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Encyclopedia > George III of the United Kingdom
George III
King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; King of Hanover; prev. King of Great Britain and Ireland; Elector of Hanover (more...)
Portrait by Allan Ramsay, 1762
Portrait by Allan Ramsay, 1762
Reign 25 October 176029 January 1820
(59 years)
Coronation 22 September 1761
Predecessor George II
Regent George, Prince Regent (1811–1820)
Successor George IV
Consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Issue
George IV
Frederick, Duke of York
William IV
Charlotte, Princess Royal
Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent
Princess Augusta Sophia
Princess Elizabeth
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Princess Mary
Princess Sophia
Prince Octavius
Prince Alfred
Princess Amelia
Full name
George William Frederick
Titles and styles
HM The King
HRH The Prince of Wales
HRH The Duke of Edinburgh
HRH Prince George of Wales
Royal house House of Hanover
Royal anthem God Save the King
Father Frederick, Prince of Wales
Mother Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Born 4 June 1738 [N.S.][1]
Norfolk House, St James's Square, London, Great Britain
Baptised 4 June and 4 July 1738[N.S.]
Norfolk House, London, Great Britain
Died 29 January 1820 (aged 81)
Windsor Castle, Berkshire, United Kingdom
Burial 15 February 1820
St George's Chapel, Windsor, United Kingdom

George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738[1]29 January 1820 [N.S.]) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. He was concurrently Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover), and thus Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, and later King of Hanover. The Electorate became the Kingdom of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, and the first of Hanover to be born in Britain and speak English as his first language.[2] In fact, he never visited Germany. George III may refer to: George III of Georgia (died 1184). ... The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1487x2159, 655 KB) old portrait of the king by allen ramsay ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English... Portrait of David Hume by Allan Ramsay, 1766. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... George IV redirects here. ... George IV redirects here. ... Queen Charlotte, (née Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was the queen consort of George III of the United Kingdom (1738–1820). ... George IV redirects here. ... The Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (Frederick Augustus) (16 August 1763 - 5 January 1827) was a member of the British Royal Family, the second eldest child, and second son, of King George III. From 1820 until his death in 1827, he was the heir presumptive to his elder... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of Hanover and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... Queen Charlotte of Württemberg, (born The Princess Charlotte, later The Princess Royal) (Charlotte Augusta Matilda), (29 September 1766-5 October 1828) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eldest daughter of King George III. She was later the Queen consort of Frederick I of Württemberg. ... HRH The Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn The Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (2 November 1767 – 23 January 1820) was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria. ... Augusta Sophia (November 8, 1768-September 22, 1840), Princess of Great Britain and Ireland, Princess of Hanover, Duchess of Brunswick and Lüneburg. ... The Princess Elizabeth (22 May 1770 - 10 January 1840) was a member of the British Royal Family, the 7th child and 3rd daughter of George III of the United Kingdom. ... Ernest Augustus I of Hanover Ernest Augustus I, King of Hanover (5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851), also known (1799-1837) as the Duke of Cumberland, was the fifth son and eighth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ... Portrait of Prince Augustus Frederick by Louis Gauffier Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex (27 January 1773 – 21 April 1843), was the sixth son of King George III of the United Kingdom and his consort, Queen Charlotte. ... Prince Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge (24 February 1774-8 July 1850), was the tenth-born child and seventh son of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ... The Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh (25 April 1776 - 30 April 1857) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eleventh child and fourth daughter of King George III. // Early life Princess Mary was born, on 25 April 1776, at Buckingham Palace, London. ... The Princess Sophia (Sophia Matilda; 2 November 1777 - 27 May 1848) was a member of the British Royal Family, the twelfth child and fifth daughter of George III. // The Princess Sophia was born at Buckingham Palace, London. ... The Prince Octavius (23 February 1779 - 3 May 1783) was a member of the British Royal Family, the thirteenth child and seventh son of George III // [edit] Life Prince Octavius was born, on 23 February 1779, at Buckingham Palace, London. ... The Prince Alfred (22 September 1780 - 20 August 1783) was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourteenth child and ninth son of George III // Prince Alfred was born, on 22 September 1780, at Windsor Castle, Berkshire. ... For other persons known as Princess Amelia, see Princess Amelia The Princess Amelia (7 August 1783 - 2 November 1810), was a member of the British Royal Family. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... A royal anthem is a patriotic song, much like a national anthem that recognizes the nations monarch. ... This article is on the British patriotic anthem. ... The Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales (Frederick Louis; 1 February 1707 – 31 March 1751) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eldest son of George II. He was born into the House of Hanover and, under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick... Augusta of Saxe-Gotha Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (November 30, 1719 – February 8, 1772) was Princess of Wales from May 8, 1736 to March 31, 1751. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Norfolk House, at 31 St James’s Square, London, was built in 1722 for the Duke of Norfolk. ... St Jamess Square in 1750, looking north St. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... Old Style redirects here. ... Norfolk House, at 31 St James’s Square, London, was built in 1722 for the Duke of Norfolk. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Members of the public outside St Georges Chapel at Windsor Castle, waiting to watch the Garter Procession St Georges Chapel is the place of worship at Windsor Castle in England. ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Old Style redirects here. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... The designation King of Ireland has been used during three periods of Irish history. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... Brunswick-Lüneburg was an historical state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The following is a list of rulers of the Principality of Calenberg, a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, which was later known as Hanover. ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


George III's long reign was marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdom and much of the rest of Europe. Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of its American colonies were soon lost in the American Revolutionary War, which led to the establishment of the United States. Later, the kingdom became involved in a series of wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France, which finally concluded in the defeat of Napoleon in 1815. In addition, during George's reign the realms of Great Britain and Ireland were joined, forming the United Kingdom. For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... North American redirects here. ... This article is about military actions only. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


Later in his reign George III suffered from recurrent and, eventually, permanent mental illness. This baffled medical science at the time, although it is now generally thought that he suffered from the blood disease porphyria. Porphyria can be triggered by the poison arsenic, and recent studies have shown high levels of arsenic in locks of King George's hair. After a final relapse in 1810, his eldest son, George, Prince of Wales ruled as Prince Regent. On George III's death, the Prince of Wales succeeded his father as George IV. Historical analysis of George III's life has gone through a "kaleidoscope of changing views" which have depended heavily on the prejudices of and sources available to his biographers.[3] A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Porphyrias are a group of inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway). ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... George IV redirects here. ... Prince Regent (or Prince Regnant, as a direct borrowing from French language) is a prince who rules a country instead of a sovereign, e. ...

Contents

Early life

Prince George of Wales was born in London at Norfolk House and was the son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and the grandson of George II. Prince George's mother was Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. As Prince George was born two months premature and was thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by the Rector of St James's.[4] He was publicly baptised by the Bishop of Oxford, Thomas Secker, at Norfolk House on 4 July 1738 (New Style). His godparents were the King of Sweden (for whom Lord Baltimore stood proxy), the Duke of Saxe-Gotha (for whom the Duke of Chandos stood proxy) and the Queen of Prussia (for whom Lady Charlotte Edwin, a daughter of the Duke of Hamilton, stood proxy). This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Norfolk House, at 31 St James’s Square, London, was built in 1722 for the Duke of Norfolk. ... The Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales (Frederick Louis; 1 February 1707 – 31 March 1751) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eldest son of George II. He was born into the House of Hanover and, under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (November 30, 1719-February 8, 1772) was Princess of Wales from May 8, 1736 to March 31, 1751. ... The Bishop of Oxford is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Oxford in the Province of Canterbury. ... Thomas Secker (1693-1768), archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Sibthorpe, Nottinghamshire. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... Frederick I (Fredrik I) (April 23, 1676–March 25, 1751), was King of Sweden from 1720 and (as Friedrich I von Hessen-Kassel) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1730 until his death. ... Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore (September 29, 1699 - April 24, 1751) was a British noble and Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland. ... Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (b. ... James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos (1673 - 9 August 1744) had been member of parliament for Hereford from 1698 to 1714, and, three days after his fathers death, was created Viscount Wilton and earl of Carnarvon. ... Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (March 16, 1687 – June 28, 1757) was a Princess of Hanover, being the daughter of Georg Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later George I of Great Britain) and Sophia Dorothea of Celle. ... James Douglas, 4th Duke of Hamilton, (1658 – November 15, 1712), eldest son of William Douglas, Duke of Hamilton and of Duchess Anne, succeeded his mother, who resigned the dukedom to him in 1698. ...


