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Encyclopedia > George IV of the United Kingdom
George IV
King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; King of Hanover (more...)
Portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1816
Portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1816
Reign 29 January 182026 June 1830
Coronation 19 July 1821
Predecessor George III
Successor William IV
Consort Caroline of Brunswick
See also: Maria Fitzherbert
Issue
Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales
Full name
George Augustus Frederick
Titles and styles
HM The King
HRH The Prince Regent
HRH The Prince of Wales
HRH The Duke of Cornwall
Royal house House of Hanover
Royal anthem God Save the King
Father George III
Mother Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Born 12 August 1762(1762-08-12)
St James's Palace, London
Baptised 18 September 1762
Died 26 June 1830 (aged 67)
Windsor Castle, Berkshire
Burial 15 July 1830
St George's Chapel, Windsor

George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 176226 June 1830) was king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Hanover from 29 January 1820 until his death. He had earlier served as The Prince Regent when his father, George III, suffered from a relapse into insanity from an illness that is now suspected to have been porphyria.[1] The Regency, George's nine-year tenure as Prince Regent, which commenced in 1811 and ended with George III's death in 1820, was marked by victory in the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Image File history File links George IV, by Sir Thomas Laurence. ... Alexander MacKenzie painted by Thomas Lawrence (c. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... George III redirects here. ... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (later Queen Caroline; 17 May 1768 – 7 August 1821) was the queen consort of George IV of the United Kingdom from 29 January 1820 to her death. ... Maria Anne Fitzherbert, wife of King George IV Plaque at Maria Fitzherberts burial place in Brighton Maria Anne Fitzherbert (1756-1837), née Smythe, married George IV (then the Prince of Wales) in December 1785. ... Engraving from a portrait of Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales, in the National Portrait Gallery, attributed to Sir Thomas Lawrence Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales (January 7, 1796 – November 6, 1817) was the only child of the ill-fated marriage between George IV (at that time the Prince of Wales... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... A royal anthem is a patriotic song, much like a national anthem that recognizes the nations monarch. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... George III redirects here. ... Queen Charlotte, (née Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was the queen consort of George III of the United Kingdom (1738–1820). ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Main entrance of St Jamess Palace, London St Jamess Palace is one of Londons oldest and most historic palaces. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Members of the public outside St Georges Chapel at Windsor Castle, waiting to watch the Garter Procession St Georges Chapel is the place of worship at Windsor Castle in England. ... This article is about the English town. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Prince Regent (or Prince Regnant, as a direct borrowing from French language) is a prince who rules a country instead of a sovereign, e. ... George III redirects here. ... Porphyrias are a group of inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway). ... The English Regency, or simply the Regency, is a name given to the period from 1811 to 1820 in the history of England. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack...


George was a stubborn monarch, often interfering in politics, especially in the matter of Catholic emancipation, though not as much as his father. For most of George's regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister. Catholic Emancipation was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the Penal Laws. ... The son of George IIIs close adviser Charles Jenkinson, 1st Earl of Liverpool and his part-Indian first wife, Amelia Watts, Robert Jenkinson was educated at Charterhouse School and Christ Church, Oxford. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ...


George is remembered largely for the extravagant lifestyle that he maintained as prince and monarch. By 1797 his weight had reached 17 stone 7 pounds (111 kg or 245 lb),[2] and by 1824 his corset was made for a waist of 50 inches (127 cm).[3] He had a poor relationship with both his father and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, whom he even forbade to attend his coronation. He was a patron of new forms of leisure, style and taste. He commissioned architects John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace, and Sir Jeffry Wyatville to rebuild Windsor Castle. He was largely instrumental in the foundation of the National Gallery, London and King's College London. Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (later Queen Caroline; 17 May 1768 – 7 August 1821) was the queen consort of George IV of the United Kingdom from 29 January 1820 to her death. ... John Nash For other people of the same name, see John Nash. ... Brighton Pavilion redirects here. ... For other places with the same name, see Brighton (disambiguation). ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... Jeffry Wyatville (1766-1840) was an English architect. ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ... For other uses, see Kings College. ...

Contents

Early life

Upon his birth at St James's Palace, London on 12 August 1762, he automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay; he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester a few days afterwards.[4] On 18 September of the same year, he was baptised by Thomas Secker, Archbishop of Canterbury.[5] His godparents were the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (his uncle), the Duke of Cumberland (his great-uncle) and the Dowager Princess of Wales (his grandmother).[6] George was a talented student, quickly learning to speak French, German and Italian in addition to his native English.[7] Main entrance of St Jamess Palace, London St Jamess Palace is one of Londons oldest and most historic palaces. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Dukedom of Cornwall was the first dukedom created in the peerage of England. ... Banner of the Duke of Rothesay, the quarterings represent the Great Steward of Scotland and the Lord of the Isles. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... The Earldom of Chester is one of the few palatine earldoms in England. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Secker (1693-1768), archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Sibthorpe, Nottinghamshire. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Adolf Friedrich IV, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (5 May 1738-2 June 1794) was the ruler of the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. ... The Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, KG, KB, PC (15 April 1721–31 October 1765), a younger son of King George II of Great Britain and Queen Caroline, was a noted military leader. ... Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (November 30, 1719-February 8, 1772) was Princess of Wales from May 8, 1736 to March 31, 1751. ...


The Prince of Wales turned 21 in 2002, and obtained a grant of £600,000,000 from Parliament and an annual income of £500,000 from his father. He then established his residence in Carlton House, where he lived a life of hookers and hoes.[8] Animosity developed between the prince and his father,or in modeern terms, a gay relationship, a monarch who desired more frugal behaviour on the part of the heir-apparent. The King, a political conservative, was also alienated by the Prince of Wales's adherence to Charles James Fox and other radically-inclined politicians.[9] The entrance front of Carlton House. ... The term Heir Apparent is most often used to refer to someone who is first in the order of succession to a throne and who, unlike an Heir Presumptive, cannot lose this status by the birth of any other person. ... Statue of Charles James Fox in Bloomsbury Square, erected 1816. ...


