing

The policies of the Thirteen Factories remained. The embassy returned to Britain in 1794. Zhoushan (舟山; formerly transliterated as Chusan) is the only prefecture-level city consisted solely of islands in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Thirteen Factories or Thirteen Hong (十三行) is an area of Canton City, China where the first foreign trade was allowed in the 18th century. ...


On his return from a confidential mission to Italy (1795) he was raised to the British peerage as Baron Macartney, and in the end of 1796 was appointed governor of the newly acquired territory of the Cape Colony, where he remained until ill health compelled him to resign in November 1798. He died at Chiswick, Middlesex, on May 31, 1806, the title becoming extinct, and his property, after the death of his widow (Lady Jane Stuart, daughter of the 3rd Earl of Bute; they were married in 1768), going to his niece, whose son took the name. Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... For other uses, see Chiswick (disambiguation). ... The Middlesex Guildhall at Westminster Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and was the second smallest (after Rutland). ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (May 25, 1713 - March 10, 1792), was a Scottish nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain (1762-1763) under George III. A close relative of the Campbell clan (his mother was a daughter of the First Duke of Argyll), Bute succeeded to...


See also

William Pitt Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst and 2nd Baron Amherst (1773 - 1857), was Governor-General of India. ... Illustration depicting A.E. van Braam Houckgeest as he assists in the Titsingh embassy to the Qianlong Emperors Court -- 1795 Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest (born 1 November 1739 in Werkhoven, died 8 July 1801 in Amsterdam) Dutch-American merchant who is mostly known for his participation in the...

References

  • Two members of the embassy to China published detailed accounts:
    • An account of Macartney's embassy to China, by Sir George Leonard Staunton, was published in 1797, and has been frequently reprinted.
    • Some Account of the Public Life, and a Selection from the Unpublished Writings, of the Earl of Macartney, by Sir John Barrow, appeared in 1807 by London: T. Cadell and W. Davies.
  • See also Mrs Helen Macartney Robbins's biography, Our First Ambassador to China: : An Account of the Life of George, Earl of Macartney (1908), based on previously unpublished materials in possession of the family.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
The Earl of Buckinghamshire
Ambassador from the United Kingdom to Russia
1764–1766
Succeeded by
Hans Stanley
Preceded by
Hans Stanley
Ambassador from the United Kingdom to Russia
1767–1768
Succeeded by
The Lord Cathcart
Political offices
Preceded by
The Lord Frederick Campbell
Chief Secretary for Ireland
1769–1772
Succeeded by
Sir John Blaquiere
Government offices
New creation Governor of the Cape Colony
1797–1798
Succeeded by
Francis Dundas, acting
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
New Creation
Baron Macartney
1776–1806
Succeeded by
Extinct
Earl Macartney
1792–1806
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baron Macartney
1795–1806
Extinct

  Results from FactBites:
 
George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (424 words)
George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney (14 May 1737 - 31 May 1806) was a British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat.
George Macartney was descended from an old Scottish family, the Macartneys of Auchinleck, who had settled in 1649 at Lissanoure, County Antrim, Ireland, where he was born.
After being created Earl Macartney in the Irish peerage (1792), he was appointed the first envoy of Britain to China.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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