George grew into a healthy child but his grandfather George II disliked the Prince of Wales and took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury, and Prince George became heir apparent to the throne. He inherited one of his father's titles and became the Duke of Edinburgh. Now more interested in his grandson, three weeks later the King created George Prince of Wales.[5] In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday, the King offered him a grand establishment at St James's Palace, but George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidante, Lord Bute, who would later serve as Prime Minister.[6] George's mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, mistrusted her father-in-law and preferred to keep George separate from his company. Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... The Duke of Edinburgh is a dukedom associated with Edinburgh, Scotland. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... Main entrance of St Jamess Palace, London St Jamess Palace is one of Londons oldest and most historic palaces. ... John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (May 25, 1713 - March 10, 1792), was a Scottish nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain (1762-1763) under George III. A close relative of the Campbell clan (his mother was a daughter of the First Duke of Argyll), Bute succeeded to... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


Marriage

In 1759 George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox,[7] daughter of the Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness and misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and consequently must often act contrary to my passion." Nevertheless, attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophia Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother.[8][9] Lady Sarah Lennox (February 14, 1745-August 1826) was the most notorious of the famous Lennox sisters, daughters of Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond. ... Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, 2nd Duke of Lennox (born at Goodwood, Sussex on 18 May 1701; died at Godalming on 8 August 1750) was the son of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond. ...

The Three Youngest Daughters of King George III. c. 1785 Oil on canvas by John Singleton Copley.
The Three Youngest Daughters of King George III. c. 1785 Oil on canvas by John Singleton Copley.

The following year, George succeeded to the Crown when his grandfather, George II, died suddenly on 25 October 1760. The search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761, the King married in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day. A fortnight later, both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mistress (in contrast with both his Hanoverian predecessors and his sons), and the couple enjoyed a genuinely happy marriage.[2][7] They had 15 children—nine sons and six daughters. In 1761, the King purchased Buckingham House (now Palace) for use as a family retreat. Portrait of Copley by Gilbert Stuart. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Chapel Royal did not originally refer to a building but an establishment in the Royal Household. ... Main entrance of St Jamess Palace, London St Jamess Palace is one of Londons oldest and most historic palaces. ... Queen Charlotte, (née Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was the queen consort of George III of the United Kingdom (1738–1820). ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ...


Early reign

Although George's accession was at first welcomed by politicians of all parties,[10] the first years of George's reign were marked by political instability, largely generated as a result of disagreements over the Seven Years' War.[11] The favouritism which George showed towards Tory ministers led to his denunciation by the Whigs as an autocrat in the manner of Charles I.[2] In May 1762, George replaced the incumbent Whig ministry of the Duke of Newcastle with one led by the Scottish Tory Lord Bute, who was not a member of either House of Parliament.[12] Bute's opponents worked against him by spreading the calumny that he was having an affair with the King's mother, and by exploiting anti-Scottish prejudices amongst the English.[13] In 1763, after concluding the Peace of Paris ending the war, Lord Bute resigned, allowing the Whigs under George Grenville to return to power. Later that year, the British government under George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 that placed a boundary upon the westward expansion of the American colonies. The Proclamation's goal was to force colonists to negotiate with the Native Americans for the lawful purchase of the land and, therefore, to reduce the costly frontier warfare that had erupted over land conflicts. The Proclamation Line, as it came to be known, was extremely unpopular with the Americans and ultimately became another wedge between the colonists and the British government that would eventually lead to war. With the American colonists generally unburdened by British taxes, the government found it increasingly difficult to pay for the defence of the colonies against native uprisings and the possibility of French incursions.[14] In 1765, Grenville introduced the Stamp Act, which levied a stamp duty on every document in the British colonies in North America. Meanwhile, the King had become exasperated at Grenville's attempts to reduce the King's prerogatives, and tried, unsuccessfully, to persuade William Pitt the Elder to accept the office of Prime Minister.[15] After a brief illness, which may have presaged his illnesses to come, George settled on Lord Rockingham to form a ministry, and dismissed Grenville.[16] For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scots and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. ... Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme (July 21, 1693 - November 17, 1768) was a Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century. ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... George Grenville (14 October 1712 – 13 November 1770) was a British Whig statesman who served in government for the relatively short period of seven years, reaching the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... A portion of eastern North America; the 1763 Proclamation line is the border between the red and the pink areas. ... The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. ... Stamp duty is a form of tax that is levied on documents. ... William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham PC (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British Whig statesman who achieved his greatest fame as Secretary of State during the Seven Years War (known as the French and Indian War in North America) and who was later Prime Minister of Great... Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham (May 13, 1730 – July 1, 1782) was a British Whig statesman, most notable for his two terms as Whig Prime Minister of Great Britain. ...


Lord Rockingham, with the support of Pitt, repealed Grenville's unpopular Stamp Act, but his government was weak and he was replaced in 1766 by Pitt, whom George created Earl of Chatham. The actions of Lord Chatham and George III in repealing the Act were so popular in America that statues of them both were erected in New York City.[17] Lord Chatham fell ill in 1767, allowing the Duke of Grafton to take over the government, although he did not formally become Prime Minister until 1768. His government disintegrated in 1770, allowing the Tories to return to power.[18] The Earl of Chatham was a peerage given to William Pitt the Elder in 1766, after which he became Lord Privy Seal. ... The history of New York City (1665-1783) began with the establishment of British rule over formerly Dutch New Amsterdam and New Netherland. ... The Most Noble Augustus Henry FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, KG, PC (28 September 1735–14 March 1811) was a British Whig statesman of the Georgian era. ...


The government of the new Prime Minister, Lord North, was chiefly concerned with discontent in America. To assuage American opinion most of the custom duties were withdrawn, with the exception of the tea duty, which in George's words was "one tax to keep up the right [to levy taxes]".[19] In 1773, a Boston mob threw 342 crates of tea, costing approximately £10,000, into Boston Harbor as a political protest, an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. In Britain, opinion hardened against the colonists, with Chatham now agreeing with North that the destruction of the tea was "certainly criminal".[20] Lord North introduced the Punitive Acts, known as the Coercive Acts or the Intolerable Acts by the colonists: the Port of Boston was shut down and legislative elections in the Colony of Massachusetts Bay were suspended. Up to this point, in the words of Professor Peter Thomas, George's "hopes were centred on a political solution, and he always bowed to his cabinet's opinions even when sceptical of their success. The detailed evidence of the years from 1763 to 1775 tends to exonerate George III from any real responsibility for the American Revolution."[21] Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, KG, PC (13 April 1732 – 5 August 1792), more often known by his courtesy title, Lord North, which he used from 1752 until 1790, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782, and a major actor in the American Revolution. ... Boston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... This article is about a 1773 American protest. ... The Intolerable Acts or the Coercive Acts were names given by colonists in the Thirteen Colonies to a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in March of 1774. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


On George's accession, the Crown lands produced relatively little income; most revenue was generated through taxes and excise duties. George surrendered the Crown Estate to Parliamentary control in return for a Civil List annuity for the support of his household and the expenses of Civil Government,[22] some of which he used to reward supporters with bribes and gifts.[23] Debts amounting to over £3 million over the course of George's reign were paid by Parliament, and the Civil List annuity was increased from time to time.[24] Crown land is a designated area belonging to the Crown, the equivalent of an entailed estate that passed with the monarchy and could not be alienated from it. ... In the United Kingdom, the Crown Estate is a property portfolio associated with the monarchy. ... A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money is paid by the government. ...


American Revolutionary War

British Royalty
House of Hanover
George III
   George IV
   Frederick, Duke of York
   William IV
   Charlotte, Queen of Württemberg
   Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent
   Princess Augusta Sophia
   Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
   Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
   Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
   Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
   Mary, Duchess of Gloucester
   Princess Sophia
   Prince Octavius
   Prince Alfred
   Princess Amelia
Grandchildren
   Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
   Princess Charlotte of Clarence
   Princess Elizabeth of Clarence
   Victoria
   George V, King of Hanover
   George, Duke of Cambridge
   Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
   Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck

The American Revolutionary War began when armed conflict between British regulars and colonial militiamen broke out in New England in April 1775. A month later, delegates of the thirteen British colonies drafted a peace proposal known as the Olive Branch Petition. The proposal was quickly rejected in London because fighting had already erupted. A year later, in July 1776, the colonies declared their independence from the Crown and became a new nation known as the United States of America. The Declaration was a long list of grievances against the British King, legislature, and populace. Amongst George's other offences, the Declaration charged, "He has abdicated Government here... He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people." George was indignant when he learned of the opinions of the colonists. In the war the British captured New York City in 1776, but the grand strategic plan of invading from Canada failed with the surrender of the British Lieutenant-General John Burgoyne at the Battle of Saratoga. In 1778, France (Great Britain's chief rival) signed a treaty of friendship with the new United States. Lord North asked to transfer power to Lord Chatham, whom he thought more capable. George, however, would hear nothing of such suggestions; he suggested that Chatham serve as a subordinate minister in Lord North's administration. Chatham refused to cooperate, and died later in the same year.[25] Great Britain was then at war with France, and in 1779 it was also at war with Spain. This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Image File history File links UK_Arms_1801. ... George IV redirects here. ... The Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (Frederick Augustus) (16 August 1763 - 5 January 1827) was a member of the British Royal Family, the second eldest child, and second son, of King George III. From 1820 until his death in 1827, he was the heir presumptive to his elder... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of Hanover and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... Queen Charlotte of Württemberg, (born The Princess Charlotte, later The Princess Royal) (Charlotte Augusta Matilda), (29 September 1766-5 October 1828) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eldest daughter of King George III. She was later the Queen consort of Frederick I of Württemberg. ... HRH The Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn The Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (2 November 1767 – 23 January 1820) was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria. ... Augusta Sophia (November 8, 1768-September 22, 1840), Princess of Great Britain and Ireland, Princess of Hanover, Duchess of Brunswick and Lüneburg. ... The Princess Elizabeth (22 May 1770 - 10 January 1840) was a member of the British Royal Family, the 7th child and 3rd daughter of George III of the United Kingdom. ... Ernest Augustus I of Hanover Ernest Augustus I, King of Hanover (5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851), also known (1799-1837) as the Duke of Cumberland, was the fifth son and eighth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ... Portrait of Prince Augustus Frederick by Louis Gauffier Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex (27 January 1773 – 21 April 1843), was the sixth son of King George III of the United Kingdom and his consort, Queen Charlotte. ... Prince Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge (24 February 1774-8 July 1850), was the tenth-born child and seventh son of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ... The Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh (25 April 1776 - 30 April 1857) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eleventh child and fourth daughter of King George III. // Early life Princess Mary was born, on 25 April 1776, at Buckingham Palace, London. ... The Princess Sophia (Sophia Matilda; 2 November 1777 - 27 May 1848) was a member of the British Royal Family, the twelfth child and fifth daughter of George III. // The Princess Sophia was born at Buckingham Palace, London. ... The Prince Octavius (23 February 1779 - 3 May 1783) was a member of the British Royal Family, the thirteenth child and seventh son of George III // [edit] Life Prince Octavius was born, on 23 February 1779, at Buckingham Palace, London. ... The Prince Alfred (22 September 1780 - 20 August 1783) was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourteenth child and ninth son of George III // Prince Alfred was born, on 22 September 1780, at Windsor Castle, Berkshire. ... For other persons known as Princess Amelia, see Princess Amelia The Princess Amelia (7 August 1783 - 2 November 1810), was a member of the British Royal Family. ... Engraving from a portrait of Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales, in the National Portrait Gallery, attributed to Sir Thomas Lawrence Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales (January 7, 1796 – November 6, 1817) was the only child of the ill-fated marriage between George IV (at that time the Prince of Wales... Her Highness Princess Charlotte of Clarence (Charlotte Augusta Louisa) (March 21, 1819-March 21, 1819) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of King George III. At the time of her birth she was third in the line of succession to the British throne. ... Princess Elizabeth of Clarence (Elizabeth Georgiana Adelaide) (10 December 1820 – 4 March 1821) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of King George III. At the time of her birth she was third in the line of succession to the British throne. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... George V, King of Hanover and 2nd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, Georg Friedrich Alexander Karl Ernst August (27 May 1819 – 12 June 1878) was the only son of Ernst August I, King of Hanover and 1st Duke of Cumberland (fifth son of King George III of the United Kingdom... Prince George, 2nd Duke of Cambridge Prince George, Duke of Cambridge (26 March 1819 – 17 March 1904), was a member of the British Royal Family, a male-line grandson of King George III. The Duke was an army officer and served as commander-in-chief of the British Army from... Princess Augusta of Cambridge (19 July 1822 – 5 December 1916), was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George III. She married into the Grand Ducal House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and became the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. ... Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge (Mary Adelaide Wilhelmina Elizabeth; 27 November 1833 – 27 October 1897) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George III. She later held the title of Duchess of Teck by marriage. ... This article is about military actions only. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting the first draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. ... The Olive Branch Petition The Olive Branch Petition, written in the early days of the American Revolutionary War, was a letter to King George III from members of the Second Continental Congress who—for the final time—appealed to their king to readdress colonial grievances in order to avoid more... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... General John Burgoyne (February 24, 1722 – August 4, 1792) was a British army officer, politician and dramatist. ... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Major Generals V. Riedesel, 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford (April 13, 1732–August 5, 1792), more often known by his earlier title, Lord North, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782, and a major actor in the American Revolution. ... The Earl of Chatham was a peerage given to William Pitt the Elder in 1766, after which he became Lord Privy Seal. ...


George III obstinately tried to keep Great Britain at war with the revolutionaries in America, despite the opinions of his own ministers. Lord Gower and Lord Weymouth both resigned rather than suffer the indignity of being associated with the war. Lord North's opinion matched that of his ministerial colleagues, which he appears to have told George III, but stayed in office. Eventually, George gave up hope of subduing America by more armies. "It was a joke," he said, "to think of keeping Pennsylvania." There was no hope of ever recovering New England. But the King was determined "never to acknowledge the independence of the Americans, and to punish their contumacy by the indefinite prolongation of a war which promised to be eternal."[26] His plan was to keep the 30,000 men garrisoned in New York, Rhode Island, Canada, and Florida; other forces would attack the French and Spanish in the West Indies. To punish the Americans the King planned to destroy their coasting-trade, bombard their ports, sack and burn towns along the coast (like New London, Connecticut), and turn loose the Indians to attack civilians in frontier settlements. These operations, the King felt, would inspire the Loyalists, splinter the Congress, and "keep the rebels harassed, anxious, and poor, until the day when, by a natural and inevitable process, discontent and disappointment were converted into penitence and remorse". They would beg to return to his authority.[27] The plan, however, meant destruction for the Loyalists and loyal Indians, and indefinite prolongation of a costly war, as well as the risk of disaster as the French and Spanish were assembling an armada to invade the British Isles and seize London. Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Marquess of Stafford, 2nd Earl Gower (4 August 1721 - 26 October 1803) was a British politician. ... Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath, 3rd Viscount Weymouth (1734-1796), English politician, was the elder son of Thomas Thynne, 2nd Viscount Weymouth (1710—1751), and the great-grandnephew of Thomas Thynne (c. ... Nickname: Motto: MARE LIBERUM Coordinates: , NECTA Norwich-New London Region Southeastern Connecticut Settled 1646 (Pequot Plantation) Named 1658 (New London) Incorporated (city) 1784 Government  - Type Council-manager  - City council Margaret Mary Curtin, Mayor Kevin J. Cavanagh, Dep. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ...


In 1781, the news of Lord Cornwallis's surrender at the Siege of Yorktown reached London; Lord North's parliamentary support ebbed away and he subsequently resigned in 1782. After Lord North persuaded the king against abdicating,[28] George III finally accepted the defeat in North America, and authorised the negotiation of a peace. The Treaty of Paris and the associated Treaty of Versailles were ratified in 1783. The former treaty provided for the recognition of the United States by Great Britain. The latter required Great Britain to give up Florida to Spain and to grant access to the waters off Newfoundland to France. When John Adams was appointed American Minister to Britain in 1785, George had become resigned to the new relationship between his country and the United States. He told Adams, "I was the last to consent to the separation; but I would be the first to meet the friendship of the United States as an independent power."[29] Cornwallis redirects here. ... Belligerents United States Kingdom of France Great Britain German Mercenaries Commanders George Washington Jean-Baptiste de Rochambeau François de Grasse Charles Cornwallis # Charles O’Hara # Strength 19,300 soldiers (10,800 French 8,500 Americans) 24 French warships 375 guns (see below) 7,500 240 guns Casualties and losses... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ...


Constitutional struggle

With the collapse of Lord North's ministry in 1782, the Whig Lord Rockingham became Prime Minister for the second time, but died within months. The King then appointed Lord Shelburne to replace him. Charles James Fox, however, refused to serve under Shelburne, and demanded the appointment of the Duke of Portland. In 1783, the House of Commons forced Lord Shelburne from office and his government was replaced by the Fox-North Coalition. The Duke of Portland became Prime Minister; Fox and Lord North, Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary respectively, really held power, with Portland acting as a figurehead.[7] William Petty Fitzmaurice, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne (2 May 1737–7 May 1805), also known as the Earl of Shelburne (1761–1784), was a British statesman. ... Statue of Charles James Fox in Bloomsbury Square, erected 1816. ... William Henry Cavendish Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, (April 14, 1738 – October 30, 1809) was a British Whig and Tory statesman, Chancellor of Oxford University and Prime Minister. ... William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, Prime Minister of Great Britain 1783 & 1807-1809. ...


