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Encyclopedia > George Lincoln Rockwell
George Lincoln Rockwell

Born March 9, 1918(1918-03-09)
Bloomington, Illinois, U.S.
Died August 25, 1967 (aged 49)
Arlington, Virginia, U.S.

George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918August 25, 1967) was a United States Navy Commander and founder of the American Nazi Party.[1] Rockwell was a major figure in the Neo-Nazi movement in post-war United States, and his beliefs and writings have continued to be influential among white nationalists and neo-Nazis. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links GLRockwell. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... United States Illinois McLean 22. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Naval redirects here. ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... GOP redirects here. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... // White nationalism (WN) advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of national identity, as opposed to multiculturalism. ...


Early life

Rockwell was born in Bloomington, Illinois, the oldest of three children. His father, George Lovejoy "Doc" Rockwell, was of English and Scottish descent, and his mother, Claire Schade Rockwell's was German and French. Both parents were vaudeville comedians and actors. Some of his father's acquaintances included Fred Allen, Benny Goodman, Walter Winchell, Jack Benny, and Groucho Marx.[2] Rockwell later claimed he acquired his public speaking skills due to his upbringing. His parents were divorced when Rockwell was six, and this led to him spending his youth partly with his mother's family in Atlantic City, New Jersey, and partly with his father's family in Boothbay Harbor, Maine. Here, he developed a passion for sailing and fishing. United States Illinois McLean 22. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country or nation and former independent kingdom of northwest Europe, and one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the musical variety theatre. ... For the documentary about Jerry Seinfeld, see Comedian (film). ... For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... He has eyes like Venetian blinds and a tongue like an adder — radio/television critic John Crosby about humourist Fred Allen, portrayed here by caricaturist Al Hirschfeld. ... Benny Goodman, born Benjamin David Goodman[1] , (May 30, 1909 – June 13, 1986) was an American jazz musician and virtuoso clarinetist, known as King of Swing, Patriarch of the Clarinet, The Professor, and Swings Senior Statesman. // Goodman was born in Chicago, the ninth of twelve children of poor Jewish... Walter Winchell (April 7, 1897 – February 20, 1972), an American newspaper and radio commentator, invented the gossip column at the New York Evening Graphic. ... Jack Benny (February 14, 1894 in Chicago, Illinois – December 26, 1974 in Beverly Hills, California), born Benjamin Kubelsky, was an American comedian, vaudeville performer, and radio, television, and film actor. ... Groucho redirects here. ... Alternate meanings: See Atlantic City (disambiguation) Atlantic City is a city located in USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 40,517. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Boothbay Harbor is a town located in Lincoln County, Maine. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...

Rockwell applied to Harvard but failed to get in. After a year, his father sent him to a boarding school, Hebron Academy, near Lewiston, Maine. Here he began to read philosophy and socially significant novels, leading him to re-examine the topic of religion. Previously, he had thought of himself as being highly religious, but after rereading the Bible, he declared himself to be an agnostic. Later, he began to see religion not as an opiate of the masses, but as a necessary pillar of civilization. He contemplated the possibility of a "total intelligence" existing somewhere in the universe, and thought that a better description of his views was agnostic. Years later, he promoted the racist Christian Identity sect. Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ... Hebron Academy is a private, co-ed, college preparatory boarding school located in the small town of Hebron, Maine. ... The city of Lewiston to the right, with the twin-city of Auburn on the left. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the literary concept. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ... For other uses see Opiate (disambiguation), or for the class of drugs see Opioid. ... Central New York City. ... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without, and gnosticism or gnosis, meaning knowledge) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims—particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality—is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism... // For the general identity of an individual with certain core essential religious doctrines, see Christianity. ... This article is about religious groups. ...

In 1938, Rockwell entered Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island and majored in philosophy. In his sociology courses at Brown, Rockwell rejected equality and the idea that man was made by his environment or that all human beings had the same potential in life. He debated with fellow students over topics such as social themes in popular novels. Brown University is a private university located in Providence, Rhode Island. ... Providence redirects here. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous...

Military service and marriages

In his sophomore year, Rockwell was convinced that it was only a matter of time until the United States would be at war with Nazi Germany. He decided to leave Brown University to join the United States Navy. Rockwell appreciated the order and discipline of the navy, and in 1940 he attended flight schools in Massachusetts and Florida. After getting his flight wings, he was shipped to Norfolk, Virginia. While in transit aboard USS Pastores, Rockwell had to put down a race riot between white southerners and African Americans who were placed in the same sleeping quarters. The solution Rockwell and the other officers used to stop the rioting was to separate the two groups. Due to a coin toss, Rockwell ended up leading the black sailors while another officer took charge of the white southerners. [citation needed] Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Brown University is a private university located in Providence, Rhode Island. ... USN redirects here. ... Flight training is a course of study used when learning to pilot an aircraft. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... A race riot or racial riot is an outbreak of violent civil unrest in which race is a key factor. ... For the ethnic group, see White people. ... Historic Southern United States. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... This article is about maritime crew. ...