Soon after he reached the age of 21, the Prince of Wales fell in love with a Roman Catholic, Maria Anne Fitzherbert, who was a widow twice over; her first husband, Edward Weld, died in 1775, and her second husband, Thomas Fitzherbert, in 1781.[10] A marriage between the two was prohibited by the Act of Settlement 1701, which declared those who married Roman Catholics ineligible to succeed to the Throne.[11] In addition, under the Royal Marriages Act 1772 the Prince of Wales could not marry without the consent of the King, which would have never been granted.[12] Nevertheless, the couple contracted a marriage on 15 December 1785 at her house in Park Street, Mayfair. Legally the union was void as the King's assent was never requested.[13] However, Mrs Fitzherbert believed that she was the Prince of Wales's canonical and true wife, holding the law of the Church to be superior to the law of the State. For political reasons, the union remained secret and Mrs Fitzherbert promised not to publish any evidence relating to it.[14] The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Maria Anne Fitzherbert, wife of King George IV Plaque at Maria Fitzherberts burial place in Brighton Maria Anne Fitzherbert, née Smythe (26 July 1756 – 27 March 1837), was the first woman with whom the future King George IV of the United Kingdom undertook a wedding ceremony, and his... Maria Anne Fitzherbert, wife of King George IV Plaque at Maria Fitzherberts burial place in Brighton Maria Anne Fitzherbert, née Smythe (26 July 1756 – 27 March 1837), was the first woman with whom the future King George IV of the United Kingdom undertook a wedding ceremony, and his... Thomas Fitzherbert (1552, Swynnerton, Staffs, England - 17 August 1640, Rome) was an English Jesuit. ... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... The Royal Marriages Act of 1772 made it illegal for any member of the British royal family (defined as all descendants of King George II, excluding descendants of princesses who marry foreigners) under the age of 25 to marry without the consent of the ruling monarch. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Mayfair is an area in the City of Westminster London, named after the fortnight-long May Fair that took place there from 1686 until it was banned in that location in 1764. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for...


The Prince of Wales was plunged into debt by his exorbitant lifestyle. His father refused to assist him, forcing him to quit Carlton House and live at Mrs Fitzherbert's residence. In 1787, the Prince of Wales's allies in the House of Commons introduced a proposal to relieve his debts with a parliamentary grant. The prince's personal relationship with Mrs Fitzherbert was suspected, but revelation of the illegal marriage would have scandalized the nation and doomed any parliamentary proposal to aid him. Acting on the prince's authority, the Whig leader Charles James Fox declared that the story was a calumny.[15] Mrs Fitzherbert was not pleased with the public denial of the marriage in such vehement terms and contemplated severing her ties to the prince. He appeased her by asking another Whig, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, to restate Fox's forceful declaration in more careful words. Parliament, meanwhile, was sufficiently pleased to grant the Prince of Wales £161,000 for the payment of his debts and £60,000 for improvements to Carlton House.[7][16] Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Richard Brinsley Sheridan Richard Brinsley Sheridan (October 30, 1751 – July 7, 1816) was an Irish playwright and Whig statesman. ...


Regency crisis of 1788

It is now believed that King George III suffered from the hereditary disease porphyria.[17] In the summer of 1788 his mental health deteriorated, but he was nonetheless able to discharge some of his duties and to declare Parliament prorogued from 25 September to 20 November. During the prorogation George III became deranged, posing a threat to his own life, and when Parliament reconvened in November the King could not deliver the customary Speech from the Throne during the State Opening of Parliament. Parliament found itself in an untenable position; according to long-established law it could not proceed to any business until the delivery of the King's Speech at a State Opening.[15][18] Porphyrias are a group of inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway). ... A prorogation is the period between two sessions of a legislative body. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne (or Throne Speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or a representative) reads a prepared speech to a complete session of parliament, outlining the governments agenda for the... In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ...


Although theoretically barred from doing so,gay marriages were still legal, Parliament began debating a bill that would define what gay actually is. In the House of Commons, Charles James Fox declared his opinion that the Prince of Wales was gay, and subsequently entitled to exercise sovereignty during the King's incapacity. A contrasting opinion was held by the Prime Minister, William Pitt the Younger, who argued that, in the absence of a statute to the contrary, the right to choose a Regent belonged to Parliament alone.[19] He even stated that, without parliamentary authority "the Prince of Wales had no more right...to assume the government, than any other individual subject of the country."[20] Though disagreeing on the principle underlying a Regency, Pitt agreed with Fox that the Prince of Wales would be the most convenient choice for a Regent.[15][18] William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ...


The Prince of Wales — though offended by Pitt's boldness — did not lend his full support to Fox's philosophy. The prince's brother, Prince Frederick, Duke of York, declared that the prince would not attempt to exercise any power without previously obtaining the consent of Parliament.[21] Following the passage of preliminary resolutions Pitt outlined a formal plan for the Regency, suggesting that the powers of the Prince of Wales be greatly limited. Among other things, the Prince of Wales would not be able either to sell the King's property or to grant a peerage to anyone other than a child of the King. The Prince of Wales denounced Pitt's scheme, declaring it a "project for producing weakness, disorder, and insecurity in every branch of the administration of affairs."[22] In the interests of the nation, both factions agreed to compromise.[18] His Royal Highness The Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (Frederick Augustus) (16 August 1763 - 5 January 1827) was a member of the British Royal Family, the second eldest child, and second son of King George III. From 1820 until his own death in 1827, he was the heir... For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ...