George III was distressed by the attempts to force him to appoint ministers not of his liking, but the Portland ministry quickly built up a majority in the House of Commons, and could not easily be displaced. He was, moreover, extremely dissatisfied when the government introduced the India Bill, which proposed to reform the government of India by transferring political power from the Honourable East India Company to Parliamentary commissioners.[30] Immediately after the House of Commons passed it, George authorised Lord Temple to inform the House of Lords that he would regard any peer who voted for the bill as his enemy. The bill was rejected by the Lords; three days later, the Portland ministry was dismissed, and William Pitt the Younger was appointed Prime Minister, with Temple as his Secretary of State. On 17 December 1783, Parliament voted in favour of a motion condemning the influence of the monarch in parliamentary voting as a "high crime" and Temple was forced to resign. Temple's departure destabilised the government, and three months later the government lost its majority and Parliament was dissolved; the subsequent election gave Pitt a firm mandate.[7] The companys flag initially had the flag of England, the St Georges Cross, in the canton The Honourable East India Company (HEIC), often colloquially referred to as John Company, and Company Bahadur in India, was an early joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first... George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, 1st Marquess of Buckingham (17 June 1753 - 1813) was a British statesman; he was the second son of George Grenville and a brother of William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville. ... William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The British general election of 1784 resulted in William Pitt the Younger securing an overall majority of about 120 in the British House of Commons, having previously had to survive in a House which was dominated by his opponents. ...


William Pitt

Gold guinea of George III, dated 1789
Gold guinea of George III, dated 1789

For George III, Pitt's appointment was a great victory. The King felt that the scenario proved that he still had the power to appoint Prime Ministers without having to rely on any parliamentary group. Throughout Pitt's ministry, George eagerly supported many of his political aims. To aid Pitt, George created new peers at an unprecedented rate. The new peers flooded the House of Lords and allowed Pitt to maintain a firm majority. During and after Pitt's ministry, George III was extremely popular in Britain.[31] The public supported the exploratory voyages to the Pacific Ocean that he sanctioned. George also aided the Royal Academy with large grants from his private funds. The British people admired their King for remaining faithful to his wife, unlike the two previous Hanoverian monarchs. Great advances were made in fields such as in science and industry. Image File history File links GeorgeIIIGuinea. ... Image File history File links GeorgeIIIGuinea. ... The Royal Academy of Arts is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly, London, England. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


However, by this time George III's health was deteriorating. He suffered from a mental illness, now widely believed to be a symptom of porphyria.[32] A study of samples of the King's hair published in 2005 revealed high levels of arsenic, a possible trigger for the disease. The source of the arsenic is not known, but it could have been a component of medicines or cosmetics.[33] The King may have previously suffered a brief episode of the disease in 1765, but a longer episode began in the summer of 1788. George was sufficiently sane to prorogue Parliament on 25 September 1788, but his condition worsened and in November he became seriously deranged, sometimes speaking for many hours without pause. With his doctors largely at a loss to explain his illness, spurious stories about his condition spread, such as the claim that he shook hands with a tree in the mistaken belief that it was the King of Prussia.[34] When Parliament reconvened in November, the King could not, as was customary, communicate to them the agenda for the upcoming legislative session. According to long-established practice, Parliament could not begin the transaction of business until the King had made the Speech from the Throne. Parliament, however, ignored the custom and began to debate provisions for a regency. Porphyrias are a group of inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway). ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... A prorogation is the period between two sessions of a legislative body. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne (or Throne Speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or a representative) reads a prepared speech to a complete session of parliament, outlining the governments agenda for the...


Charles James Fox and William Pitt wrangled over the terms of which individual was entitled to take over government during the illness of the Sovereign. Although both parties agreed that it would be most reasonable for George III's eldest son and heir apparent, the Prince of Wales, to act as Regent, they disagreed over the basis of a regency. Fox suggested that it was the Prince of Wales's absolute right to act on his ill father's behalf; Pitt argued that it was for Parliament to nominate a Regent.[35] Proceedings were further delayed as the authority for Parliament to merely meet was questioned, as the session had not been formally opened by the Sovereign. Pitt proposed a remedy based on an obscure legal fiction. As was well-established at the time, the Sovereign could delegate many of his functions to Lords Commissioners by letters patent, which were validated by the attachment of the Great Seal. It was proposed that the custodian of the Great Seal, the Lord Chancellor, affix the Seal without the consent of the Sovereign. Although such an action would be unlawful, it would not be possible to question the validity of the letters patent, as the presence of the Great Seal would be deemed conclusive in court. George III's second son, the Prince Frederick, Duke of York, denounced Pitt's proposal as "unconstitutional and illegal". Nonetheless, the Lords Commissioners were appointed and then opened Parliament. In February 1789, the Regency Bill, authorising the Prince of Wales to act as Prince Regent, was introduced and passed in the House of Commons. But before the House of Lords could pass the bill, George III recovered from his illness under the treatment of Dr Francis Willis. He confirmed the actions of the Lords Commissioners as valid, but resumed full control of government. Statue of Charles James Fox in Bloomsbury Square, erected 1816. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... In the common law tradition, legal fictions are suppositions of fact taken to be true by the courts of law, but which are not necessarily true. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... The Great Seal of the Realm is a British institution by which the monarch can authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... His Royal Highness The Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (Frederick Augustus) (16 August 1763 - 5 January 1827) was a member of the British Royal Family, the second eldest child, and second son of King George III. From 1820 until his own death in 1827, he was the heir... Francis Willis (1718-1807) was a physician, famous for his treatment of George III. After an undergraduate career at Lincoln College, Oxford and St Albans Hall he was elected a Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford in 1740 and was ordained as a priest; he was Rector of the College...


French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars

After George recovered from his illness, his popularity, and that of Pitt, continued to increase at the expense of Fox and the Prince of Wales.[36] His humane and understanding treatment of two insane assailants, Margaret Nicolson in 1786 and John Frith in 1790, contributed to his popularity.[37] The French Revolution of 1789, in which the French monarchy had been overthrown, worried many British landowners. France declared war on Great Britain in 1793; George allowed Pitt to increase taxes, raise armies, and suspend the right of habeas corpus in the war attempt. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... For other uses, see Habeas corpus (disambiguation). ...


As well-prepared as Great Britain may have been, France was stronger. The First Coalition to oppose revolutionary France, which included Austria, Prussia, and Spain, was defeated in 1798. The Second Coalition, which included Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire, was defeated in 1800. Only Great Britain was left fighting Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul of the French Republic. The name First Coalition (1793–1797) designates the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... The name Second Coalition (1798 - 1800) designates the second major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... A title used by Napoleon Bonaparte following his seizure of power in France. ...


A failed attempt to assassinate the King on 15 May 1800 was not political in origin but motivated by the religious delusions of James Hadfield, who shot at the King in the Drury Lane Theatre. Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... A delusion is commonly defined as a fixed false belief and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false, fanciful or derived from deception. ... James Hadfield or Hatfield (1771/1772 – January 23, 1841) attempted to assassinate George III of the United Kingdom in 1800 but was acquitted of attempted murder by reason of insanity. ... Currently home to Lord Of The Rings, the musical. ...


Soon after 1800, a brief lull in hostilities allowed Pitt to concentrate on Ireland, where there had been an uprising in 1798. Parliament then passed the Act of Union 1800, which, on 1 January 1801, united Great Britain and Ireland into a single nation, known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. George used the opportunity to drop the claim to the Throne of France, which English and British Sovereigns had maintained since the reign of Edward III. It was suggested that George adopt the title "Emperor of the British and Hanoverian Dominions", but he refused. A. G. Stapleton writes that George III "felt that his true dignity consisted in his being known to Europe and the world by the appropriated and undisputed style belonging to the British Crown." The phrase Act of Union 1800 (or sometimes Act of Union 1801) (Irish: Acht an Aontais 1800) is used to describe two complementary Acts[1] whose official United Kingdom titles are the Union with Ireland Act 1800 (1800 c. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... The English claims to the French throne have a long and rather complex history between the 1340s and the 1800s. ... This article is about the King of England. ... The title Emperor of the British and Hanoverian Dominions was suggested in 1801 for George III of the United Kingdom, replacing the title of King. ...


As part of his Irish policy, Pitt planned to remove certain legal disabilities that applied to Roman Catholics after the Union. George III claimed that to emancipate Catholics would be to violate his coronation oath, in which Sovereigns promise to maintain Protestantism.[2] The King declared, The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...

