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Encyclopedia > George I of Great Britain
George I
King of Great Britain and Ireland; Elector of Hanover; Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (more...)
George I in the robes of the Order of the Garter, c.1714. Studio of Sir Godfrey Kneller.
Reign 1 August 171411 June 1727[1]
Coronation 20 October 1714
Predecessor Anne
Successor George II
Consort Sophia Dorothea of Celle (1682–1694)
Issue
George II
Sophia, Queen in Prussia
Full name
George Louis
German: Georg Ludwig
Titles
HM The King
HSH The Elector of Hanover
HSH The Electoral Prince of Hanover
HH The Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg
HH Duke Georg Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Royal house House of Hanover
Father Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Mother Sophia, Countess Palatine of Simmern
Born 28 May 1660(1660-05-28)
Flag of Holy Roman Empire Osnabrück, Hanover
Died 11 June 1727 (aged 67)
Flag of Holy Roman Empire Osnabrück, Hanover
Burial 4 August 1727
Herrenhausen, Hanover

George I (George Louis; 28 May 166011 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. He was also a Prince Elector of the Holy Roman Empire. The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... Sir Godfrey Kneller (August 8, 1646 -October 19, 1723) was an artist, court painter to several British monarchs. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III. Her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII, was forcibly deposed in 1688; her brother-in-law and her sister then became joint monarchs as William III and Mary... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Sophia Dorothea (September 15, 1666 – November 23, 1726), only child of George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and the Huguenot Eleanore dOlbreuse (1639-1722), was the estranged wife of George Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later King George I of Great Britain), . // Marriage George William had undertaken... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (March 16, 1687 – June 28, 1757) was a Princess of Hanover, being the daughter of Georg Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later George I of Great Britain) and Sophia Dorothea of Celle. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Ernest Augustus (German: Ernst August; 20 November 1629, Herzberg – 23 January 1698, Herrenhausen) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Calenberg (or Hanover) subdivision of the duchy. ... Electress Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia, Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, of the House of Wittelsbach, the Winter King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Osnabrück is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80 km NNE of Dortmund, 45 km NE of Münster, and some 100 km due west of Hanover. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: ) was a historical territory in todays Germany, at various times a principality, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom and a province of Prussia and of Germany. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Osnabrück is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80 km NNE of Dortmund, 45 km NE of Münster, and some 100 km due west of Hanover. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: ) was a historical territory in todays Germany, at various times a principality, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom and a province of Prussia and of Germany. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... The Herrenhausen Gardens (German: Herrenhäuser Gärten), located in Lower Saxonys capital of Hanover are made up of the Great Garden (Großer Garten), the Berggarten, the Georgengarten and the Welfengarten. ... Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... // This is a list of the monarchs of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed in the British Isles, namely: The Kingdom of Scotland, from 843 up to 1707; The Kingdom of... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046...


Born in Germany, he eventually inherited control of a large swathe of Lower Saxony, and his domains expanded during his lifetime as the result of a succession of European wars. At the age of 54, he ascended the British throne as the first monarch of the House of Hanover. Though many aspirants to the throne bore a closer relationship to his predecessor, Queen Anne, his mother, Sophia, had been designated heir by the Act of Settlement 1701 because of her Protestant faith. Sophia predeceased Anne by a matter of weeks, leaving the Protestant succession to George. The Jacobites attempted to depose George and replace him with Anne's Catholic half-brother, James, but their attempts failed. With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III. Her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII, was forcibly deposed in 1688; her brother-in-law and her sister then became joint monarchs as William III and Mary... Electress Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia, Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, of the House of Wittelsbach, the Winter King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. ... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart, the Old Pretender, (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scots, and as such laid claim to the English and Scottish thrones (as...


During George's reign in Britain, the powers of the monarchy diminished and the modern system of Cabinet government led by a Prime Minister underwent development. Towards the end of his reign, actual power was held by Sir Robert Walpole. George died on a trip to his native Hanover, where he was buried. Cabinet government refers to any government in which most executive power is invested in a cabinet - often the members act with collective responsibility. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745) was a British statesman who is generally regarded as having been the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: ) was a historical territory in todays Germany, at various times a principality, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom and a province of Prussia and of Germany. ...

Contents

Early life

George was born on 28 May 1660 in Osnabrück, Germany. He was the oldest son of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, a German prince, and his wife, Sophia of the Rhineland Palatinate. Sophia was the daughter of Elizabeth of Bohemia, and the granddaughter of King James I of England.[2] May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Osnabrück is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80 km NNE of Dortmund, 45 km NE of Münster, and some 100 km due west of Hanover. ... Ernest Augustus (German: Ernst August; 20 November 1629, Herzberg – 23 January 1698, Herrenhausen) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Calenberg (or Hanover) subdivision of the duchy. ... Brunswick-Lüneburg was an historical state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... Electress Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia, Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, of the House of Wittelsbach, the Winter King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. ... Elisabeth, Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (born Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland; 19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was the eldest daughter to James VI of Scotland and his Queen consort Anne of Denmark. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ...