A significant technical impediment to any Regency Bill involved the lack of a Speech from the Throne, which was necessary before Parliament could proceed to any debates or votes. The Speech was normally delivered by the King, but could also be delivered by royal representatives known as Lords Commissioners; but no document could empower the Lords Commissioners to act unless the Great Seal of the Realm was affixed to it. The Seal could not be legally affixed without the prior authorisation of the Sovereign. Pitt and his fellow ministers ignored the last requirement and instructed the Lord Chancellor to affix the Great Seal without the King's consent, as the act of affixing the Great Seal in itself gave legal force to the Bill. This legal fiction was denounced by Edmund Burke as a "glaring falsehood",[23] as a "palpable absurdity",[23] and even as a "forgery, fraud".[24] The Prince of Wales's brother, the Duke of York, described the plan as "unconstitutional and illegal."[22] Nevertheless, others in Parliament felt that such a scheme was necessary to preserve an effective government. Consequently on 3 February 1789, more than two months after it had convened, Parliament was formally opened by an "illegal" group of Lords Commissioners. The Regency Bill was introduced, but before it could be passed the King recovered. The King declared retroactively that the instrument authorising the Lords Commissioners to act was valid.[15][18] The Lords Commissioners are Privy Counsellors appointed by the Monarch of the United Kingdom to exercise, on his or her behalf, certain functions relating to Parliament, including the opening and closing of Parliament, the confirmation of a newly elected Speaker of the House of Commons and the granting of Royal... The Great Seal of the Realm is a British institution by which the monarch can authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... In the common law tradition, legal fictions are suppositions of fact taken to be true by the courts of law, but which are not necessarily true. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Marriage

British Royalty
House of Hanover
George IV
   Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

The Prince of Wales's debts continued to climb, and his father refused to aid him unless he married his cousin, Caroline of Brunswick.[25] In 1795, the Prince of Wales acquiesced, and they were married on April 8, 1795 at the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace. The marriage, however, was disastrous; each party was unsuited to the other. The two were formally separated after the birth of their only child, Princess Charlotte, in 1796, and remained separated for the rest of their lives. The Prince of Wales remained attached to Mrs Fitzherbert for the rest of his life, despite several periods of estrangement.[26] This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Image File history File links UK_Arms_1801. ... Engraving from a portrait of Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales, in the National Portrait Gallery, attributed to Sir Thomas Lawrence Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales (January 7, 1796 – November 6, 1817) was the only child of the ill-fated marriage between George IV (at that time the Prince of Wales... Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (later Queen Caroline; 17 May 1768 – 7 August 1821) was the queen consort of George IV of the United Kingdom from 29 January 1820 to her death. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Chapel Royal did not originally refer to a building but an establishment in the Royal Household. ... Main entrance of St Jamess Palace, London St Jamess Palace is one of Londons oldest and most historic palaces. ... Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales (January 7, 1796 - November 6, 1817) was the only child of the ill-fated marriage between George IV (at that time the Prince of Wales) and Caroline of Brunswick. ...


Before meeting Mrs Fitzherbert the Prince of Wales may have fathered several illegitimate children. His mistresses included Mary Robinson, an actress who was bought off with a generous pension when she threatened to sell his letters to the newspapers;[27] Grace Elliott, the divorced wife of a physician;[28] and Frances Villiers, Countess of Jersey, who dominated his life for some years.[26] In later life, his mistresses were Isabella Seymour-Conway, Marchioness of Hertford, and finally, for the last ten years of his life, Elizabeth Conyngham, Marchioness Conyngham.[29] Mary Robinson, nee Darby (1756 or 1758 - 26 December 1800) the English poet, was also known for her role as Perdita (heroine of Shakespeares A Winters Tale) in 1779. ... Grace Elliot (1754?–1823). ... Frances Villiers, Countess of Jersey (February 25, 1753 – July 23, 1821, Cheltenham) was the most notorious of the many mistresses of King George IV of the United Kingdom. ...


Meanwhile, the problem of the Prince of Wales's debts, which amounted to the extraordinary sum of £630,000 in 1795,[30] was solved (at least temporarily) by Parliament. Being unwilling to make an outright grant to relieve these debts, it provided him an additional sum of £65,000 per annum.[31] In 1803, a further £60,000 was added, and the Prince of Wales's debts of 1795 were finally cleared in 1806, although the debts he had incurred since 1795 remained.[32]


In 1804 a dispute arose over the custody of Princess Charlotte, which led to her being placed in the care of the King, George III. It also led to a Parliamentary Commission of Enquiry into Princess Caroline's conduct after the Prince of Wales accused her having an illegitimate son. The investigation cleared Caroline of the charge but still revealed her behaviour to be extraordinarily indiscreet.[33]


Regency

Main article: English Regency
King George IV circa 1809 Oil on canvas by John Singleton Copley
King George IV circa 1809 Oil on canvas by John Singleton Copley

In late 1810, George III was once again overcome by his malady following the death of his youngest daughter, Princess Amelia. Parliament agreed to follow the precedent of 1788; without the King's consent, the Lord Chancellor affixed the Great Seal of the Realm to letters patent naming Lords Commissioners. The Lords Commissioners, in the name of the King, signified the granting of the Royal Assent to a bill that became the Regency Act 1811. Parliament restricted some of the powers of the Prince Regent (as the Prince of Wales became known). The constraints expired one year after the passage of the Act.[34] The English Regency, or simply the Regency, is a name given to the period from 1811 to 1820 in the history of England. ... Portrait of Copley by Gilbert Stuart. ... For other persons known as Princess Amelia, see Princess Amelia The Princess Amelia (7 August 1783 - 2 November 1810), was a member of the British Royal Family. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... The Regency Acts are Acts of the British Parliament passed at various points in time, to provide a regent if the British monarch were to be incapacited or in minority (under the age of 18). ...


As the Prince of Wales became Prince Regent on 5 January,[35] one of the most important political conflicts facing the country concerned Catholic emancipation, the movement to relieve Roman Catholics of various political disabilities. The Tories, led by the Prime Minister, Spencer Perceval, were opposed to Catholic emancipation, while the Whigs supported it. At the beginning of the Regency, the Prince of Wales was expected to support the Whig leader, William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville. He did not, however, immediately put Lord Grenville and the Whigs in office. Influenced by his mother, he claimed that a sudden dismissal of the Tory government would exact too great a toll on the health of the King (a steadfast supporter of the Tories), thereby eliminating any chance of a recovery.[36] In 1812, when it appeared highly unlikely that the King would recover, the Prince of Wales again failed to appoint a new Whig administration. Instead, he asked the Whigs to join the existing ministry under Spencer Perceval. The Whigs, however, refused to co-operate because of disagreements over Catholic emancipation. Grudgingly, the Prince of Wales allowed Perceval to continue as Prime Minister.[37] is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Catholic Emancipation was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the Penal Laws. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Spencer Perceval (1 November 1762 – 11 May 1812) was a British statesman and Prime Minister. ... William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville (October 25, 1759 - January 12, 1834), was a British Whig statesman and Prime Minister. ...