During the war, blacks were segregated in the navy, and Rockwell was not hostile toward them. On VJ Day, marking the Allies' victory over Japan, Rockwell gave a bottle of champagne to some black sailors. Later, Rockwell's attitudes toward blacks changed, and he saw them as inferior to whites. Rockwell later called for a total separation of blacks and whites as a solution to America's race relations problems. He wanted to enact a program of repatriation of blacks to Africa. When the United States armed forces were integrated in 1948, Rockwell predicted a drop of morale among American servicemen. Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... 15 August 1945 marked Victory over Japan or VJ Day, taking a name similar to Victory in Europe Day, which was generally known as VE Day. ... Champagne is often consumed as part of a celebration Champagne is a sparkling wine produced by inducing the in-bottle secondary fermentation of wine to effect carbonation. ... Race relations is the area of sociology that studies the social, political, and economic relations between races at all different levels of society. ... Repatriation (from late Latin repatriare - to restore someone to his homeland) is the process of return of refugees or soldiers to their homes, most notably following a war. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

On April 24, 1943, Rockwell married Judy Aultman, whom he had met while attending Brown University. Aultman was a student at Pembroke, which was the female half of Brown University. After his marriage, Rockwell studied at the navy's aerial photography school in Florida. Upon completing his training, he served in the Pacific. His most notable action was the coordinating of air support in the retaking of Guam.[citation needed] is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pembroke College was the womens college of Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. ... Brown University is a private university located in Providence, Rhode Island. ... The Georgian terrace of Royal Crescent (Bath, England) from a hot air balloon Intersection of E42 and E451 from an aircraft soon after takeoff from Frankfurt International Airport Moreton Island in Queensland, Australia Aerial photography is the taking of photographs of the ground while not supported by a ground-based... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...

In 1952, Rockwell was ordered to report to Norfolk, Virginia. Upon arrival, he was told that his next post would be Iceland. Since families were not permitted to be with Americans stationed in that country, his wife and children moved in with her mother in Barrington, Rhode Island. After a few months in Iceland, Rockwell returned to his family in Rhode Island. A short time later, Rockwell and his wife were divorced. Several months after his return to Iceland, Rockwell attended a diplomatic party in Reykjavík, Iceland's capital. At the party, Rockwell met Thora Hallgrimsdottir, who later became his wife. Rockwell told Hallgrimsdottir about his political beliefs, and said that he would either be a "bum or a great man."[3] They were married on October 3, 1953, in the Icelandic National Cathedral by Thora's uncle, who was the Bishop of Iceland. The couple honeymooned in Berchtesgaden, Germany, where Hitler had had his mountain retreat in the Bavarian Alps. Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... Image:RI towns Barrington. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... The National Church of Iceland, or Þjóðkirkjan, formally called the Evangelical Lutheran Church, is the state church in Iceland. ... List of the Bishops of Iceland Ísleifur consecrated in Bremen in 1056 Jón Ögmundsson (1106-1121) Oraen Magnusson (1121-1133) St. ... Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ... This article needs cleanup. ...

Civilian career

After the war ended, Rockwell became a commercial artist. He applied to the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York, and was accepted for the following year. Rockwell and his wife moved to Boothbay Harbor, Maine, and in spring 1946, he built a photography studio and found work painting commercial signs. Later that year, they moved to New York City, where Rockwell started his studies at Pratt. While at Pratt, Rockwell was introduced to the modern art movement, which he considered foreign and Communist. He saw Jews as promoters of the movement, and mistakenly believed cubist Pablo Picasso was Jewish. Graphics are often utilitarian and anonymous,[1] as these pictographs from the US National Park Service illustrate. ... Pratt Institute is a specialized, private college in New York City with campuses in Manhattan and Brooklyn, as well as in Utica, New York. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... Boothbay Harbor is a town located in Lincoln County, Maine. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism... Picasso redirects here. ...