For the first year of his life, he was the only heir of his father's and three childless uncles' German territories. In 1661, George's brother, Frederick Augustus, was born, and the two boys (known as Görgen and Gustchen within the family) were brought up together. Their mother was absent for almost a year, 1664–5, during a long and convalescent holiday in Italy, but she corresponded regularly with her sons' governess and took a great interest in her sons' upbringing, even more so on her return.[3] After Sophia's tour, she bore Ernest Augustus another four sons and a daughter. In her letters, Sophia describes George as a responsible, conscientious child who set an example to his younger brothers and sisters.[4]


By 1675, George's eldest uncle had died without issue, but his remaining two uncles had married, putting George's inheritance in jeopardy as his uncles' estates might pass to their own sons, if they had any, instead of to George. George's father had taken him hunting and riding, and introduced him to military matters; mindful of his uncertain future, Ernest Augustus took the fifteen-year-old George on campaign in the Franco-Dutch War with a deliberate purpose of testing and training his son in battle.[5] The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ...


In 1679, another uncle died unexpectedly without sons, and Ernest Augustus became reigning Duke of Calenberg-Göttingen, with his capital at Hanover. George's surviving uncle, George William of Celle, had married his mistress in order to legitimize his only daughter, Sophia Dorothea of Celle, but looked unlikely to have any further children. Under Salic law, where inheritance of territory was restricted to the male line, the succession of George and his brothers to his father's and uncle's territories now seemed secure. In 1682, the family agreed to adopt the principle of primogeniture, meaning George would inherit all the territory, and not have to share it with his brothers.[6] Brunswick-Lüneburg was an historical state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Principality of Göttingen was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire with Göttingen as its capital. ... Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... George William (German: Georg Wilhelm; 26 January 1624, Herzberg am Harz – 28 August 1705, Wienhausen) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled first over the Calenberg subdivision of the duchy, then over the Lüneburg subdivision. ... Sophia Dorothea (September 15, 1666 – November 23, 1726), only child of George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and the Huguenot Eleanore dOlbreuse (1639-1722), was the estranged wife of George Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later King George I of Great Britain), . // Marriage George William had undertaken... The King of the Franks, in the midst of the military chiefs who formed his Treuste -- or armed court, dictates the Salic Law (Code of the Barbaric Laws). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Marriage

The same year, George married his first cousin, Sophia Dorothea, thereby securing additional incomes that would have been outside Salic laws requiring male inheritance. The marriage of state was arranged primarily as it ensured a healthy annual income, and assisted the eventual unification of Hanover and Celle. Sophia was at first against the marriage, looking down on Sophia Dorothea's mother (who was not of royal birth) and concerned by Sophia Dorothea's legitimated status, but was eventually won over by the advantages inherent in the marriage.[7] A marriage of state in ancient use is a diplomatic marriage or union between two members of different nation-states or internally, between two power blocks, usually in authoritarian societies and is a practice which dates back into pre-history, as far back as early Greecian cultures in western society...


In 1683, George and his brother, Frederick Augustus, served in the Great Turkish War at the Battle of Vienna, and Sophia Dorothea bore George a son, George Augustus. The following year, Frederick Augustus was informed of the adoption of primogeniture, meaning he would no longer receive part of his father's territory as he had expected. It led to a breach between father and son, and between the brothers, that lasted until Frederick Augustus's death in battle in 1690. With the imminent formation of a single Hanoverian state, and the Hanoverians continuing contributions to the Empire's wars, Ernest Augustus was made an Elector of the Holy Roman Empire in 1692. George's prospects were now better than ever, as the sole heir to his father's Electorate and his uncle's duchy.[8] The Great Turkish War was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and European powers at the time (joined into a Holy League) during the second half of the 17th century. ... // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ...


Sophia Dorothea had a second child, a daughter named after her, in 1687 but there were no other pregnancies. The couple became estranged—George preferred the society of his mistress, Melusine von der Schulenburg, by whom he had two daughters in 1692 and 1693, respectively;[9] and Sophia Dorothea, meanwhile, had her own romance with the Swedish Count Philip Christoph von Königsmarck. Threatened with the scandal of an elopement, the Hanoverian court, including George's brothers and Sophia, urged the lovers to desist, but to no avail. According to diplomatic sources from Hanover's enemies, in July 1694, the count was killed, possibly with the connivance of George, and his body thrown into the river Leine weighted with stones. The murder was claimed to have been committed by four of Ernest Augustus's courtiers, one of whom (Don Nicolò Montalbano) was paid the enormous sum of 150,000 thalers, which was about one hundred times the annual salary of the highest-paid minister. Sources in Hanover itself, including Sophia, denied any knowledge of Königsmarck's whereabouts.[10] Ehrengard Melusine von der Schulenburg, Duchess of Kendal and Munster Arms of the Duchess of Kendal and Munster. ... Philip Christoph von Königsmarck or Philip Christoph Königsmarck, (March 4, 1665 - July 2, 1694 (?)) was a Swedish count and soldier. ... The Leine is a river in Thuringia and Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Examples of German and Austrian Thalers compared to a US quarter piece (bottom center) The Thaler (or Taler) was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years. ...