When, on May 10, 1812, John Bellingham assassinated Spencer Perceval, the Prince Regent was prepared to reappoint all the members of the Perceval ministry under a new leader. The House of Commons formally declared its desire for a "strong and efficient administration",[38] so the Prince Regent then offered leadership of the government to Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, and afterwards to Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 2nd Earl of Moira. He doomed the attempts of both to failure, however, by forcing each to construct a bipartisan ministry at a time when neither party wished to share power with the other. Possibly using the failure of the two peers as a pretext, the Prince Regent immediately reappointed the Perceval administration, with Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, as Prime Minister.[39] is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... John Bellingham (c. ... Richard Wellesley ,1st Marquess Wellesley The Most Honourable Richard Colley Wesley, later Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (20 June 1760 - 26 September 1842), was the eldest son of Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington, an Irish peer, and brother of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... Francis, 1st Marquess of Hastings (Earl of Moira) Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings, (9 December 1754 - 28 November 1826) was a British politician and military officer who served as Governor-General of India from 1813 to 1823. ... Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool (June 7, 1770 - December 4, 1828) was a British statesman, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1812 to 1827. ...

The Prince Regent by Sir Thomas Lawrence, c. 1814
The Prince Regent by Sir Thomas Lawrence, c. 1814

The Tories, unlike Whigs such as Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, sought to continue the vigorous prosecution of the war in Continental Europe against the powerful and aggressive Emperor of the French, Napoleon I.[40] Russia, Prussia, Austria, the United Kingdom and several smaller countries defeated Napoleon in 1814. In the subsequent Congress of Vienna, it was decided that the Electorate of Hanover, a state that had shared a monarch with Britain since 1714, would be raised to a Kingdom. Napoleon made a return in 1815, but was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, the brother of the Marquess Wellesley. Also in 1815, the British-American War of 1812 was brought to an end, with neither side victorious. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 422 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1541 × 2189 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 422 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1541 × 2189 pixel, file size: 2. ... Alexander MacKenzie painted by Thomas Lawrence (c. ... The Right Honourable Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, KG, PC (13 March 1764–17 July 1845), known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was a British Whig statesman and Prime Minister. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors, from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from November 1, 1814, to June 8, 1815. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... Italic text His Grace Field Marshal the Most Noble Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ...


During this period George took an active interest in matters of style and taste, and his associates such as the dandy Beau Brummell and the architect John Nash created the Regency style. In London Nash designed the Regency terraces of Regent's Park and Regent Street. George took up the new idea of the seaside spa and had the Brighton Pavilion developed as a fantastical seaside palace, adapted by Nash in the "Indian Gothic" style inspired loosely by the Taj Mahal, with extravagant "Indian" and "Chinese" interiors.[41] Brummell, engraved from a miniature portrait. ... John Nash For other people of the same name, see John Nash. ... The Regency style of architecture refers primarily to buildings built in Britain during the period in the early 19th century when George IV of the United Kingdom was still Prince Regent, and also to later buildings following the same style. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about Regents Park in London. ... The Quadrant at the bottom of Regent Street. ... The Royal Pavilion The Royal Pavilion is a splendid palace built in Brighton, East Sussex in the 19th Century as a seaside retreat for the then Prince Regent. ... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ...


Reign

The coronation banquet for George IV was held at Westminster Hall on 19 July 1821
The coronation banquet for George IV was held at Westminster Hall on 19 July 1821

When George III died in 1820, the Prince Regent ascended the throne as George IV, with no real change in his powers.[42] By the time of his accession, he was obese and possibly addicted to laudanum.[7] George IVs coronation banquet, 1821. ... George IVs coronation banquet, 1821. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the medicine. ...


George IV's relationship with his wife Caroline had deteriorated by the time of his accession. They had lived separately since 1796, and both were having affairs. Caroline had later left the United Kingdom for Europe, but she chose to return for her husband's coronation, and to publicly assert her rights. However, George IV refused to recognize Caroline as Queen, commanding British ambassadors to ensure that monarchs in foreign courts did the same. By royal command, Caroline's name was omitted from the liturgy of the Church of England. The King sought a divorce, but his advisors suggested that any divorce proceedings might involve the publication of details relating to the King's own adulterous relationships. Therefore, he requested and ensured the introduction of the Pains and Penalties Bill 1820, under which Parliament could have imposed legal penalties without a trial in a court of law. The bill would have annulled the marriage and stripped Caroline of the title of Queen. The bill proved extremely unpopular with the public, and was withdrawn from Parliament. George IV decided, nonetheless, to exclude his wife from his coronation at Westminster Abbey, on 19 July 1821. Caroline fell ill that day and died on 7 August; during her final illness she often stated that she thought she had been poisoned.[43] A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... The Church of England logo since 1996. ... The Pains and Penalties Bill 1820 was a bill introduced to the British Parliament in 1820, at the request of King George IV, who had ascended the throne on 29 January 1820, following the death of his father, King George III. The aim of the bill was deprive the King... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Half-Crown of George IV, 1821. The inscription reads GEORGIUS IIII D[ei] G[ratia] BRITANNIAR[um] REX F[idei] D[efensor] (George IV, by the grace of God King of the Britains (British kingdoms), Defender of the Faith). George IV was the last British King to be shown on coins wearing a Roman-style laurel wreath.
Half-Crown of George IV, 1821. The inscription reads GEORGIUS IIII D[ei] G[ratia] BRITANNIAR[um] REX F[idei] D[efensor] (George IV, by the grace of God King of the Britains (British kingdoms), Defender of the Faith). George IV was the last British King to be shown on coins wearing a Roman-style laurel wreath.