In 1948, he won the $1,000 first prize for an ad he did for the American Cancer Society. The contest was sponsored by the National Society of Illustrators in New York.[4] Rockwell left Pratt before finishing his final year, and started an advertising agency in Maine. Rockwell's career as a commercial artist was interrupted when he was recalled to duty as a Lieutenant Commander at the start of the Korean War. He moved his wife and two children to San Diego, California, where he trained Navy and Marine pilots. The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a medical organization with a corporate attitude in the United States. ... In the Royal Navy, United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, a lieutenant commander (lieutenant-commander or Lt Cdr in the RN) is a commissioned officer superior to a lieutenant and inferior to a commander. ... Combatants  United Nations:  Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium  Canada  Colombia  Ethiopia  France Greece  Luxembourg  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea  Peoples Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... San Diego redirects here. ...

Upon returning a second time to civilian life, Rockwell saw a business opportunity in starting a new magazine that would appeal to United States servicemen's wives. In September 1955, he launched the publication U. S. Lady. After presenting the idea to generals and admirals who headed public relations departments for the various military services, Rockwell began his publication efforts in Washington, D.C.. The new enterprise would also incorporate Rockwell's political causes: his opposition to both racial integration and communism. Rockwell financed the operation through stock sales and subscriptions. With a staff of 30, Rockwell could only promise to pay his employees before the successful launch of the first issue. The publication continued to have financial troubles and Rockwell would later sell his interest in the magazine. However, Rockwell still hoped to become a publisher. For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). ...

For a while, Rockwell worked for William F. Buckley, Jr., and promoted Buckley's magazine National Review among conservative college students. Later, Rockwell decided conservatives were "human ostriches" who would never take a stand against his enemy, the Jews. Rockwell failed to start his conservative newspaper or the right-wing unity organization he envisioned. This article is about the conservative journalist and commentator. ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ...

Political activism

During his time in San Diego, Rockwell began to pay close attention to politics and became influenced by Senator Joseph McCarthy's stance against Communism. Rockwell supported General Douglas MacArthur's candidacy for President of the United States. Rockwell adopted the corncob pipe, following MacArthur's example. Rockwell attended a Gerald L.K. Smith rally in Los Angeles and read Conde McGinley's Common Sense, a political newspaper that introduced him to anti-Semitism and the Jewish Question. He read Mein Kampf and the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion," and privately adopted Nazi beliefs. He published an Animal Farm-type parody, The Fable of the Ducks and the Hens.[5] This was Rockwell's interpretation of Jewish power in twentieth century United States. In 1952, Rockwell began working with anti-semitic and anti-communist groups. That year, he attended the American Nationalist Conference, which was organized by Conde McGinley’s Christian Educational Association. Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Youth with pipe by Hendrick Jansz Terbrugghen A pipe is a tool used for smoking. ... Gerald Lyman Kenneth Smith (February 27, 1898–April 15, 1976) was considered a demagogue by many. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Michael Conde J. McGinley, (1890-1963) editor of a semimonthly paper called Common Sense, brought briefly to the nations attention by his involvement against the nomination of Anna M. Rosenberg, which led to an investigation by the House un-american activities committee. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... For other uses, see Jewish Question (disambiguation). ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ... 1992 Russian edition of the Protocols, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ...

In July 1958, Rockwell picketed in front of the White House to protest President Dwight D. Eisenhower's decision to send troops to the Middle East. One day he received a large package from one of his supporters, which contained an 18-foot-long Swastika flag. He placed the flag on the wall of his home and made an altar with Adolf Hitler's photo in the center, lit with three candles in front. According to his autobiography, Rockwell claimed to have had a religious experience and swore allegiance to his leader, saluting "Heil Hitler!" Rockwell and a few supporters got uniforms, armed themselves with rifles and revolvers, and began to parade about his home in Arlington, Virginia. The window to his home was left open, showing the huge Swastika flag. Drew Pearson wrote a news column about Rockwell, giving his first bit of publicity. In the presidential election of 1964, Rockwell ran as a write-in candidate, receiving 212 votes.[6] He ran unsuccessfully for governor of Virginia in 1965 as an independent, polling 5,730 votes, or 1.02 percent of the total vote.[7][8] According to one of Rockwell's biographers, he was in demand on the lecture circuit and spoke to more than 100 college audiences.[9] For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about the symbol. ... Hitler redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000... Drew Pearson Drew Pearson (December 13, 1897–September 1, 1969), born in Evanston, Illinois was one of the most prominent American newspaper and radio journalists of his day. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A write-in candidate is a candidate in an election whose name does not appear on the ballot, but for whom voters may vote nonetheless by writing in the persons name. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