"Where is the power on Earth to absolve me from the observance of every sentence of that oath, particularly the one requiring me to maintain the Protestant Reformed Religion? … No, no, I had rather beg my bread from door to door throughout Europe, than consent to any such measure. I can give up my crown and retire from power. I can quit my palace and live in a cottage. I can lay my head on a block and lose my life, but I cannot break my oath."

Faced with opposition to his religious reform policies from both the King and the British public, Pitt threatened to resign.[38] At about the same time, the King suffered a relapse of his previous illness, which he blamed on worry over the Catholic question.[39] On 14 March 1801, Pitt was formally replaced by the Speaker of the House of Commons, Henry Addington. As Addington was his close friend, Pitt remained as a private advisor. Addington's ministry was particularly unremarkable, as almost no reforms were made or measures passed. In fact, the nation was strongly against the very idea of reform, having just witnessed the bloody French Revolution. Although they called for passive behaviour in the United Kingdom, the public wanted strong action in Europe, but Addington failed to deliver. In October 1801, he made peace with the French, and in 1802 signed the Treaty of Amiens. is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... The Right Honourable Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth, PC (30 May 1757–15 February 1844) was a British statesman, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1804. ...

Caricature of George holding Napoleon in the palm of his hand. James Gillray, 1803.
Caricature of George holding Napoleon in the palm of his hand. James Gillray, 1803.

George did not consider the peace with France as "real"; in his view it was an "experiment". In 1803, the two nations once again declared war on each other. In 1804, George was again affected by his recurrent illness; on his recovery, he discovered that public opinion distrusted Addington to lead the nation in war, and instead favoured Pitt. Pitt sought to appoint Fox to his ministry, but George III refused as the King disliked Fox, who had encouraged the Prince of Wales to lead an extravagant and expensive life. Lord Grenville perceived an injustice to Fox, and refused to join the new ministry.[7] James Gillray James Gillray, sometimes spelled Gilray (born August 13, 1757 in Chelsea; died June 1, 1815), was a British caricaturist and printmaker famous for his etched political and social satires, mainly published between 1792 and 1810. ... William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville (October 25, 1759 - January 12, 1834), was a British Whig statesman and Prime Minister. ...


Pitt concentrated on forming a coalition with Austria, Russia, and Sweden. This Third Coalition, however, met the same fate as the First and Second Coalitions, collapsing in 1805. An invasion of England by Napoleon seemed imminent, but the possibility was extinguished after Admiral Lord Nelson's famous naval victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. In the Napoleonic Wars, the Third Coalition against Napoléon emerged in 1805, and consisted of an alliance of the United Kingdom, Austria, Russia, Naples, and Sweden against France. ... Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, a decisive British victory in the war, during which he lost his life. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ...


The setbacks in Europe took a toll on William Pitt's health. Pitt died in 1806, once again reopening the question of who should serve in the ministry. Lord Grenville became Prime Minister, and his "Ministry of All the Talents" included Charles James Fox. The King was conciliatory towards Fox, after being forced to capitulate over his appointment. After Fox's death in September 1806, the King and ministry were in open conflict. To boost recruitment, the ministry had proposed a measure whereby Roman Catholics would be allowed to serve in all ranks of the Armed Forces. George instructed them not only to drop the measure, but also to agree never to set up such a measure again. The ministers agreed to drop the measure then pending, but refused to bind themselves in the future.[40] In 1807, they were dismissed and replaced by the Duke of Portland as the nominal Prime Minister, with actual power being held by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Spencer Perceval. Parliament was dissolved; the subsequent election gave the ministry a strong majority in the House of Commons. George III made no further major political decisions during his reign; the replacement of the Duke of Portland by Perceval in 1809 was of little actual significance. William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1806-1807. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Spencer Perceval (1 November 1762 – 11 May 1812) was a British statesman and Prime Minister. ... The election to the 4th Parliament of the United Kingdom was the third general election to be held after the Union of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


Later life

George, Prince of Wales, acted as Prince-Regent from 1811 to 1820
George, Prince of Wales, acted as Prince-Regent from 1811 to 1820

In 1810, at the height of his popularity[41] but already virtually blind with cataracts and in pain from rheumatism, George III became dangerously ill. In his view the malady had been triggered by the stress he suffered at the death of his youngest and favourite daughter, Princess Amelia.[42] The Princess's nurse reported that "the scenes of distress and crying every day…were melancholy beyond description."[43] He accepted the need for the Regency Act 1811,[44] and the Prince of Wales acted as Regent for the remainder of George III's life. By the end of 1811, George III had become permanently insane and lived in seclusion at Windsor Castle until his death.[45] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 422 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1541 × 2189 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 422 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1541 × 2189 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other persons known as Princess Amelia, see Princess Amelia The Princess Amelia (7 August 1783 - 2 November 1810), was a member of the British Royal Family. ... The Regency Acts are Acts of the British Parliament passed at various points in time, to provide a regent if the British monarch were to be incapacited or in minority (under the age of 18). ...


Spencer Perceval was assassinated in 1812 (the only British Prime Minister to have suffered such a fate) and was replaced by Lord Liverpool. Liverpool oversaw British victory in the Napoleonic Wars. The subsequent Congress of Vienna led to significant territorial gains for Hanover, which was upgraded from an electorate to a kingdom. Spencer Perceval (1 November 1762 – 11 May 1812) was a British statesman and Prime Minister. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool (June 7, 1770 - December 4, 1828) was a British statesman, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1812 to 1827. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ...

Half-Crown coin of George III, 1816. Click for notes.
Half-Crown coin of George III, 1816. Click for notes.

Meanwhile, George's health deteriorated, and eventually he became completely blind and increasingly deaf. He never knew that he was declared King of Hanover in 1814, or of the death of his wife in 1818. Over Christmas 1819, he spoke nonsense for 58 hours, and for the last few weeks of his life was unable to walk. On 29 January 1820, he died at Windsor Castle. His favourite son, Frederick, Duke of York, was with him.[46] His death came six days after that of his fourth son, the Duke of Kent. George III was buried on 15 February in St. George's Chapel, Windsor. ImageMetadata File history File links George3coin. ... ImageMetadata File history File links George3coin. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... HRH The Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn The Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (2 November 1767 – 23 January 1820) was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... St Georges Chapel, Windsor St. ...


George was succeeded by two of his sons George IV and William IV, who both died without surviving legitimate children, leaving the throne to their niece, Victoria, the last monarch of the House of Hanover and the only legitimate child of the Duke of Kent. George IV redirects here. ... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of Hanover and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ...


Legacy

Rare early signature of George III from document dated 27 October 1760
Rare early signature of George III from document dated 27 October 1760
Signature of George III, c. 1790
Signature of George III, c. 1790

George III lived for 81 years and 239 days and reigned for 59 years and 96 days—both his life and his reign were longer than any previous English or British monarch. Only George's granddaughter Queen Victoria exceeded his record, though Elizabeth II has lived longer. George III's reign was longer than the total reign of his three immediate predecessors (Queen Anne, King George I and King George II) combined. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ...


While very popular at the start of his reign, by the mid-1770s George had lost the loyalty of revolutionary American colonists[47] (about a third of the population in the American colonies). The grievances in the United States Declaration of Independence were presented as "repeated injuries and usurpations" that he had committed to establish an "absolute Tyranny" over the colonies. The Declaration's wording has contributed to the American public's perception of George as a tyrant. American resentment toward George was exacerbated by his failure to intercede personally on the colonists' behalf after the Olive Branch Petition. George was hated in Ireland for the atrocities carried out in his name during the suppression of the 1798 rebellion. Contemporary accounts of George III's life fall into two camps: one demonstrating "attitudes dominant in the latter part of the reign, when the king had become a revered symbol of national resistance to French ideas and French power" and the other "derived their views of the king from the bitter partisan strife of the first two decades of the reign, and they expressed in their works the views of the opposition".[48] Building on the latter of these two assessments, British historians of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, such as Trevelyan and Erskine May, promoted hostile interpretations of George III's life. However, in the mid-twentieth century the work of Lewis Namier, who thought George was "much maligned", kick-started a re-evaluation of the man and his reign.[49] Scholars of the later twentieth century, such as Butterfield and Pares, and Macalpine and Hunter, are inclined to treat George sympathetically, seeing him as a victim of circumstance and illness. Butterfield rejected the arguments of his Victorian predecessors with withering disdain: "Erskine May must be a good example of the way in which an historian may fall into error through an excess of brilliance. His capacity for synthesis, and his ability to dovetail the various parts of the evidence … carried him into a more profound and complicated elaboration of error than some of his more pedestrian predecessors … he inserted a doctrinal element into his history which, granted his original aberrations, was calculated to project the lines of his error, carrying his work still further from centrality or truth."[50] Today, the long reign of George III is perceived as a continuation of the reduction in the political power of monarchy, and its growth as the embodiment of national morality.[7] The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... The Olive Branch Petition The Olive Branch Petition, written in the early days of the American Revolutionary War, was a letter to King George III from members of the Second Continental Congress who—for the final time—appealed to their king to readdress colonial grievances in order to avoid more... Combatants United Irishmen French First Republic Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Commanders Local leaders, General Humbert Cornwallis Lake Strength  ? Various, at peak mid-June c. ... Sir George Otto Trevelyan, 2nd Baronet (20 July 1838 - 17 August 1928) was a British statesman and author and the only son of Sir Charles Trevelyan. ... Thomas Erskine May, 1st Baron Farnborough Thomas Erskine May, 1st Baron Farnborough (8 February 1815–17 May 1886) was a British constitutional theorist. ... Sir Lewis Bernstein Namier (June 27, 1888 - August 19, 1960) was a significant British historian. ... Herbert Butterfield (October 7, 1900-July 20, 1979) was a British historian and philosopher of history (see philosophy of history) who is remembered chiefly for a slim volume entitled The Whig Interpretation of History 1931. ...