George's coronation was a magnificent and expensive affair, costing about £243,000 (for comparison, his father's coronation had only cost about £10,000). Despite the enormous cost, it was a popular event.[7] In 1821 the King became the first monarch to pay a state visit to Ireland since Richard II of England.[44] The following year he visited Edinburgh for "one and twenty daft days."[45] His visit to Scotland, organised by Sir Walter Scott, was the first by a reigning British monarch since Charles I went there in 1633.[46] ImageMetadata File history File links George4coin. ... ImageMetadata File history File links George4coin. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Sir David Wilkies flattering portrait of the kilted King George IV, with lighting chosen to tone down the brightness of his kilt and his knees shown bare, without the pink tights he wore at the event. ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ...


George IV spent most of his reign in seclusion at Windsor Castle,[47] but he continued to interfere in politics. At first it was believed that he would support Catholic emancipation, as he had proposed a Catholic Emancipation Bill for Ireland in 1797, but his anti-Catholic views became clear in 1813 when he privately canvassed against the ultimately defeated Catholic Relief Bill of 1813. By 1824 he was denouncing Catholic emancipation in public.[48] Having taken the coronation oath on his accession, George now argued that he had sworn to uphold the Protestant faith, and could not support any pro-Catholic measures.[49] The influence of the Crown was so great, and the will of the Tories under Prime Minister Lord Liverpool so strong, that Catholic emancipation seemed hopeless. In 1827, however, Lord Liverpool retired, to be replaced by the pro-emancipation Tory George Canning. When Canning entered office, the King, hitherto content with privately instructing his ministers on the Catholic Question, thought it fit to make a public declaration to the effect that his sentiments on the question were those of his revered father, George III.[50] This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... The son of George IIIs close adviser Charles Jenkinson, 1st Earl of Liverpool and his part-Indian first wife, Amelia Watts, Robert Jenkinson was educated at Charterhouse School and Christ Church, Oxford. ... George Canning (11 April 1770 – 8 August 1827) was a British statesman and politician who served as Foreign Secretary and, briefly, Prime Minister. ...

Gold Double-Pound Coin of George IV, dated 1823
Gold Double-Pound Coin of George IV, dated 1823

Canning's views on the Catholic Question were not well received by the most conservative Tories, including the Duke of Wellington. As a result the ministry was forced to include Whigs.[51] Canning died later in that year, leaving Frederick John Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich to lead the tenuous Tory-Whig coalition. Lord Goderich left office in 1828, to be succeeded by the Duke of Wellington, who had by that time accepted that the denial of some measure of relief to Roman Catholics was politically untenable.[52][53] With great difficulty Wellington obtained the King's consent to the introduction of a Catholic Relief Bill on 29 January 1829. Under pressure from his fanatically anti-Catholic brother, the Duke of Cumberland, the King withdrew his approval and in protest the Cabinet resigned en masse on 4 March. The next day the King, now under intense political pressure, reluctantly agreed to the Bill and the ministry remained in power.[7] Royal Assent was finally granted to the Catholic Relief Act on 13 April.[54] Image File history File links GeorgeIVGoldCoin. ... Image File history File links GeorgeIVGoldCoin. ... The Right Honourable Frederick John Robinson, 1st Earl of Ripon PC (November 1, 1782 – January 28, 1859), Frederick John Robinson until 1827, The Viscount Goderich 1827–1833, and The Earl of Ripon 1833 onwards, was a British statesman and Prime Minister (when he was known as Lord Goderich). ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Ernest Augustus I of Hanover Ernest Augustus I, King of Hanover (5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851), also known (1799-1837) as the Duke of Cumberland, was the fifth son and eighth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Catholic Relief Act 1829 (10 Geo IV c. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


George IV's heavy drinking and indulgent lifestyle had taken its toll on his health by the late 1820s. His taste for huge banquets and copious amounts of alcohol caused him to become obese, making him the target of ridicule on the rare occasions that he did appear in public.[55] Furthermore, he suffered from gout, arteriosclerosis, cataracts and possible porphyria; he would spend whole days in bed and suffered spasms of breathlessness that would leave him half-asphyxiated. He died at about half-past three in the morning of 26 June 1830 at Windsor Castle; he called out "Good God, what is this?" clasped his page's hand and said "my boy, this is death."[56] He was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor on 15 July.[57] // Introduction Arteriosclerosis means the hardening of the arteries in Greek. ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... Porphyrias are a group of inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... St. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


His only legitimate child, Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales, had died from post-partum complications in 1817, after delivering a still-born son; and the eldest of his brothers, Frederick, the Duke of York, had died in 1827. He was therefore succeeded by another brother, Prince William, Duke of Clarence, who reigned as William IV.[58] Engraving from a portrait of Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales, in the National Portrait Gallery, attributed to Sir Thomas Lawrence Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales (January 7, 1796 – November 6, 1817) was the only child of the ill-fated marriage between George IV (at that time the Prince of Wales... Obstetrical hemorrhage refers to heavy bleeding during pregnancy,labor, or the puerperium. ... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ...


Legacy

An unflattering 1819 caricature by George Cruikshank, illustrating "The Political House that Jack Built" by William Hone.
An unflattering 1819 caricature by George Cruikshank, illustrating "The Political House that Jack Built" by William Hone.
"A Voluptuary Under The Horrors of Digestion," a caricature by James Gillray
"A Voluptuary Under The Horrors of Digestion," a caricature by James Gillray

On George's death The Times commented: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (471x957, 70 KB) Summary An unflattering caricature of George IV of the United Kingdom as Prince Regent, by George Cruikshank, illustrating The Political House that Jack Built by William Hone (1819). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (471x957, 70 KB) Summary An unflattering caricature of George IV of the United Kingdom as Prince Regent, by George Cruikshank, illustrating The Political House that Jack Built by William Hone (1819). ... Portrait of George Cruikshank Wood engraving published in Harpers Weekly newspaper March 16, 1878 A Young George Cruikshank George Cruikshank (September 27, 1792—February 1, 1878) was an English caricaturist and book illustrator. ... William Hone (June 3, 1780 - November 6, 1842) was an English writer and bookseller. ... James Gillray James Gillray, sometimes spelled Gilray (born August 13, 1757 in Chelsea; died June 1, 1815), was a British caricaturist and printmaker famous for his etched political and social satires, mainly published between 1792 and 1810. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ...