American Nazi Party

In March 1959, Rockwell formed the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists, a name apparently chosen to imply opposition to state ownership of property. In December of that year, the name would be changed to the American Nazi Party, and the headquarters moved to 928 North Randolph Street in Arlington, Virginia. [1] The formation of the party resulted in his discharge from the United States Navy and the forfeiting of his pension. Rockwell had to send his wife, Thora, and the four children to Iceland for their personal safety. The separation was supposed to have been temporary. In the months that passed, they grew distant. Rockwell went to Iceland and tried to reconcile with his family. However, he was unable to save his second marriage and they later divorced. Meanwhile, relations with his biological family would never be the same either. Both his brother and sister refused to ever speak with him. His father never forgave his son for dishonoring his name. Only his mother remained in contact. Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... GOP redirects here. ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000... USN redirects here. ...

In order to gain press attention, Rockwell held a rally April 3, 1960, on the National Mall of Washington, D.C. The Washington Evening Star reported the Nazis were a flop and the rally was a failure. Rockwell returned and gave a two hour speech, gaining more press attention. is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Facing east across the Mall with ones back towards the Lincoln Memorial. ... The Washington Star was a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It was first published by Captain Joseph Borrows Tate as The Daily Evening Star on December 16, 1852. ...

Rockwell's next tactic was to hold a rally in Union Square in New York City. He went there to demand a permit to speak. The crowd almost rioted as Rockwell began to answer reporters' questions. Rockwell said that 80 percent of the Jewish population in America were Communist sympathizers and therefore traitors who should be gassed. He was given a protected escort out of New York City and never received the permit to hold the rally. Union Square Park (also known as Union Square) is an important and historic intersection in New York City, located where Broadway and the Bowery came together in the early 19th century. ...

Rockwell's next planned rally was set for July 3, 1960, again on the Mall. Rockwell and his men were confronted by a mob and a riot ensued. The police arrested Rockwell and eight party members. Rockwell demanded a trial but instead was being sent to a mental institution for thirty days of observation. In less than two weeks he was released and found capable of standing trial. He published a pamphlet on this experience titled, How to get out or stay out of the insane asylum. Thereafter, he became more careful in his rhetoric. is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

George Lincoln Rockwell (center) at Nation of Islam Rally

In summer 1966, Rockwell led a counter-demonstration to Martin Luther King's attempt to bring an end to de facto segregation in the white Chicago suburb of Cicero, Illinois. He believed King was merely a tool for Jewish Communists to integrate America. [2] Although he admired J. Edgar Hoover's stand against communist subversion and would have approved of Hoover's tactics against King [3], unbeknownst to him, Rockwell was also targeted by the FBI's counter intelligence program: COINTELPRO. Image File history File links Rockwell_at_Nation_of_Islam_Rally. ... Image File history File links Rockwell_at_Nation_of_Islam_Rally. ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... Incorporated Town in 1869. ... John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ... COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program) was a program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. ...

Rockwell led the American Nazi Party in assisting the Ku Klux Klan and similar groups during the Civil Rights Movement, by countering the Freedom Riders and the March on Washington. But he soon came to believe the Klan was stuck in the past and ineffective for helping him wage a modern race struggle. After hearing the slogan "Black Power" during a debate in 1966 with Black Panther Stokely Carmichael, Rockwell altered the phrase and started a call for "White Power." White Power would later become the name of the party's newspaper and the title of a book authored by Rockwell. GOP redirects here. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Various movements seeking civil rights, human rights and social justice since the Second World War have become known as a civil rights movement. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ... Stokely Standiford Churchill Carmichael (June 29, 1941 – November 15, 1998), also known as Kwame Ture, was a Trinidadian-American black activist active in the 1960s American Civil Rights Movement. ... White Power is a white nationalist political slogan, and a name for the associated ideology. ... White Power is a white nationalist political slogan, and a name for the associated ideology. ...

Rockwell's principal message was racial separation and attempted to form friendly associations with the Nation of Islam. He praised Elijah Muhammad as the "Black people's Hitler," and for doing the best job in promoting integrity and pride among his people. Rockwell also admired Malcolm X and saw him as the next true leader for Black America. The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring... Elijah Muhammad Elijah Muhammad (October 7, 1897 - February 25, 1975) is notable for his leadership of the Black Muslims and the Nation of Islam from 1934 until his death in 1975. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ...