George's marriage to Sophia Dorothea was dissolved, not on the grounds that either of them had committed adultery, but on the grounds that Sophia Dorothea had abandoned her husband. With the concurrence of her father, George had Sophia Dorothea imprisoned in the Castle of Ahlden in her native Celle. She was denied access to her children and father, forbidden to remarry and only allowed to walk unaccompanied within the castle courtyard. She was however endowed with an income, establishment and servants, and was allowed to ride in a carriage outside her castle, albeit under supervision.[11] Ahlden is a municipality in Soltau-Fallingbostel in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Celle is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


Electoral reign

Ernest Augustus died on 23 January 1698, leaving all of his territories to George, with the exception of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück, an office he had held since 1661.[12] George thus became Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (also known as Hanover, after its capital) as well as Archbannerbearer and a Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire.[13] His court in Hanover was graced by many cultural icons, such as the mathematician Gottfried Leibniz and the composer Georg Friederich Händel. is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... This article is mostly on the Prince-Bishopric as a pre-1803 state of the Holy Roman Empire, for the Roman Catholic diocese with which it was entwined see Diocese of Osnabrück The Diocese of Osnabrück was erected in 772 and is is certainly the oldest see founded... Brunswick-Lüneburg was an historical state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... George Frideric Handel, 1733 George Frideric Handel (23 February 1685 – 14 April 1759) was a German-born British Baroque composer who was a leading composer of concerti grossi, operas and oratorios. ...


Shortly after George's accession to his paternal dukedom, the second-in-line to the English and Scottish thrones, Prince William, Duke of Gloucester died. The Parliament of England passed the Act of Settlement 1701, whereunder George's mother, Sophia, was designated heir to the English Throne if the then-reigning monarch (William III) and his sister-in-law, Princess Anne of Denmark (later Queen Anne), died without surviving issue. The succession was so designed because Sophia was the closest Protestant relative of the British Royal Family; over fifty Catholics with superior hereditary claims were bypassed. The likelihood of any of them converting to Protestantism for the sake of the succession was remote, and some had already refused.[14] His Royal Highness Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh (January 15, 1776 - November 30, 1834) was a member of the British Royal Family, a great grandson of King George II. Early Life Prince William was born on 15 January 1776 in Rome, Italy. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III. Her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII, was forcibly deposed in 1688; her brother-in-law and her sister then became joint monarchs as William III and Mary... Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony The British Royal Family is shared between the Commonwealth Realms; this article focuses on the perspective of United Kingdom. ...


In August 1701, George was invested with the Order of the Garter, and, within six weeks, the nearest Catholic claimant to the throne of England, ex-king James II, died. William III died the following March, and Sophia became immediate heir to the new Queen of England, Anne. Sophia was in her seventy-first year, older than Anne by thirty-five years, but she was very fit and healthy, and invested time and energy in securing the succession either for herself or her son.[15] However, it was George who understood the complexities of English politics and constitutional law, which required further acts in 1705 to naturalize Sophia and her heirs as English citizens, and detail arrangements for the transfer of power through a Regency Council.[16] The same year, George's surviving uncle died and he inherited further German dominions, Lüneberg-Grubenhagen, centred on Celle.[17] The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Act for the Naturalization of the Most Excellent Princess Sophia, Electress and Duchess Dowager of Hanover, and the Issue of her Body was an Act of the Parliament of England (4 & 5 Ann. ... The Principality of Grubenhagen was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire. ... Celle is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...

Sketch map of Hanover, c.1720, showing the relative locations of Hanover, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück. During George's lifetime Hanover acquired Lauenburg and Bremen-Verden.
Sketch map of Hanover, c.1720, showing the relative locations of Hanover, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück. During George's lifetime Hanover acquired Lauenburg and Bremen-Verden.

Shortly after George's accession in Hanover, the War of the Spanish Succession broke out. At issue was the right of Philip, the grandson of the French King Louis XIV, to succeed to the Spanish Throne under the terms of the will of the Spanish King Charles II. The Holy Roman Empire, the United Provinces, England, Hanover and many other German states opposed Philip's right to succeed because they feared that France would become too powerful if it also controlled Spain. As part of the war effort George invaded his neighbouring state, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, which was pro-French, writing out some of the battle orders himself. The invasion succeeded with few lives lost, and as a reward, the Hanoverian claim to Saxony-Lauenburg, which George's uncle had invaded and annexed on the death of its ruler several years before, was recognised by the British and Dutch.[18] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 707 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 2120 pixel, file size: 592 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 707 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 2120 pixel, file size: 592 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Charles II of Spain. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... Brunswick-Lüneburg was an historical state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... Coat of Arms of Lauenburg The Duchy of Lauenburg, also known as Saxe-Lauenburg was a medieval Duchy (Reichsfreiheit) that existed from 1296 in the extreme southeast region of Schleswig-Holstein with its territorial center in the modern district of Lauenburg. ...


In 1706, the Elector of Bavaria was deprived of his offices and titles for siding with France against the Empire. The following year, George was made Imperial Field Marshal, in command of the Empire's Army stationed along the Rhine. His tenure was not altogether successful, partly because he was deceived by his ally John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough into a diversionary attack, and partly because the Emperor Joseph appropriated the funds necessary for George's campaign for his own use. Despite this, the German princes knew, or at least thought, that he had acquitted himself well. In 1708, in recognition or because of his service, George's position as a Prince-Elector was formally confirmed. George did not hold Marlborough's actions against him, which he appreciated were part of a plan to lure French forces from the main attack.[19] Maximilian II Emanuel Maximilian II Emanuel (July 11, 1662 - February 26, 1726) was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... Joseph I. Joseph I (July 26, 1678 – April 17, 1711), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, was the elder son of the emperor Leopold I and his third wife, Eleanora, Countess Palatine, daughter of Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ...