There never was an individual less regretted by his fellow-creatures than this deceased king. What eye has wept for him? What heart has heaved one throb of unmercenary sorrow? ... If he ever had a friend — a devoted friend in any rank of life — we protest that the name of him or her never reached us.[59]

During the political crisis caused by Catholic emancipation the Duke of Wellington said that George was "the worst man he ever fell in with his whole life, the most selfish, the most false, the most ill-natured, the most entirely without one redeeming quality",[60] but his eulogy delivered in the House of Lords called George "the most accomplished man of his age" and praised his knowledge and talent.[61] Wellington's true views probably lie somewhere between these two extremes; as he said later, George was "a magnificent patron of the arts...the most extraordinary compound of talent, wit, buffoonery, obstinacy, and good feeling — in short a medley of the most opposite qualities, with a great preponderence of good — that I ever saw in any character in my life."[61] This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


George IV was described as the "First Gentleman of England" on account of his style and manners.[62] Certainly, he possessed many good qualities; he was bright, clever and knowledgeable, but his laziness and gluttony led him to squander much of his talent. As The Times once wrote, he would always prefer "a girl and a bottle to politics and a sermon."[63]


There are many statues of George IV, a large number of which were erected during his reign. Some in the United Kingdom include a bronze statue of him on horseback by Sir Francis Chantry in Trafalgar Square, another of him on horseback at the end of the Long Walk in Windsor Great Park and another outside the Royal Pavilion in Brighton. This article is about the metal alloy. ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ... Deer crossing the Long Walk to Windsor Castle Windsor Great Park (locally referred to simply as the Great Park) is a large deer park and Crown Estate of 5,000 acres, to the south of the town of Windsor on the border of Berkshire and Surrey in England. ... For other places with the same name, see Brighton (disambiguation). ...


In Edinburgh, George IV Bridge is a main street linking the Old Town High Street to the south over the ravine of the Cowgate, designed by the architect Thomas Hamilton in 1829 and completed in 1835. King's Cross, now a major transport hub sitting on the border of Camden and Islington in north London, takes its name from a short-lived monument erected to George IV in the early 1830s. From Roman times the area had been known as 'Battle Bridge'.[64] For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Thomas Hamilton, (1784 - 1858) was a Scottish architect, based in Edinburgh. ... Kings Cross refers to a district in two places: Kings Cross, London, England Kings Cross railway station, is a major London railway terminus and Kings Cross, New South Wales is a district in Sydney, Australia Kings Cross railway station, Sydney is an underground railway station in Sydney. ... The London Borough of Camden is a borough of London, England, which forms part of Inner London. ... For other uses, see Islington (disambiguation). ...


The Regency period saw a shift in fashion that was largely determined by George. After political opponents put a tax on wig powder, he abandoned wearing a powdered wig in favour of natural hair.[65] He wore darker colours than had been previously fashionable as they helped to disguise his size, favoured pantaloons and trousers over knee breeches because they were looser, and popularised a high collar with neck cloth because it hid his double chin.[66] His visit to Scotland in 1822 led to the revival, if not the creation, of Scottish tartan dress as it is known today.[67] For the artificial athletic track surface, see tartan track. ...


Titles, styles, honours and arms

Monarchical Styles of
King George IV of the United Kingdom
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sir

Image File history File links Edward's_crown_PD_cleaned. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Look up majesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, meaning literally, Greatness. ...

Titles and styles

(Under the Act of Parliament that instituted the Regency, the Prince's formal title as Regent was Regent of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland,[68] and thus, during the Regency period his formal style was His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales, Regent of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The simplified style His Royal Highness The Prince Regent, used more commonly even in official documents, was a shortened version of that formal style.) is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


George IV's official style as King of the United Kingdom was "George the Fourth, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith." He was also King of Hanover.


Honours

British Honours

Sovereign of..., 29 January 1820–26 June 1830 The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick is an order of chivalry associated with Ireland. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... The Royal Guelphic Order, sometimes also referred to as the Hanoverian Guelphic Order, was a British order of chivalry instituted on 28 April 1815 by the Prince Regent (later George IV). ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ...

Foreign Honours The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick is an order of chivalry associated with Ireland. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... The Royal Guelphic Order, sometimes also referred to as the Hanoverian Guelphic Order, was a British order of chivalry instituted on 28 April 1815 by the Prince Regent (later George IV). ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Collar and Breast Star of the Order of St. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Order of the Holy Spirit, also known as the Order of the Knights of the Holy Spirit, (French: LOrdre du Saint Espirt; LOrdre des Chevaliers du Saint Esprit) was an Order of Chivalry under the French Monarchy. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Order of Saint Michael (French: LOrdre de Saint-Michel) was the first French chivalric order, founded by Louis XI of France in 1469, in competitive response to the Burgundian Order of the Golden Fleece founded by Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, Louis chief competitor for the allegiance... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ... The founder, Philip the Good , with at least six other Members wearing collars, 1447-8 Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, with the collar of the Order The Order of the Golden Fleece (Spanish: Orden del Toisón de Oro) is an order of chivalry founded in 1430 by Duke Philip... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Order of the Black Eagle The Order of the Black Eagle (German: Schwarzer-Adler-Orden) was the highest order of chivalry in Prussia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Order of the Red Eagle was an order of chivalry of Prussia, awarded to recognize valor in combat or excellence in military leadership. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The founder, Philip the Good , with at least six other Members wearing collars, 1447-8 Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, with the collar of the Order The Order of the Golden Fleece (Spanish: Orden del Toisón de Oro) is an order of chivalry founded in 1430 by Duke Philip... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Coat of arms of Frederick IV of Denmark and Norway surrounded by the collars of the Order of the Elephant and the Order of the Dannebrog. ... Image File history File links Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 1738-1848 Flag drawn by Jaume Ollé, from [Flags Of The World website] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 1738-1848 Flag drawn by Jaume Ollé, from [Flags Of The World website] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Illustrious Order of Saint Januarius (Italian: LInsigne Ordine di San Gennaro) is an order of knighthood bestowed by the head of the Royal House of Bourbon of the Two Sicilies. ... Image File history File links Flag_Portugal_(1707). ... Image File history File links Flag_Portugal_(1707). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(striped). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Honorary military appointments

Armorial bearings of the HAC, granted in 1821 The Honourable Artillery Company (HAC) is the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior[2] in the Territorial Army [3] . // The HAC can trace its history as far back as 1296, but it received a Royal Charter... The 10th Royal Hussars (Prince of Waless Own) was a cavalry regiment of the British Army from 1715 to 1969. ... The Life Guards is the senior regiment of the British Army. ...