If separation was not achieved, Rockwell believed America faced long-term racial problems and predicted a great race war, where "the uniform would be skin color." Rockwell believed the conflict was approaching with whites eventually becoming America's new racial minority. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Rockwell once gave an interview to Alex Haley, the author of the novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family, which was made into a TV miniseries. The interview was published in Playboy magazine in the April 1966 issue. Rockwell agreed to the interview because of the magazine's appeal to white males. For many, this was the first time Rockwell's ideas were presented to the public without censorship. The interview was dramatized in Roots: The Next Generations, with Marlon Brando portraying Rockwell in an Emmy Award-winning performance and James Earl Jones portraying Haley. Alexander Murray Palmer Haley (August 11, 1921 – February 10, 1992) was an American writer. ... Categories: Literature stubs | 1976 books | American novels | Books starting with S ... For other uses, see Playboy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Censor. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... An Emmy Award. ... James Earl Jones (born January 17, 1931) is an American Academy Award-nominated, Emmy- and Tony Award-winning actor of film and stage well known for his deep basso voice. ...


The location he established as the headquarters of his American Nazi Party, 2507 North Franklin Road in Arlington, Virginia [4], is now a coffee shop called "The Java Shack" [5], and serves a racially diverse community. The two-story house he established as his "Stormtrooper Barracks," which some of the locals dubbed "The House on Hatemonger Hill" (6150 Wilson Boulevard, in the Dominion Hills district of Arlington), has since been razed and the property incorporated into the Upton Hill Regional Park.


World Union of National Socialists

In August, 1962 Rockwell travelled secretly to England through Ireland. In the Cotswolds, he co-founded the World Union of National Socialists with Colin Jordan's British organization the National Socialist Movement, before being deported back to the States. In 1966 the international group published National Socialist World, edited by former physics professor William Luther Pierce. The Cotswolds is the name given to a range of hills in central England, sometimes called the Heart of England, a hilly area reaching over 300 m or 1000 feet. ... The World Union of National Socialists was an organisation founded in 1962 as an umbrella group for neo-Nazi organisations across the globe. ... John Colin Campbell Jordan (born June 1923) was a leading representative of postwar National Socialism in Britain and around the world. ... The National Socialist Movement was a British Neo-Nazi group formed in 1962 by Colin Jordan on Adolf Hitlers birthday as a splinter group from the British National Party. ... William Luther Pierce III (September 11, 1933 – July 23, 2002) was the leader of the white separatist National Alliance organization, and a principal ideologue of the white nationalist movement. ...

National Socialist White People's Party

On January 1, 1967, Rockwell announced the party’s next stage of development. He officially changed the name of the American Nazi Party to the National Socialist White People’s Party (NSWPP). Its new slogan would be “White Power” replacing “Sieg Heil.” The new strategy would be to capitalize on growing support in the wake of the Chicago rallies and to focus the organization’s commitment to a universal white nationalism as opposed to Nordic or Anglo-Saxon provincialism. An internal party newsletter, the “National Socialist Bulletin”, was started to convey and help direct these new efforts.

On June 9-11, the party held its national conference in Arlington aimed at reorganizing its leadership and “charting a new course of professionalism.” In July, 1967, The swastika-bearing party publication The Stormtrooper magazine was replaced by a newspaper with an American eagle masthead entitled “White Power”. Some within the NSWPP opposed this new ideological direction.

Rockwell also was the first to shed the Nordicist ideology of what an Aryan was and replaced it with Pan Europeanism, which accepted all white ethnicities such as Italians, Greeks, and Spaniards. German National Socialism had mostly only accepted Northern and western Europeans as Aryan.

Hatenanny Records and the Hate Bus

In the 1960s, Rockwell attempted to draw attention to his cause by starting a small record label named Hatenanny Records (the name was based on the word Hootenanny, a term given to certain folk music performance). The label released several 45 RPM singles, including recordings by a group credited as Odis Cochran and the Three Bigots, and were sold mostly through mail order. A truncated version of one of the band's recordings, Ship Those Niggers Back appears in the documentary The California Reich. When the Freedom Riders drove their campaign to desegregate bus stations in the deep South, Rockwell secured a Volkswagen van and decorated it with Swastikas and white supremacist slogans, dubbing it the Hate Bus and personally driving it to speaking engagements and party rallies.[10] It was later repossessed after the American Nazi Party defaulted on a loan. In the music industry, a record label is a brand and a trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. ... Hootenanny was originally an old country word for party. The concept of a hootenanny as a gathering for folk singing was created by Pete Seeger and Woody Guthrie as a way to raise rent for their Greenwich Village, New York apartment. ... Folk song redirects here. ... A collection of various CD singles In music, a single is a short recording of one or more separate tracks. ... Mail order is a term which describes the buying of goods or services by mail delivery. ... // Nigger is a racial slur used to refer to dark-skinned people, especially those of African ancestry. ... The California Reich is a 1975 documentary on a group of Neo-Nazis in Venice, California. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Freedom rides. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... For other meanings, see Bus stop (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Deep South (disambiguation). ... Volkswagen AG (ISIN: DE0007664005), or VW, is an automobile manufacturer based in Wolfsburg, Germany. ... This article is about the symbol. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... GOP redirects here. ...