In 1709, George resigned as Field Marshal, never to go on active service again, and in 1710 was conferred the dignity of Archtreasurer of the Empire,[20] formerly held by the Elector Palatine—the absence of the Elector of Bavaria allowed a re-shuffling of offices.[21] In 1711, the Emperor Joseph died, which threatened to destroy the balance of power in the opposite direction, and the war ended in 1713 with the ratification of the Treaty of Utrecht. Philip was allowed to succeed to the Spanish Throne, but he was removed from the line of succession to the French Throne, and the Elector of Bavaria was restored. A palatinate is an area administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ...


Accession in Great Britain

Though both England and Scotland recognised Anne as their Queen, only the English Parliament had settled on Sophia, Electress of Hanover, as the heir. The Estates of Scotland (the Scottish Parliament) had not yet formally settled the question over who would succeed to the Scottish throne on Anne's death. In 1703, the Estates passed a bill that declared that their selection for Queen Anne's successor would not be the same individual as the successor to the English Throne, unless England granted full freedom of trade to Scottish merchants in England and its colonies. Royal Assent was originally withheld, which caused the Scottish Estates to threaten to withdraw troops from the army fighting in the War of the Spanish Succession. In 1704, Anne capitulated, and her Assent was granted to the bill, which became the Act of Security 1704. In response, the English Parliament passed measures which threatened to restrict Anglo-Scottish trade and cripple the Scottish economy.[22][23] Eventually, in 1707, both Parliaments agreed an Act of Union, creating the largest free trade area in eighteenth-century Europe.[24] It united England and Scotland into a single political entity, the Kingdom of Great Britain, and established the rules of succession as laid down by the Act of Settlement.[25] The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III. Her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII, was forcibly deposed in 1688; her brother-in-law and her sister then became joint monarchs as William III and Mary... The Act of Security 1704 (also referred to as the Act for the Security of the Kingdom) was a response by the Parliament of Scotland to the Parliament of Englands Act of Settlement 1701. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English (de facto) Recognised regional languages Gaelic, Scots1 Demonym Scot, Scots... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ...


George's mother, the Electress Sophia, died on 28 May 1714[26] at the age of 83. She had collapsed after rushing to shelter from a shower of rain in Herrenhausen gardens. George was now Queen Anne's direct heir. He swiftly revised the membership of the Regency Council, that would take power after Anne's death, as it was known that Anne's health was failing and politicians in Britain were jostling for power.[27] She suffered a stroke, which left her unable to speak, and died on 1 August. The list of regents was opened, the members sworn in, and George was proclaimed King of Great Britain and Ireland.[28] Partly due to contrary winds, which kept him in The Hague awaiting passage,[29] he did not arrive in Britain until 18 September. George was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 20 October.[2] May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... The Herrenhausen Gardens (German: Herrenhäuser Gärten), located in Lower Saxonys capital of Hanover are made up of the Great Garden (Großer Garten), the Berggarten, the Georgengarten and the Welfengarten. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

James I

King of England,
Scotland and Ireland
See Ancestors
See Descendants
Daughter Granddaughter Great-grandson
Elizabeth of Bohemia

Electress Palatine and
Queen of Bohemia
See Descendants
Sophia of Hanover

Electress of Hanover
See Descendants
George I

King George I of Great Britain
See Descendants

George primarily resided in Great Britain after 1714, though he visited his home in Hanover in 1716, 1719, 1720, 1723 and 1725;[30] in total George spent about one fifth of his reign as King in Germany.[31] A clause in the Act of Settlement that forbade the British Monarch from leaving the country without Parliament's permission was unanimously repealed in 1716.[32] During all but the first of the King's absences, power was vested in a Regency Council rather than his son, George Augustus, Prince of Wales.[33] James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... James VI and I (James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland. ... Elisabeth, Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (born Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland; 19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was the eldest daughter to James VI of Scotland and his Queen consort Anne of Denmark. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Electress Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia, Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, of the House of Wittelsbach, the Winter King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links GeorgeIGreatBritain. ...


Within a year of George's accession, the Whigs won an overwhelming victory in the general election of 1715. Several members of the defeated Tory Party sympathised with the Jacobites, and some disgruntled Tories sided with a Jacobite Rebellion, which became known as "The Fifteen". The Jacobites sought to put Anne's Catholic half-brother, James (whom they called "James III", and who was known to his opponents as the "Pretender") on the Throne. The Pretender's supporters, led by John Erskine, 22nd Earl of Mar, an embittered Scottish nobleman who had previously supported the "Glorious Revolution", instigated rebellion in Scotland, where support for Jacobitism was stronger than in England. The Fifteen, however, was a dismal failure; Lord Mar's battle plans were poor, and the Pretender arrived late with too little money and too few arms. By the end of the year, the rebellion had all but collapsed. Faced with impending defeat, Lord Mar and the Pretender fled to France in February 1716. After the rebellion was defeated, although there were some executions and forfeitures, George acted to moderate the government's response, showed leniency, and spent the income from the forfeited estates on schools for Scotland and paying off part of the national debt.[34] The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... The British general election, 1715 returned members to serve in the House of Commons of the 5th Parliament of Great Britain to be held, after the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart, the Old Pretender, (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scots, and as such laid claim to the English and Scottish thrones (as... John Erskine, 22nd (or 6th) Earl of Mar (1675 - May, 1732), Scottish Jacobite, was the eldest son of Charles, the 5th earl (1650-1689), from whom he inherited estates that were heavily loaded with debt. ... The Glorious Revolution (1688-1689), also known as the bloodless revolution, is an event in which the Stuart king James II (James VII of Scotland) was removed from his thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland, and replaced by William of the House of Orange and his wife and joint sovereign... Government debt (public debt, national debt) is money owed by government, at any level (central government, federal government, national government, municipal government, local government, regional government). ...