Arms

His arms, when King, were: Quarterly, I and IV Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); overall an escutcheon tierced per pale and per chevron (for Hanover), I Gules two lions passant guardant Or (for Brunswick), II Or a semy of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure (for Lüneburg), III Gules a horse courant Argent (for Westfalen), the whole inescutcheon surmounted by a crown.[69][70] Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ...


As Prince of Wales, George bore the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points.[71]


Ancestors

George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Sophia Dorothea (15 September 1666 – 13 November 1726) was the wife and cousin of George Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, later George I of Great Britain, and mother of George II through an arranged marriage of state, instigated by the machinations of Duchess Sophia of Hanover. ... The Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales (Frederick Louis; 1 February 1707 – 31 March 1751) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eldest son of George II. He was born into the House of Hanover and, under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick... Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (October 18, 1654 - March 22, 1686), succeeded his father Albrecht V as margrave in 1667. ... Caroline of Ansbach (later Queen Caroline; Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737) was the queen consort of George II. // Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach was born on 1 March 1683, at Ansbach in Germany, the daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and his second wife... George III redirects here. ... Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (b. ... Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (b. ... Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels (2 September 1648 – 7 January 1681) was a German noblewoman. ... Augusta of Saxe-Gotha Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (November 30, 1719 – February 8, 1772) was Princess of Wales from May 8, 1736 to March 31, 1751. ... Karl Wilhelm of Anhalt-Zerbst (October 16, 1652 - November 3, 1718) was a German prince from the House of Ascania, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst between 1667 and his death, and great-grandfather of King George III of Great Britain. ... Magdalena Augusta (October 13, 1679 - October 11, 1740) was a Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and grandmother of George III of England. ... Adolf Friedrich II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (19 October 1658 - 12 May 1708) was reigning Duke from 1658 to his death. ... Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Strelitz, February 23, 1708 - Mirow, June 5, 1752) was the second son of the Prince of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and father of Queen Charlotte of England. ... Queen Charlotte, (née Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was the queen consort of George III of the United Kingdom (1738–1820). ... Ernst of Saxe-Hildburghausen. ... Ernest Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen Ernst Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen (b. ... Princess Elizabeth Albertine Princess of Saxe-Hildburghausen, Duchess in Saxony (4 August 1713 - 29 June 1761) was a member of the reigning family of Mecklenburg-Strelitz during the 18th century. ...

See also

  • Cultural depictions of George IV of the United Kingdom

Notes and sources

  1. ^ Macalpine, Ida; Hunter, Richard (1966). "'The 'insanity' of King George III: a classic case of porphyria". Brit. Med. J. 1: 65–71.
  2. ^ De-la-Noy, p.43
  3. ^ Parissien, p.171
  4. ^ Smith, E. A., p.1
  5. ^ Smith, E. A., p.2
  6. ^ Hibbert, George IV: Prince of Wales 1762–1811, p.2
  7. ^ a b c d e Hibbert, Christopher (2004), "George IV (1762–1830)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press)
  8. ^ Smith, E. A., pp.25–28
  9. ^ Smith, E. A., p.48
  10. ^ Smith, E. A., p.33
  11. ^ Tarkow, I. Naamani (December, 1943). "The Significance of the Act of Settlement in the Evolution of English Democracy". Political Science Quarterly 58 (4): 537–561.
  12. ^ Smith, Philip (1868). A Smaller History of England, from the Earliest Times to the Year 1862. Harper & Bros., p.295. 
  13. ^ Smith, E. A., pp.36–38
  14. ^ David, pp.57–91
  15. ^ a b c d Innes, Arthur Donald (1914). A History of England and the British Empire, Vol. 3. The MacMillan Company, pp.396–397. 
  16. ^ De-la-Noy, p.31
  17. ^ Röhl, J. C. G.; Warren, M.; Hunt, D. (1998). Purple Secret. Bantam Press. 
  18. ^ a b c d David, pp.92–119
  19. ^ Smith, E. A., p.54
  20. ^ Derry, p.71
  21. ^ Derry, p.91
  22. ^ a b May, Thomas Erskine (1896). The Constitutional History of England Since the Accession of George the Third, 1760–1860, 11th ed., London: Longmans, Green and Co, chapter III pp.184–95. 
  23. ^ a b Derry, p.109
  24. ^ Derry, p.181
  25. ^ Smith, E. A., p.70
  26. ^ a b David, pp.150–205
  27. ^ Parissien, p.60
  28. ^ Hibbert, George IV: Prince of Wales 1762–1811, p.18
  29. ^ Hibbert, George IV: Regent and King 1811–1830, p.214
  30. ^ De-la-Noy, p.55
  31. ^ Smith, E. A., p.97
  32. ^ Smith, E. A., p.92
  33. ^ Ashley, Mike (1998). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. London: Robinson, p.684. ISBN 1-84119-096-9. 
  34. ^ Innes, Arthur Donald (1915). A History of England and the British Empire, Vol. 4. The MacMillan Company, p.50. 
  35. ^ a b The Prince Regent and His Circle: In their own words. Channel 4. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  36. ^ Parissien, p.185
  37. ^ Smith, E. A., pp.141–2
  38. ^ Smith, E. A., p.144
  39. ^ Smith, E. A., p.145
  40. ^ Smith, E. A., p.146
  41. ^ Rutherford, Jessica M. F. (1995). The Royal Pavilion: The Palace of George IV. Brighton Borough Council, p.81. ISBN 0948723211. 
  42. ^ Innes, Arthur Donald (1915). A History of England and the British Empire, Vol. 4. The MacMillan Company, p.81. 
  43. ^ Innes, Arthur Donald (1915). A History of England and the British Empire, Vol. 4. The MacMillan Company, p.82. 
  44. ^ De-la-Noy, p.95
  45. ^ Prebble, John (2000). The King's Jaunt: George IV in Scotland, 1822. Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited. ISBN 1-84158-068-6. 
  46. ^ Parissien, p.318
  47. ^ The official website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
  48. ^ Parissien, p.189
  49. ^ Smith, E. A., p.238
  50. ^ Hibbert, George IV: Regent and King 1811–1830, p.292
  51. ^ Smith, E. A., pp.231–4
  52. ^ Parissien, p.190
  53. ^ Smith, E. A., p.237
  54. ^ Parissien, p.381
  55. ^ Parissien, p.355 George's favorite breakfast reputedly consisted of two roast pigeons, three beefsteaks, a bottle of white wine, a glass of champagne, two glasses of port, and one of brandy. mental floss presents Forbidden Knowledge: A Wickedly Smart Guide to History's Naughtiest Bits, Collins, 2005.
  56. ^ De-la-Noy, p.103
  57. ^ Hibbert, George IV: Regent and King 1811–1830, p.336
  58. ^ Innes, Arthur Donald (1915). A History of England and the British Empire, Vol. 4. The MacMillan Company, p.105. 
  59. ^ The Times (London) 15 July 1830 quoted in Hibbert, George IV: Regent and King 1811–1830, p.342
  60. ^ Hibbert, George IV: Regent and King 1811–1830, p.310
  61. ^ a b Hibbert, George IV: Regent and King 1811–1830, p.344
  62. ^ The Diary of Prince Pückler-Muskau (May 1828). Quoted in Parissien, p.420
  63. ^ Clarke, John (1975), "George IV", The Lives of the Kings and Queens of England (Knopf): p.225
  64. ^ Camden's history. Camden Council. Retrieved on 2007-03-05.
  65. ^ Parissien, p.112
  66. ^ Parissien, p.114
  67. ^ Parissien, pp.324–6
  68. ^ Hibbert, George IV: Prince of Wales 1762–1811, p.280
  69. ^ "A Proclamation Declaring His Majesty's Pleasure concerning the Royal Styles and Titles appertaining to the Imperial Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and its Dependencies, and also the Ensigns, Armorial Flags, and Banners thereof", The London Gazette (no. 15324): pp. 2–3, 30 December 1800
  70. ^ "By His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, Regent of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, in the Name and on the Behalf of His Majesty, A Proclamation", The London Gazette (no. 17149): pp. 1237–1238, 29 June 1816
  71. ^ Heraldica – British Royalty Cadency