Ideology and tactics

Rockwell's most infamous tactic was the mass promotion of denying the Holocaust. He maintained it was all propaganda from the war that became a psychological weapon of Zionism, designed to promote white guilt and coerce the Western world into contributing billions in foreign aid to Israel.[citation needed] He often declared that if not for the Holocaust, the modern state of Israel would not exist[citation needed] and there would be no worldwide demand for eliminating racial segregation and apartheid. Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... White guilt refers to a concept of individual or collective guilt felt by some white people for the racist treatment of people of color by whites both historically and presently. ...

In waging his campaign, Rockwell used "political jujutsu": he used his enemies' power against them by having them give him attention. He believed the American masses were not getting the whole picture because they were easily swayed by the "managed news," controlled by what he claimed was Jewish monopolizing of the media.[citation needed] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

When compared to other political icons of the 1960s, Rockwell was a combination of radical-reactionary and counter-revolutionary, meaning that he sought to counter the perceived leftist progressive cultural revolution in America and preserve its old way of life by going out of the mainstream to become a frontline fighter. But unlike other radical groups, Rockwell always made sure his was law abiding and often claimed they had to "break their backs" to be so. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ...

Rockwell supported America's war in Vietnam. At times he would dive into anti-war demonstrations at home, tearing down Viet Cong flags that were being waved by protesters. If not for the politicians, he claimed, the war in Vietnam could easily have been fought and won "with the Boy Scouts." Polish Boy Scouts fighting in the Warsaw Uprising Boy Scouts originally denoted the organization that developed and rapidly grew up during 1908 in the wake of the publication by Lord Robert Baden-Powell of his book Scouting for Boys. ...


On June 28, 1967, the first attempt was made on Rockwell’s life. Returning from shopping, he drove into the party barracks’ driveway on Wilson Boulevard and found it blocked by a felled tree and brush. Rockwell assumed that it was another prank by local teens. As a young trooper cleared the obstruction, two shots were fired at Rockwell from behind one of the swastika-embossed brick driveway pillars. One of the shots ricocheted off the car right next to his head. Leaping from the car, Rockwell pursued the would-be assassin. On June 30, Rockwell petitioned the Arlington County Circuit Court for a gun permit; no action was ever taken on his request. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

On August 25, 1967, Rockwell was killed by gunshots while leaving the Econowash laundromat at the Dominion Hills Shopping Center in the 6000 block of Wilson Boulevard in Arlington, Virginia.[11] Two bullets crashed through his 1958 Chevrolet’s windshield and it slowly rolled backwards to a stop. Rockwell staggered out of the front passenger side door of the car, pointed towards the shopping center roof, and then collapsed face up on the pavement.

The gunman ran along the shopping center roof and jumped to the ground in the rear. A shop owner and customer briefly gave chase, but were unable to get a clear look at the fleeing figure. Other customers called the Arlington County police and checked Rockwell for a pulse. He had none; the one bullet that struck him had ripped through several major arteries just above his heart. The internal bleeding was so heavy that Rockwell died in two minutes.

A half hour later at a bus stop several miles away, John Patler - a former member of Rockwell’s group - was arrested as the suspected murderer by a passing patrolman familiar with the Arlington Nazis. Later that day, after hearing of his son’s death, Rockwell’s 78-year-old father commented laconically, “I am not surprised at all. I’ve expected it for quite some time.” John Patler, formerly Yanacki Patsalos (born circa 1938), was the assassin of American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell. ...

Matt Koehl, the number two man in the NSWPP, moved to establish legal control over Rockwell’s body and all NSWPP assets. At the time of his death, the NSWPP had approximately 300 active members nationwide and perhaps 3,000 financial supporters. Although Rockwell’s parents wanted a private burial in Maine for him, they did not feel up to a public fight with the Nazis for his body. On August 27, an NSWPP spokesman reported that Federal officials had given verbal approval to a planned military burial of Rockwell at Culpeper National Cemetery, which was his right as an honorably discharged veteran of the U.S. Armed Forces. Matt Koehl (full name Matthias Koehl Jr. ...