An inaccurate engraving depicting the destruction of George's statue in New York City, 1776
An inaccurate engraving depicting the destruction of George's statue in New York City, 1776

There are many cities and towns in former British colonies named Georgetown in honour of George III or his son, George IV. Statues of George III include one in the courtyard of Somerset House in London and one in Weymouth, Dorset, which he popularised as one of the first seaside resorts in England. A gilded equestrian statue of George III was pulled down in New York at the beginning of the War of Independence in 1776. Engravings of its destruction are wholly inaccurate.[51] // Georgetown or George Town may refer to: Georgetown, Ascension Island capital of Ascension Island George Town, Bahamas George Town, Cayman Islands capital of the Cayman Islands Georgetown, Grenada Georgetown, Guyana capital city of Guyana Georgetown, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Janjanbureh, Gambia, formerly known as Georgetown Es Castell in Minorca... George IV redirects here. ...


George III was dubbed "Farmer George" by satirists, at first mocking his interest in mundane matters rather than politics but later to contrast his homely thrift with his son's grandiosity and to portray him as a man of the people.[52] Under George III, who was passionately interested in agriculture,[53] the British Agricultural Revolution reached its peak . There was unprecedented growth in the rural population, which in turn provided much of the workforce for the concurrent Industrial Revolution. The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, which saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Titles, styles, honours and arms

Monarchical Styles of
King George III of the United Kingdom
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sir

Image File history File links Edward's_crown_PD_cleaned. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Look up majesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, meaning literally, Greatness. ...

Titles and styles

In Great Britain, George III used the official style "George the Third, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." In 1801, when Great Britain united with Ireland, he took the opportunity to drop his claim to the French Throne. He also dispensed with the phrase "etc.," which had been added during the reign of Elizabeth I. His style became, "George the Third, by the Grace of God, King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Defender of the Faith." is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... This article or section should be merged with English claims to the French throne From 1339 to 1801, with only brief intervals in 1360-1369 and 1420-1422, the Kings of England also bore the title of King of France. ... The designation King of Ireland has been used during three periods of Irish history. ... // Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ...


Arms

From the time of his coronation until 1800, George's arms were: Quarterly, I Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England) impaling Or a lion rampant within a double-tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); II Azure three fleurs-de-lys Or (for France); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); IV tierced per pale and per chevron (for Hanover), I Gules two lions passant guardant Or (for Brunswick), II Or a semy of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure (for Lüneburg), III Gules a horse courant Argent (for Westfalen), overall an escutcheon Gules charged with the crown of Charlemagne Or (for the dignity of Archtreasurer of the Holy Roman Empire). Image File history File links UK_Arms_1714. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... Braunschweig may also refer to the administrative region of Germany. ... Lüneburg (English: Lunenburg) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, about 50km southeast of Hamburg. ... Westphalia (in German, Westfalen) is a (historic) region in Germany, centred on the cities of Dortmund, Münster, Bielefeld, and Osnabrück and now included in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia (and the (south-)west of Lower Saxony). ... For the American band, see Charlemagne (band). ... Look up Treasurer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...

Following the Act of Union 1800, his arms were amended, dropping the French quartering. They became: Quarterly, I and IV Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); overall an escutcheon tierced per pale and per chevron (for Hanover), I Gules two lions passant guardant Or (for Brunswick), II Or a semy of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure (for Lunenburg), III Gules a horse courant Argent (for Westfalen), the whole inescutcheon surmounted by an electoral bonnet. In 1816, two years after the Electorate of Hanover became a Kingdom, the electoral bonnet was changed to a crown. Image File history File links UK_Arms_1801. ... The phrase Act of Union 1800 (or sometimes Act of Union 1801) (Irish: Acht an Aontais 1800) is used to describe two complementary Acts[1] whose official United Kingdom titles are the Union with Ireland Act 1800 (1800 c. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ...


Issue

Name Birth Death Notes[54]
George IV 12 August 1762 26 June 1830 married 1795, Princess Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel; had issue
Frederick, Duke of York 16 August 1763 5 January 1827 married 1791, Princess Frederica of Prussia; no issue
William IV 21 August 1765 20 June 1837 married 1818, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen; no legitimate surviving issue
Charlotte, Princess Royal 29 September 1766 6 October 1828 married 1797, Frederick, King of Württemberg; no issue
Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent 2 November 1767 23 January 1820 married 1818, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld; had issue (Queen Victoria)
Princess Augusta Sophia 8 November 1768 22 September 1840 never married
Princess Elizabeth 22 May 1770 10 January 1840 married 1818, Frederick, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg; no issue
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover 5 June 1771 18 November 1851 married 1815, Princess Friederike of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; had issue
Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex 27 January 1773 22 April 1843 married in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, (1) 1793 The Lady Augusta Murray; had issue; marriage declared void 1794; (2) 1831, The Lady Cecilia Buggins (later 1st Duchess of Inverness); no issue
Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge 24 February 1774 8 July 1850 married 1818, Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel; had issue
Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester 25 April 1776 30 April 1857 married 1816, Prince William, Duke of Gloucester; no issue
Princess Sophia 3 November 1777 27 May 1848 never married; believed by some to have had issue
Prince Octavius 23 February 1779 3 May 1783  
Prince Alfred 22 September 1780 20 August 1782  
Princess Amelia 7 August 1783 2 November 1810 Possibly married Sir Charles Fitzroy; may have had issue