George's distrust of the Tories aided the passing of power to the Whigs.[35] Whig dominance would grow to be so great under George that the Tories would not return to power for another half-century. After the election, the Whig-dominated Parliament passed the Septennial Act 1715, which extended the maximum duration of Parliament to seven years (although it could be dissolved earlier by the Sovereign).[36] Thus, Whigs already in power could remain in such a position for a greater period of time.[37] The Septennial Act 1715 was an Act of the Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1715, to increase the maximum length of a Parliament (and hence between general elections) from 3 years to 7 years. ...


Wars and rebellion

British Royalty
House of Hanover
George I
   George II
   Sophia, Queen in Prussia

After his accession in Great Britain, George's relationship with his son (which had always been poor) worsened. George Augustus, Prince of Wales, encouraged opposition to his father's policies, including measures designed to increase religious freedom in Britain and expand Hanover's German territories at the expense of Sweden.[38] In 1717, the birth of a grandson led to a major quarrel between George and the Prince of Wales. The King, supposedly following custom, appointed the Lord Chamberlain, the Duke of Newcastle, as one of the sponsors of the child. The King was angered when the Prince of Wales, disliking Newcastle, verbally insulted the duke at the christening, which the duke misunderstood as a challenge to a duel. The Prince was told to leave the royal residence, St. James's Palace.[39] The Prince's new home, Leicester House, became a meeting place for the King's political opponents.[40] George and his son were later reconciled, at the insistence of Walpole and the desire of the Princess of Wales, who had moved out with her husband but missed her children who had been left in the care of the king. Father and son would never again be on cordial terms.[41] The British monarchy is a shared monarchy; this article describes the monarchy from the perspective of the United Kingdom. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Image File history File links This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (March 16, 1687 – June 28, 1757) was a Princess of Hanover, being the daughter of Georg Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later George I of Great Britain) and Sophia Dorothea of Celle. ... The Lord Chamberlain or Lord Chamberlain of the Household is one of the chief officers of the Royal Household in the United Kingdom, and is to be distinguished from the Lord Great Chamberlain, one of the Great Officers of State. ... Arms of Thomas Pelham-Holles Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme (July 21, 1693 – November 17, 1768) was a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century. ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... Leicester Square at night in 2005: a view towards the northeast corner. ... Caroline of Ansbach (later Queen Caroline; Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737) was the queen consort of George II. // Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach was born on 1 March 1683, at Ansbach in Germany, the daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and his second wife...


George was active in directing British foreign policy during his early reign. In 1717, he contributed to the creation of the Triple Alliance, an anti-Spanish league composed of Great Britain, France and the United Provinces. In 1718, the Holy Roman Empire was added to the body, which became known as the Quadruple Alliance. The subsequent War of the Quadruple Alliance involved the same issue as the War of the Spanish Succession. The Treaty of Utrecht had recognised the grandson of King Louis XIV of France, Philip, as the King of Spain on the condition that he gave up his rights to succeed to the French Throne. Upon the death of Louis XIV, however, Philip sought to overturn the treaty. The Triple Alliance was an agreement between England, France and the Netherlands, against Spain, attempting to maintain the agreement of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... The term Quadruple Alliance refers to several historical military alliances; none of which remain in effect. ... The War of the Quadruple Alliance was a minor European war fought between 1718 and 1720, mostly in Italy, between Spain on the one side, and the Quadruple Alliance of Austria, France, Great Britain, and the United Provinces. ...


Spain supported a Jacobite-led invasion of Scotland in 1719, but stormy seas allowed only about three hundred Spanish troops to arrive in Scotland.[42] A base was established at Eilean Donan Castle on the west Scottish coast, only for it to be destroyed by British ships a month later.[43] Attempts by the Jacobites to recruit Scottish clansmen yielded a fighting force of only about a thousand men. The Jacobites were poorly equipped, and were easily defeated by British artillery at the Battle of Glen Shiel.[44] The clansmen dispersed into the Highlands, and the Spaniards surrendered. The invasion never posed any serious threat to George's Government. With even the French fighting against him in the War, Philip's armies fared poorly. As a result, the Spanish and French Thrones remained separate. Loch Duich and Eilean Donan castle Eilean Donan castle and some surroundings Eilean Donan (Scottish Gaelic for Island of Donan), is a small island in Loch Duich in the western Highlands of Scotland. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Combatants Britain Jacobite Scotland Spain Commanders Joseph Wightman Lord George Murray Strength 850 infantry 120 dragoons 4 mortar batteries 1000 troops Casualties 21 dead 100 wounded 100 dead, many more wounded The Battle of Glen Shiel was a battle in Glen Shiel, in the West Highlands of Scotland on 10... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ...


Simultaneously, Hanover gained from the resolution of the Great Northern War, which had been caused by rivalry between Sweden and Russia for control of the Baltic. The Swedish territories of Bremen and Verden were ceded to Hanover in 1719, with Hanover paying Sweden a money compensation for the loss of territory.[45] Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Bremen-Verden was a dominion of Sweden from 1648 to 1719, when it was ceded to Hanover in the Treaty of Stockholm. ...