On August 29, several dozen NSWPP troopers and about 100 party supporters formed a procession and drove the 65 miles from Arlington to Culpeper. At the cemetery gates they were met by General Carl C. Turner and 60 MPs who had been rushed in from Vint Hill to enforce the U.S. Army’s burial protocol. They were backed by dozens of police from various jurisdictions. No mourners bearing Nazi insignia would be allowed into the cemetery. The NSWPP troopers’ refusal to remove their uniforms led to a day-long standoff. They unsuccessfully tried to force their way into the cemetery three separate times. Several arrests resulted. With daylight fading, General Turner declared that Rockwell could not be buried until the NSWPP made a new request to the Pentagon and agreed to follow protocol.

The Nazis returned to Arlington with Rockwell’s body. Plans were made to bury Rockwell in Spotsylvania County, but they fell apart when local Jewish organizations protested. Fearing that Arlington County officials might seize the body, the ANP had Rockwell cremated the next morning and a memorial service was held that afternoon at party headquarters. On February 8, 1968, the NSWPP filed suit to obtain a Nazi burial for Rockwell’s remains at any National Cemetery. On March 15, 1969, a Federal district judge upheld the Army Secretary’s ruling that Rockwell was ineligible for a burial with full military honors in a national cemetery. The final resting place of Rockwell’s remains is uncertain.

The controversy after Rockwell’s death wasn’t limited to the disposition of his remains. It soon spilled over into the trial of his alleged murderer. Following psychiatric evaluation, John Patler was judged competent to stand trial. Unsurprisingly, he pled not guilty at his preliminary hearing, but on September 29, 1967, Patler was bound over by a grand jury on the charge of first degree homicide. His trial began on November 27 amid tight security at the Arlington County Courthouse. On December 15, Patler was found guilty and released on bond to await sentencing. On February 23, 1968, Patler was sentenced to 20 years in prison, at that time the least punishment possible for a first degree murder conviction. The Virginia Circuit Court postponed imprisonment pending his appeal.

On November 30, 1970, the Virginia Supreme Court upheld Patler’s conviction and 20-year sentence for slaying Rockwell and ordered him to begin serving his sentence. On May 16, 1972, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously rejected Patler’s appeal based on claims of witness contamination. In August 1975, Patler was paroled from the Pulaski correctional unit after serving less than four years of his sentence. Judge Charles S. Russell, who had presided over Patler’s murder trial, wrote a lengthy letter to the parole board supporting Patler’s release. It was the only time he ever did this in his career. The following year, however, Patler violated the terms of his parole and was returned to prison for an additional six years. On December 30, 1977 Patler petitioned the Henry County Circuit Court to change his surname back to its original form, Patsalos. After serving out the remainder of his sentence, John Patsalos returned to the New York City area.

The exact reason for Rockwell's murder and the exact identification of his killer is still a matter of much debate. Patler's nasty feuding with Rockwell and a family history of violence certainly weighed against him at the trial. Despite being convicted of the crime, Patler has always maintained his innocence. The case against him was largely circumstantial and key evidence against him (e.g., whether he possessed the murder weapon at the time of the killing) was disputed by defense witnesses.

The strip mall where Rockwell was killed is still called the Dominion Hills Shopping Center. In the past, admirers of Rockwell have painted a swastika on the exact spot of the parking lot where he died.


Rockwell has inspired white nationalist and anti-semitic politician David Duke. As a student in high school, when Duke learned of Rockwell's assassination, he reportedly said "The greatest American who ever lived has been shot down and killed."[12] In the mid 1960s, Rockwell had a strategy to develop his Nazi political philosophy within the Christian Identity religious movement. Previously, Christian Identity had anti-Semitic and racist views, but not a Third Reich orientation. The Christian Identity group Aryan Nations started to use various Nazi flags in its services, and its security personnel started wearing uniforms similar to those worn by Rockwell's stormtroopers.[13] Two of Rockwell's associates, Matt Koehl and William Luther Pierce, formed their own organizations. Koehl, who was Rockwell's successor, moved the NSWPP to Wisconsin and founded New Order. Pierce founded the National Alliance. // White nationalism (WN) advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of national identity, as opposed to multiculturalism. ... David Ernest Duke (born July 1, 1950) is a former member of the Louisiana House of Representatives, a candidate in presidential primaries for both the Democratic and Republican parties, and former Grand Wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. ... // For the general identity of an individual with certain core essential religious doctrines, see Christianity. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Aryan Nations flag Aryan Nations (AN) is an international white supremacist, Neo-Nazi organization that is affiliated with the Ku Klux Klan. ... The Stormtroopers were special military troops which were formed in the last year of World War I as the German army developed new methods of attacking enemy trenches, called infiltration tactics. Men trained in these methods were known as in German as Sturmmann (literally storm man or assault man but... Matt Koehl (full name Matthias Koehl Jr. ... William Luther Pierce III (September 11, 1933 – July 23, 2002) was the leader of the white separatist National Alliance organization, and a principal ideologue of the white nationalist movement. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to... New Order (National Socialist) is the neo-Nazi organization led by Matt Koehl, who took over the the organization until recently known as the American Nazi Party, newly renamed the National Socialist White Peoples Party, upon the assassination of George Lincoln Rockwell in 1967. ... This article refers to the United States-based organization. ...


Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
George Lincoln Rockwell
  • "Compared to some aborigine in Africa who eats his own grandmother, and they're still eating people over there, yes sir, I believe you and I are all supermen compared to those cruds." [14]
  • "America did not exist until the coming of the white man."[15]
  • "I knew I would not live to see the victory which I would make possible, but I would not die before I had made that victory certain." [16]

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...


  • In hoc signo vinces, a political manifesto (World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists, 1960) [6]
  • How to get out or stay out of the insane asylum, recounts his experience of being sentenced to thirty days observation [7] (American Nazi Party, 1960)
  • This time the world, his autobiography (written 1960; First Published by Parliament House 1961; Reprinted by White Power Publications, 1979; and later Liberty Bell Publications, 2004, ISBN 1-59364-014-5).
  • White Power (written 1967; John McLaughlin, 1996, ISBN 0-9656492-8-8)

Look up manifesto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Several people are named John McLaughlin: John McLaughlin (musician), an English jazz fusion guitar player. ...

See also

This is a list of assasinated American politicians. ...


  1. ^ http://www.natvan.com/adv/2005/05-28-05.jpg
  2. ^ http://www.skrewdriver.org.uk/tttw3.html
  3. ^ http://www.skrewdriver.org.uk/tttw8.html
  4. ^ http://members.aol.com/irelandresist/rockart.jpg
  5. ^ http://www.heretical.com/pubs/fabledh.html
  6. ^ http://ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=1941
  7. ^ http://www.snyderstreasures.com/images/rockwell/RockwellGovernorPoster.jpg
  8. ^ http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/valeg/php/candidates.php?eid=1965RVAG
  9. ^ http://www.brownalumnimagazine.com/storydetail.cfm?ID=2998][http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/ubyssey/UBYSSEY_1964_11_26.pdf
  10. ^
  11. ^ "1967: 'American Hitler' shot dead", BBC, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-22. 
  12. ^ Elinor Langer, "A Hundred Little Hitlers," (Picador, New York, 2004), p. 131
  13. ^ http://www.falange.us/rockwell.htm
  14. ^ Interview on CBC
  15. ^ http://www.alphalink.com.au/~radnat/usanazis/chapter4.html
  16. ^ This Time The World, Chapter 15

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ...


  • American Fuehrer: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party by Frederick James Simonelli, (University of Illinois Press, 1999, ISBN 0-252-02285-8).
  • Hate: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party by William H. Schmaltz, (Brasseys, Inc., 2001, ISBN 1-57488-262-7).
  • The Fame of a Dead Man's Deeds by Robert S. Griffin, (1st Books Library, 2001, ISBN 0-7596-0933-0), pages 87-115.
  • Siege: The Collected Writings of James Mason by James Mason (Appendix III contains Mason's "George Lincoln Rockwell: A Sketch of His Life and Career"; introduced by Ryan Schuster, Black Sun Publications, ISBN 0-9724408-0-1)
  • "Rockwell, U.S. Nazi, Slain; Ex-Aide is Held as Sniper", Graham, Fred P., New York Times, Saturday, 26 August 1967, pages 1, 14.
  • "Rockwell Burial Causes A Dispute", uncredited, New York Times, Sunday, 27 August 1967, page 28.

The University of Illinois Press is a major American university press. ... James N. Mason (born 1952) is an American National Socialist Revolutionary. ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
George Lincoln Rockwell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5448 words)
Rockwell was the 'new kid' and the gang of toughs had planned to dunk him as they had done to all the new kids in the past.
Rockwell was repelled by people he called "human scum" and remembered one of his classmates at Pratt being a "Chinese Jewish Negro with red hair and freckles." [7] In high school Rockwell was surrounded by racial minorities, but they appeared to be distinct racial groups.
Rockwell ran unsuccessfully for governor of Virginia in 1965.
  More results at FactBites »



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