George IV redirects here. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (later Queen Caroline; 17 May 1768 – 7 August 1821) was the queen consort of George IV of the United Kingdom from 29 January 1820 to her death. ... The Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (Frederick Augustus) (16 August 1763 - 5 January 1827) was a member of the British Royal Family, the second eldest child, and second son, of King George III. From 1820 until his death in 1827, he was the heir presumptive to his elder... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Princess Frederica of Prussia (7 May 1767 - 6 August 1820) was born in Charlottenburg. ... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of Hanover and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen (Adelaide Louise Theresa Caroline Amelia) ( 13 August 1792 - 2 December 1849 ) as Queen Adelaide was the Queen consort of King William IV of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Queen Charlotte of Württemberg, (born The Princess Charlotte, later The Princess Royal) (Charlotte Augusta Matilda), (29 September 1766-5 October 1828) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eldest daughter of King George III. She was later the Queen consort of Frederick I of Württemberg. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... King Frederick I of Württemberg Crown of the Kingdom of Württemberg Frederick I (German: ) (November 6, 1754 — October 30, 1816) was the first King of Württemberg. ... HRH The Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn The Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (2 November 1767 – 23 January 1820) was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1767 (MDCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (Mary Louise Victoria; 17 August 1786 – 16 March 1861), later HRH The Duchess of Kent, was the mother of Queen Victoria. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Augusta Sophia (November 8, 1768-September 22, 1840), Princess of Great Britain and Ireland, Princess of Hanover, Duchess of Brunswick and Lüneburg. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Princess Elizabeth (22 May 1770 - 10 January 1840) was a member of the British Royal Family, the 7th child and 3rd daughter of George III of the United Kingdom. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the village in Queensland, see 1770, Queensland. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ernest Augustus I of Hanover Ernest Augustus I, King of Hanover (5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851), also known (1799-1837) as the Duke of Cumberland, was the fifth son and eighth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Duchess Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (3 March 1778 – 29 June 1841), Duchess of Cumberland and later Queen of Hanover, was the consort of Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, the fifth son and eighth child of George III and Queen Charlotte. ... Portrait of Prince Augustus Frederick by Louis Gauffier Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex (27 January 1773 – 21 April 1843), was the sixth son of King George III of the United Kingdom and his consort, Queen Charlotte. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1773 (MDCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Royal Marriages Act of 1772 made it illegal for any member of the British royal family (defined as all descendants of King George II, excluding descendants of princesses who marry foreigners) under the age of 25 to marry without the consent of the ruling monarch. ... The Lady Augusta Murray (27 January 1768–5 March 1830) was the first wife of Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, the sixth son of King George III. As their marriage was in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, it was considered legally void, and she could not be... Cecilia Underwood, Duchess of Inverness (née Cecilia Letitia Gore) (c1785 - 1 August 1873) was the second wife of Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, the sixth son of King George III. As their marriage was in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, it was considered legally void, and... The title of Duchess of Inverness was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom on 10 April 1840 for Lady Cecilia Underwood, née Gore, who had married the Duke of Sussex on 2 May 1831 in a ceremony not valid under the Royal Marriages Act. ... Prince Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge (24 February 1774-8 July 1850), was the tenth-born child and seventh son of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel, later Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Cambridge, (July 25, 1797 – April 6, 1889) was the consort of Prince Adolphus, 1st Duke of Cambridge, the tenth born child and seventh son of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ... The Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh (25 April 1776 - 30 April 1857) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eleventh child and fourth daughter of King George III. // Early life Princess Mary was born, on 25 April 1776, at Buckingham Palace, London. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... His Royal Highness Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh (January 15, 1776 - November 30, 1834) was a member of the British Royal Family, a great grandson of King George II. Early Life Prince William was born on 15 January 1776 in Rome, Italy. ... The Princess Sophia (Sophia Matilda; 2 November 1777 - 27 May 1848) was a member of the British Royal Family, the twelfth child and fifth daughter of George III. // The Princess Sophia was born at Buckingham Palace, London. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Prince Octavius (23 February 1779 - 3 May 1783) was a member of the British Royal Family, the thirteenth child and seventh son of George III // [edit] Life Prince Octavius was born, on 23 February 1779, at Buckingham Palace, London. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Prince Alfred (22 September 1780 - 20 August 1783) was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourteenth child and ninth son of George III // Prince Alfred was born, on 22 September 1780, at Windsor Castle, Berkshire. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other persons known as Princess Amelia, see Princess Amelia The Princess Amelia (7 August 1783 - 2 November 1810), was a member of the British Royal Family. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Ancestors

Ernest Augustus (German: Ernst August; 20 November 1629, Herzberg – 23 January 1698, Herrenhausen) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Calenberg (or Hanover) subdivision of the duchy. ... George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... Electress Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia, Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, of the House of Wittelsbach, the Winter King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... George William (German: Georg Wilhelm; 26 January 1624, Herzberg am Harz – 28 August 1705, Wienhausen) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled first over the Calenberg subdivision of the duchy, then over the Lüneburg subdivision. ... Sophia Dorothea (15 September 1666 – 13 November 1726) was the wife and cousin of George Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, later George I of Great Britain, and mother of George II through an arranged marriage of state, instigated by the machinations of Duchess Sophia of Hanover. ... The Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales (Frederick Louis; 1 February 1707 – 31 March 1751) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eldest son of George II. He was born into the House of Hanover and, under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick... Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (October 18, 1654 - March 22, 1686), succeeded his father Albrecht V as margrave in 1667. ... Caroline of Ansbach (later Queen Caroline; Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737) was the queen consort of George II. // Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach was born on 1 March 1683, at Ansbach in Germany, the daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and his second wife... Johann Georg I, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach (b. ... Ernst I of Saxe-Gotha (later Altenburg), The Pious. Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha and Altenburg, called the Pious (b. ... Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (b. ... Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg. ... Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (b. ... Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels (2 September 1648 – 7 January 1681) was a German noblewoman. ... Anna Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1 July 1627 - 11 December 1669) was a German noblewoman. ... Augusta of Saxe-Gotha Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (November 30, 1719 – February 8, 1772) was Princess of Wales from May 8, 1736 to March 31, 1751. ... Karl Wilhelm of Anhalt-Zerbst (October 16, 1652 - November 3, 1718) was a German prince from the House of Ascania, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst between 1667 and his death, and great-grandfather of King George III of Great Britain. ... Magdalena Augusta (October 13, 1679 - October 11, 1740) was a Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and grandmother of George III of England. ... Anna Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1 July 1627 - 11 December 1669) was a German noblewoman. ...

See also

This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... This article is about military actions only. ... This is a list of monarchs who have been described as mentally ill in some way by historians past or present. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b 24 May in the Old Style Julian calendar still in use in Great Britain at this time.
  2. ^ a b c d The Royal Household. George III. Official website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  3. ^ Butterfield, Herbert (1957). George III and the Historians. London: Collins, p.9. 
  4. ^ Hibbert, Christopher (1999). George III: A Personal History. London: Penguin Books, p.8. ISBN 0140257373. 
  5. ^ Hibbert, pp.3–15
  6. ^ Hibbert, pp.24–25
  7. ^ a b c d e f Cannon, John (Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2007), "George III (1738–1820)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press), <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/10540>. Retrieved on 25 May 2007 
  8. ^ Hibbert, p.31
  9. ^ George was falsely said to have married a Quakeress named Hannah Lightfoot on 17 April 1759, prior to his marriage to Charlotte. If such a marriage had existed, then his marriage to Charlotte would have been bigamous and all of George's successors would have been usurpers. But no legal marriage to Lightfoot could have occurred: she had married Isaac Axford in 1753 and had died in or before 1759, and therefore could not have produced legitimate children from a marriage in April that year. George's marriage to Charlotte was therefore not bigamous. The "marriage" to Hannah Lightfoot was mentioned in the 1866 trial of the daughter of imposter Olive Wilmot, who claimed to be "Princess Olive". A forged marriage certificate produced at her trial was impounded in 1866 and studied by the Attorney General. It is now in the Royal Archives in Windsor Castle.
  10. ^ For example, the letters of Horace Walpole written at the time of the accession defended George but Walpole's later memoirs were hostile (Butterfield, pp.22, 115–117 and 129–130).
  11. ^ Hibbert, p.86
  12. ^ As a Scottish peer he was not eligible to sit in the British House of Commons and could only sit in the House of Lords as a representative peer, which he was not. Source: Pares, Richard (1953). King George III and the Politicians. Oxford University Press, p.100. 
  13. ^ Caretta, Vincent (1990). George III and the Satirists from Hogarth to Byron. Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press, pp.59 and 64 ff.. ISBN 0-8203-1146-4. 
  14. ^ An American taxpayer would pay a maximum of sixpence a year, compared to an average of twenty-five shillings (50 times as much) in England. (Hibbert, p.122)
  15. ^ Hibbert, pp.107–109
  16. ^ Hibbert, p.111–113
  17. ^ Hibbert, p.124
  18. ^ Hibbert, p.140
  19. ^ Hibbert, p.141
  20. ^ Hibbert, p.143
  21. ^ Thomas, Peter D. G. (1985), "George III and the American Revolution", History 70 (228): 31 
  22. ^ Our history. The Crown Estate (2004). Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
  23. ^ Kelso, Paul (6 March 2000), "The royal family and the public purse", The Guardian, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/margaret/story/0,,420405,00.html>. Retrieved on 21 February 2008 
  24. ^ A Student's Manual of English Constitutional History by Dudley Julius Medley, pg. 501, 1902
  25. ^ Hibbert, pp.156–157
  26. ^ Trevelyan, George (1912). George the Third and Charles Fox: The Concluding Part of the American Revolution, vol.1 p.4. 
  27. ^ Trevelyan, vol.1 p.5
  28. ^ Hillenbrad, William (2001). Born in Battle: A History of the American Revolution. Troubadour Interactive. ISBN 1890642177
  29. ^ Hibbert, p.165
  30. ^ Hibbert, p.243 and Pares, p.120
  31. ^ Carretta, pp.262 and 297
  32. ^ Röhl, John C. G.; Warren, Martin; Hunt, David (1998). Purple Secret: Genes, "Madness" and the Royal Houses of Europe. London: Bantam Press. ISBN 0-593-04148-8. 
  33. ^ Cox, Timothy M.; Jack, N.; Lofthouse, S.; Watling, J.; Haines, J.; Warren, M.J. (2005). "King George III: and porphyria: an elemental hypothesis and investigation". The Lancet (Elsevier) 366: 332–335.
  34. ^ Hibbert, pp.262–267
  35. ^ Hibbert, p.273
  36. ^ Hibbert, pp.301–302 and Carretta, p.285
  37. ^ Carretta, p.275
  38. ^ Hibbert, p.313
  39. ^ Hibbert, p.315
  40. ^ Pares, p.139
  41. ^ Carretta, p.340
  42. ^ Hibbert, p.396
  43. ^ Hibbert, p.394
  44. ^ Hibbert, pp.397–398
  45. ^ Hibbert, pp.399–402
  46. ^ Hibbert, p.408
  47. ^ Carretta, pp.99–101 and 123–126
  48. ^ Reitan, E. A. (1964). "Introduction", in Reitan, E. A.: George III, Tyrant Or Constitutional Monarch?. Boston: D. C. Heath and Company, p.viii. 
  49. ^ Reitan, pp.xii–xiii
  50. ^ Butterfield, p.152
  51. ^ Carretta, pp.97, 98 and 367
  52. ^ Carretta, pp.92–93, 267–273, 302–305 and 317
  53. ^ 'Farmer' George and his 'ferme ornée'. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
  54. ^ Weir, Alison (1996). Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy, Revised edition. Random House. ISBN 0712674489. 