Ministries

In Hanover, the King was absolute monarch. All government expenditure above 50 thalers (between 12 and 13 British pounds), and the appointment of all army officers, all ministers, and even government officials above the level of copyist, was in his personal control. In contrast, in Great Britain, George had to govern through Parliament.[46] “GBP” redirects here. ...


In 1715, when the Whigs came to power, George's chief ministers included Sir Robert Walpole, Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend (Walpole's brother-in-law), James Stanhope, 1st Viscount Stanhope (afterwards 1st Earl Stanhope) and Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland. In 1717, Lord Townshend was dismissed and Walpole resigned from the Cabinet over disagreements with their counterparts;[47] Lord Stanhope became supreme in foreign affairs, and Lord Sunderland the same in domestic matters.[48] Charles Townshend Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend (April 18, 1674–June 21, 1738), was an English statesman. ... James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope (c. ... Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland (c. ...

A 1718 quarter-guinea coin from the reign of George I, showing him in profile.
A 1718 quarter-guinea coin from the reign of George I, showing him in profile.

Lord Sunderland's power began to wane in 1719. He introduced a Peerage Bill, which attempted to limit the size of the House of Lords by restricting new creations. The measure would have solidified Sunderland's control of the House by preventing the creation of opposition peers but the bill was defeated after Walpole led the opposition to the bill by delivering what was considered "the most brilliant speech of his career".[49] Walpole and Townshend were reappointed as ministers the following year and a new, supposedly unified, Whig government formed.[49] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ...


Greater problems arose over financial speculation and the management of the national debt. Certain government bonds could not be redeemed without the consent of the proprietor and had been sold when interest rates were high; consequently, each bond represented a long-term drain on public finances, as bonds were hardly ever redeemed.[50] In 1719, the South Sea Company proposed to take over £31 million (three fifths) of the British national debt by exchanging government securities for stock in the company.[51] The Company bribed Lord Sunderland, Melusine von der Schulenburg and Lord Stanhope's cousin, Charles Stanhope, who was Secretary of the Treasury, to support their plan.[52] The Company enticed bondholders to convert their high-interest, irredeemable bonds to low-interest, easily-tradeable stocks by offering apparently preferential financial gains.[53] Company prices rose rapidly; the shares had cost £128 on 1 January 1720,[54] but were valued at £500 when the conversion scheme opened in May;[55] on 24 June the price reached a peak of £1050.[56] The company's success led to the speculative flotation of other companies, some of a bogus nature,[57] and the Government, in an attempt to suppress these schemes and with the support of the Company, passed the Bubble Act.[58] With the rise in the market now halted,[59] uncontrolled selling began in August, which caused the stock to plummet to £150 by the end of September. Many individuals—including aristocrats—lost vast sums and some were completely ruined.[60] George, who had been in Hanover since June, returned to London in November—sooner than he wanted or was usual—at the request of the ministry.[61] Hogarthian image of the South Sea Bubble by Edward Matthew Ward, Tate Gallery More well known than The South Sea Company is perhaps the South Sea Bubble (1711 - September 1720) which is the name given to the economic bubble that occurred through overheated speculation in the company shares during 1720. ... Charles Stanhope may refer to: Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl Stanhope (August 3, 1753 – December 15, 1816), British statesman and scientist. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bubble Act of 1720 was an English act that forbade all joint-stock companies not authorised by royal charter. ...


The economic crisis, known as the South Sea Bubble, made George and his ministers extremely unpopular.[62] In 1721, Lord Stanhope, though personally innocent,[63][64] collapsed and died after a stressful debate in the House of Lords, and Lord Sunderland resigned from public office. Lord Sunderland retained a degree of personal influence with George until his sudden death in 1722 allowed the rise of Sir Robert Walpole. Walpole became de facto Prime Minister, although the title was not formally applied to him (officially, he was First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer). His management of the South Sea crisis, by rescheduling the debts and arranging some compensation, helped the return to financial stability.[65] Through Walpole's skillful management of Parliament, George managed to avoid direct implication in the Company’s fraudulent actions.[66] Claims that George had received free stock as a bribe,[67] are not supported by evidence, indeed receipts in the Royal Archives show that he paid for his subscriptions and that he lost money in the crash.[68] The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not always the Prime Minister. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... The Royal Archives, also known as the Queens Archives, are a division of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. ...


Later years

As requested by Walpole, George revived The Most Honourable Order of the Bath in 1725, which enabled Walpole to reward or gain political supporters by offering them the honour.[69] Walpole became extremely powerful, and was largely able to appoint ministers of his own choosing. Unlike his predecessor, Queen Anne, George rarely attended meetings of the Cabinet; most of his communications were in private. George only exercised substantial influence with respect to British foreign policy. He, with the aid of Lord Townshend, arranged for the ratification by Great Britain, France and Prussia of the Treaty of Hanover, which was designed to counter-balance the Austro-Spanish Treaty of Vienna and protect British trade.[70] Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... Motto Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Government Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I (first)  - 1688–1701 Frederick III (last) King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I (first)  - 1888–1918 William II (last) Prime Minister1,2... The Treaty of Hanover is the name of two internatonal treaties. ... The Treaty of Vienna was signed on April 30, 1725 between Emperor Charles VI of Austria and King Philip IV of Spain. ...