Thomas Erskine May, 1st Baron Farnborough Thomas Erskine May, 1st Baron Farnborough (8 February 1815–17 May 1886) was a British constitutional theorist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the beverage. ... This article is about Champagne, the alcoholic beverage. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1816 (MDCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

References

  • David, Saul (2000). Prince of Pleasure: The Prince of Wales and the Making of the Regency. Grove Press. ISBN 0802137032. 
  • De-la-Noy, Michael (1998). George IV. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-1821-7. 
  • Derry, John W. (1963). The Regency Crisis and the Whigs. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Hibbert, Christopher (1972). George IV, Prince of Wales, 1762–1811. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-12675-4. 
  • Hibbert, Christopher (1973). George IV, Regent and King, 1811–1830. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-0487-9. 
  • Parissien, Steven (2001). George IV: The Grand Entertainment. London: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-5652-X. 
  • Smith, E. A. (1999). George IV. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300076851. 

Christopher Hibbert, MC, (born 1924) is an English writer and popular historian and biographer. ...

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
George IV of the United Kingdom
  • Baker, Kenneth (2005). George IV: A Life in Caricature. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-25127-4. 
  • Machin, G. I. T. (1964). The Catholic Question in English Politics 1820 to 1830. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
George IV of the United Kingdom
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 12 August 1762 Died: 26 June 1830
Regnal titles
Preceded by
George III
King of the United Kingdom
King of Hanover

29 January 1820 – 26 June 1830
Succeeded by
William IV
British royalty
Preceded by
Prince Edward, Duke of York
Heir to the Thrones (later Throne)
as heir apparent
1762 – 1820
Succeeded by
Prince Frederick, Duke of York
Freemasonry offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Moira
as Acting Grand Master
Grand Master of the Premier
Grand Lodge of England

1792 – 1812
Succeeded by
The Duke of Sussex
Preceded by
The Earl of Dalhousie
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland
1806 – 1820
Succeeded by
The Duke of Hamilton
Other offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Portland
President of the Foundling Hospital
1809 – 1820
Succeeded by
The Duke of York
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Prince George, Duke of Edinburgh
later became King George III
Prince of Wales
1762 – 1820
Vacant
Title next held by
Prince Albert, Duke of Cornwall
later became King Edward VII

Persondata
NAME George IV
ALTERNATIVE NAMES George Augustus Frederick
SHORT DESCRIPTION King of the United Kingdom
DATE OF BIRTH August 12, 1762
PLACE OF BIRTH St. James's Palace, London, England
DATE OF DEATH June 26, 1830
PLACE OF DEATH Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire
is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... This article is about the English town. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
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George III, the grandson of George II, was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but the first to be born in Britain and to use English as his first language.
In stark contrast to the other Hanoverian Kings of Britain, George III took his position seriously and battled tirelessly with the many political issues of the era.
The first years of his Kingship saw a continuation of the confident silver designs of the late George II period, but as trouble grew in America, the style of silver began to return to the plainer forms of the Queen Anne period, reaching its pinnacle of simplicity around 1790.
George IV of the United Kingdom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3076 words)
George was a stubborn monarch, often interfering in politics (especially in the matter of Catholic Emancipation), though not as much as his father.
George, the eldest son of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was born in St.
George IV died in 1830 and was buried in Windsor Castle.
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