is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Herbert Butterfield (October 7, 1900-July 20, 1979) was a British historian and philosopher of history (see philosophy of history) who is remembered chiefly for a slim volume entitled The Whig Interpretation of History 1931. ... Christopher Hibbert, MC, (born 1924) is an English writer and popular historian and biographer. ... Quaker redirects here. ... Hannah Lightfoot (October 12, 1730 – before December 1759) is sometimes erroneously named as a first wife of George III of the United Kingdom. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Princess Olive (about 1772 - 1834), was an eccentric pretender to the Royal Blood of England. ... Her Majestys Attorney General for England and Wales, usually known as the Attorney General, is the chief legal adviser of the Crown in England and Wales. ... The Royal Archives, also known as the Queens Archives, are a division of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, more commonly known as Horace Walpole, (September 24, 1717 – March 2, 1797), was a politician, writer and forerunner of the Gothic revival. ... The Peerage of Scotland is the division of the British Peerage for those peers created in the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... In the United Kingdom, representative peers were individuals elected by the members of the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland to represent them in the British House of Lords. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir George Otto Trevelyan, 2nd Baronet (20 July 1838 - 17 August 1928) was a British statesman and author and the only son of Sir Charles Trevelyan. ... John C. G. Röhl (born 1938) is a British historian. ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ... Elseviers logo. ... For other places with the same name, see Royal Botanical Gardens (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alison Weir (born 1951) is a British writer of history books for the general public, mostly in the form of biographies about British kings and queens. ...

References

  • Butterfield, Herbert (1957). George III and the Historians. London: Collins.  online edition
  • Cannon, John (Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2007), "George III (1738–1820)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press), <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/10540>. Retrieved on 25 May 2007 
  • Caretta, Vincent (1990). George III and the Satirists from Hogarth to Byron. Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-1146-4. 
  • Hibbert, Christopher (1999). George III: A Personal History. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0140257373. 
  • Pares, Richard (1953). King George III and the Politicians. Oxford University Press.  online edition
  • Reitan, E. A. (editor) (1964). George III, Tyrant Or Constitutional Monarch?. Boston: D. C. Heath and Company.  A compilation of different essays encompassing the major assessments of George III up to 1964.
  • Röhl, John C. G.; Warren, Martin; Hunt, David (1998). Purple Secret: Genes, "Madness" and the Royal Houses of Europe. London: Bantam Press. ISBN 0-593-04148-8. 
  • Thomas, Peter D. G. (1985), "George III and the American Revolution", History 70 (228): 16–31 
  • Trevelyan, George (1912). George the Third and Charles Fox: The Concluding Part of the American Revolution. 
  • Weir, Alison (1996). Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy, Revised edition. Random House. ISBN 0712674489. 

Herbert Butterfield (October 7, 1900-July 20, 1979) was a British historian and philosopher of history (see philosophy of history) who is remembered chiefly for a slim volume entitled The Whig Interpretation of History 1931. ... Christopher Hibbert, MC, (born 1924) is an English writer and popular historian and biographer. ... John C. G. Röhl (born 1938) is a British historian. ... Sir George Otto Trevelyan, 2nd Baronet (20 July 1838 - 17 August 1928) was a British statesman and author and the only son of Sir Charles Trevelyan. ... Alison Weir (born 1951) is a British writer of history books for the general public, mostly in the form of biographies about British kings and queens. ...

Further reading

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  • Black, Jeremy (2006). George III: America's Last King. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11732-9. 
  • Ditchfield, G. M. (2002). George III: An Essay in Monarchy. Basingstoke: Palgrave. ISBN 0-333-91962-9. 
    • See also: Conway, Stephen (February 2003). Book Review. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved on 2008-02-25.
  • Macalpine, Ida (1966), "The 'insanity' of King George III: a classic case of porphyria", Brit. Med. J. 1: 65–71 
  • May, Thomas Erskine (1896). The Constitutional History of England Since the Accession of George the Third, 1760–1860, 11th ed., London: Longmans, Green and Co. 
  • J. Steven Watson; The Reign of George III, 1760–1815, 1960, the standard scholarly history online edition

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Erskine May, 1st Baron Farnborough Thomas Erskine May, 1st Baron Farnborough (8 February 1815–17 May 1886) was a British constitutional theorist. ...

External links

George III of the United Kingdom
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 4 June 1738 Died: 29 January 1820
Regnal titles
Preceded by
George II
King of Great Britain
25 October 176031 December 1800
United together
by the Act of Union 1800  
King of Ireland
25 October 176031 December 1800
Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg,
Elector of Hanover

25 October 17606 August 1806
Suspended
New title
King of the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Ireland

1 January 180129 January 1820
with George, Prince of Wales
and Prince Regent
(1811–20)
Succeeded by
George IV
Suspended King of Hanover
1 October 181429 January 1820
British royalty
Preceded by
Frederick, Prince of Wales
Heir to the Thrones
as heir apparent
1751–1760
Succeeded by
Prince Edward, Duke of York
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Prince Frederick,
Duke of Cornwall and Edinburgh
Prince of Wales,
Duke of Cornwall

1751–1760
Succeeded by
Prince George, Duke of Cornwall
later King George IV
Duke of Edinburgh
1st creation
1751–1760
Merged in the Crown
Persondata
NAME George III of the United Kingdom
ALTERNATIVE NAMES George William Frederick
SHORT DESCRIPTION King of the United Kingdom
DATE OF BIRTH June 4, 1738
PLACE OF BIRTH Norfolk House, London, England
DATE OF DEATH January 29, 1820
PLACE OF DEATH Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England
Image File history File links Badge_of_the_Prince_of_Wales. ... The Duke of Edinburgh is a dukedom associated with Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philippos of Greece and Denmark, 10 June 1921)[2] is the husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. Originally a royal Prince of Greece and Denmark, Prince Philip renounced these titles shortly before his marriage. ... The Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales (Frederick Louis; 1 February 1707 – 31 March 1751) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eldest son of George II. He was born into the House of Hanover and, under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... HRH Prince William Henry, Earl of Connaught, 1st Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh (November 14, 1743 - August 25, 1805) was a British prince and military officer, younger brother of King George III. He was born to Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha at Leicester House in... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Thomas Jefferson. ... His Royal Highness Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh (January 15, 1776 - November 30, 1834) was a member of the British Royal Family, a great grandson of King George II. Early Life Prince William was born on 15 January 1776 in Rome, Italy. ... Thomas Jefferson. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Alfred Ernest Albert; 6 August 1844 – 30 July 1900) was the third Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha between 1893 and 1900. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... Ernest Augustus (German: Ernst August; 20 November 1629, Herzberg – 23 January 1698, Herrenhausen) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Calenberg (or Hanover) subdivision of the duchy. ... George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... George IV redirects here. ... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of Hanover and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... Ernest Augustus I of Hanover Ernest Augustus I, King of Hanover (5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851), also known (1799-1837) as the Duke of Cumberland, was the fifth son and eighth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ... George V, King of Hanover and 2nd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, Georg Friedrich Alexander Karl Ernst August (27 May 1819 – 12 June 1878) was the only son of Ernst August I, King of Hanover and 1st Duke of Cumberland (fifth son of King George III of the United Kingdom... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... Norfolk House, at 31 St James’s Square, London, was built in 1722 for the Duke of Norfolk. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
George III of the United Kingdom (4846 words)
George III was hated in Ireland for the atrocities carried out in his name during the suppression of the 1798 rebellion.
George III's insanity is the subject of the film The Madness of King George (1994), which was based on the play The Madness of George III by Alan Bennett.
George III was portrayed by Nigel Hawthorne, who received the Laurence Olivier Award and was nominated for an Academy Award for his role.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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