George, although increasingly reliant on Walpole, could still have replaced his ministers at will. Walpole was actually afraid of being removed towards the end of George I's reign,[71] but such fears were put to an end when George died during his sixth trip to his native Hanover since his accession as King. George suffered a stroke on the road between Delden and Nordhorn on the 9 June 1727.[72] He was taken by carriage to the prince-bishop's palace at Osnabrück[73] where he died in the early hours of 11 June 1727.[74] He was buried in the Chapel of Leine Castle but his remains were moved to the chapel at Herrenhausen after World War II.[2] Delden is a city in the province of Overijssel and, since 2001, in the municipality of Hof van Twente. ... Nordhorn (IPA: ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... River side The Leineschloss (English: Leine Castle) is the former residence of the Hanoverian kings and the current seat of the Lawor Saxon diet. ... The Herrenhausen Gardens (German: Herrenhäuser Gärten), located in Lower Saxonys capital of Hanover are made up of the Great Garden (Großer Garten), the Berggarten, the Georgengarten and the Welfengarten. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


George was succeeded by his son, George Augustus, who took the throne as George II. It was widely assumed, even by Walpole for a time, that George II planned to remove Walpole from office but was prevented from doing so by his wife, Queen Caroline. However, Walpole commanded a substantial majority in Parliament and George II had little choice but to retain him or risk ministerial instability.[75] In subsequent reigns, the power of the Sovereign further deteriorated, and the power of the Prime Minister increased. George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ...


Legacy

George was ridiculed by his British subjects;[76] some of his contemporaries, such as Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, thought him unintelligent on the flimsy grounds that he was wooden in public.[77] Though he was unpopular due to his supposed inability to speak English, such an inability may not have existed later in his reign, as documents from that time show that he understood, spoke and wrote English.[78] He certainly spoke fluent German and French, good Latin, and some Italian and Dutch.[31] His treatment of his wife, Sophia Dorothea, became something of a scandal.[79] The British perceived him as too German, and, in the opinion of historian Ragnhild Hatton, wrongly assumed that he had a succession of German mistresses.[80] However, in Europe he was seen as a progressive ruler supportive of the Enlightenment, who permitted his critics to publish without risk of severe censorship, and provided sanctuary to Voltaire, when the philosopher was exiled from Paris in 1726.[76] European and British sources agree that George was reserved, temperate and financially prudent;[31] George disliked to be in the public light at social events, would avoid the royal box at the opera and often travelled incognito to the house of a friend to play cards.[32] The Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (May 26, 1689 - August 21, 1762), was an English woman of letters. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


Despite some unpopularity, the Protestant George I was seen by most of his subjects as a better alternative to the Roman Catholic Pretender James. William Makepeace Thackeray indicates such ambivalent feelings when he writes, "His heart was in Hanover. He was more than fifty-four years of age when he came amongst us: we took him because we wanted him, because he served our turn; we laughed at his uncouth German ways, and sneered at him…I, for one, would have been on his side in those days. Cynical, and selfish, as he was, he was better than a King out of St Germains [James the Pretender] with a French King's orders in his pocket, and a swarm of Jesuits in his train."[81] James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart, the Old Pretender, (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scots, and as such laid claim to the English and Scottish thrones (as... William Makepeace Thackeray (July 18, 1811 – December 24, 1863) was a British novelist of the 19th century. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region ÃŽle-de-France Department Yvelines (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Saint-Germain-en-Laye Canton Chief town of 2 cantons Intercommunality none as of 2005 Mayor Emmanuel Lamy (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 22 m–107 m (avg. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...


Writers of the nineteenth century, such as Thackeray, Sir Walter Scott and Lord Mahon were reliant on biased first-hand accounts published in the previous century, such as Lord Hervey's memoirs, and looked back on the Jacobite cause with romantic, even sympathetic, eyes. They, in turn, influenced British authors of the first-half of the twentieth century, such as G. K. Chesterton, who introduced further anti-German and anti-Protestant bias into the interpretation of George's reign. However, in the wake of World War II, continental European archives were opened to historians of the later twentieth century, and nationalistic anti-German feeling subsided. George's life and reign were re-explored by scholars, such as Beattie and Hatton, and his character, abilities and motives re-assessed in a more generous light.[82] As John H. Plumb noted, "Some historians have exaggerated the king's indifference to English affairs and made his ignorance of the English language seem more important than it was. He had little difficulty in communicating with his ministers in French, and his interest in all matters affecting both foreign policy and the court was profound."[83] Yet the character of George I remains elusive—he was in turn genial and affectionate in private letters to his daughter, and then dull and awkward in public. Perhaps his own mother summed him up when "explaining to those who regarded him as cold and overserious that he could be jolly, that he took things to heart, that he felt deeply and sincerely and was more sensitive than he cared to show."[4] Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope (January 30, 1805 - December 24, 1875), was an English historian, better known as Lord Mahon. ... John Hervey, Baron Hervey (October 13, 1696 - August 5, 1743), English statesman and writer, was the eldest son of John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol, by his second marriage. ... Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Sir John Harold Plumb (20 August 1911 – 21 October 2001), known as Jack, was a British historian, known for his books on British eighteenth century history. ...


Whatever his true character, he ascended a precarious throne, and either by political wisdom and guile, or through accident and indifference, he left it secure in the hands of the Hanoverians and of Parliament.[31]


Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles

May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ...

Styles

Monarchical Styles of
King George I of Great Britain
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sire

In Great Britain, George I used the official style "George, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." In some cases (especially in treaties), the formula "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire" was added before the phrase "etc." Image File history File links Edward's_crown_PD_cleaned. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Look up majesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, meaning literally, Greatness. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... // Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles. ... Brunswick-Lüneburg was an historical state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... In many governments, a treasurer is the person responsible for running the treasury. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046...


Arms

George I's arms were: Quarterly, I Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England) impaling Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); II Azure three fleurs-de-lys Or (for France); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); IV tierced per pale and per chevron (for Hanover), I Gules two lions passant guardant Or (for Brunswick), II Or a semy of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure (for Lüneburg), III Gules a horse courant Argent (for Westfalen), overall an escutcheon Gules charged with the crown of Charlemagne Or (for the dignity of Archtreasurer of the Holy Roman Empire).[84][85] Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English (de facto) Recognised regional languages Gaelic, Scots1 Demonym Scot, Scots... Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... Coordinates: Time zone: CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country: Germany State: Lower Saxony District: Urban district City subdivisions: 20 Boroughs Lord Mayor: Gert Hoffmann (CDU) Governing parties: CDU / FDP Basic Statistics Area: 192. ... Lüneburg (English: Lunenburg) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, about 50km southeast of Hamburg. ... Westphalia (German: Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Bielefeld, Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster, and Osnabrück and included in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. ... Charlemagne and Pippin the Hunchback. ... In many governments, a treasurer is the person responsible for running the treasury. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046...


Ancestors

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Sophia of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Christian III of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Dorothea of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. George I, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Magdalene of Lippe
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. John George, Elector of Brandenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Margravine Magdalene of Brandenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Princess Elizabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. George I of Great Britain
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Louis VI, Elector Palatine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Frederick IV, Elector Palatine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Elisabeth of Hesse
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Frederick V, Elector Palatine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Prince William I of Orange
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Countess Louise Juliana of Nassau
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Charlotte of Bourbon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Sophia, Princess Palatine of the Rhine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. James I of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Mary I of Scotland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Frederick II of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Anne of Denmark
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Sophia of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
 
 
 
 
 
 

Ernest (German: Ernst; 27 June 1497, Uelzen – 11 January 1546), called the Confessor, was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. ... William (4 July 1535 – 20 August 1592) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1559 until his death. ... George (17 November 1582, Celle – 2 April 1641, Hildesheim) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. ... Christian III Christian III (August 12, 1503–January 1, 1559), king of Denmark and Norway, was the son of Frederick I of Denmark and his first consort, Anne of Brandenburg. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg (1511 - 1571), consort of Christian III from 1525 and Queen consort of Denmark and Norway. ... Ernest Augustus (German: Ernst August; 20 November 1629, Herzberg – 23 January 1698, Herrenhausen) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Calenberg (or Hanover) subdivision of the duchy. ... George I, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1567 to 1596. ... Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1596 to 1626 . ... Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt was born on 30th of July 1601 in Darmstadt, Hessen, Germany and died on the 6th May 1659 in Herzberg, Germany. ... Johann Georg Hohenzollern (1525–1598) was the Margrave and Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia from 1571 until his death. ... Louis VI, Elector Palatine (Simmern, 4 July 1539 – 22 October 1583, Heidelberg) was an Elector from the branch of Palatinate-Simmern of the house of Wittelsbach. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Elisabeth of Hesse (13 February 1539 – 14 March 1582) was a German noblewoman. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... William I (William the Silent). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Charlotte of Bourbon (1546/1547 - Antwerp, 5 May 1582) was the daughter of Louis of Bourbon and Jaqueline of Longwy. ... Electress Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia, Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, of the House of Wittelsbach, the Winter King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. ... Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, King Consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who became King James I of England. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... Mary I (popularly known as Mary, Queen of Scots: French: ); (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587) was Queen of Scots (the monarch of the Kingdom of Scotland) from December 14, 1542, to July 24, 1567. ... Elisabeth, Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (born Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland; 19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was the eldest daughter to James VI of Scotland and his Queen consort Anne of Denmark. ... Frederick II of Denmark and Norway Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... Hans Knieper: Königin Sophie von Dänemark For other uses, see Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (disambiguation). ...

Issue

Name Birth Death Notes[86]
George II 10 November 1683 25 October 1760 married, 1705, Caroline of Ansbach; had issue
Sophia, Queen in Prussia 26 March 1687 28 June 1757 married, 1706, Frederick William, Margrave of Brandenburg (later Frederick William I of Prussia); had issue

George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Caroline of Ansbach (later Queen Caroline; Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737) was the queen consort of George II. // Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach was born on 1 March 1683, at Ansbach in Germany, the daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and his second wife... Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (March 16, 1687 – June 28, 1757) was a Princess of Hanover, being the daughter of Georg Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later George I of Great Britain) and Sophia Dorothea of Celle. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ...

See also

This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Succession to the British Throne has generally been according to the rules of male-preference primogeniture. ... This page is about dukedoms in the Peerages of the British Isles, and which monarch created them. ...

Notes and sources

  1. ^ a b Throughout George's life, Great Britain used the Old Style Julian calendar. Hanover adopted the New Style Gregorian calendar on 1 March 1700 (N.S.) / 18 February 1700 (O.S.). Old Style is used for dates in this article unless otherwise indicated; however, years are assumed to start from 1 January and not 25 March, which was the English New Year.
  2. ^ a b c Weir, Alison (1996). Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy, Revised edition. Random House, pp.272–276. ISBN 0712674489. 
  3. ^ Hatton, Ragnhild (1978). George I: Elector and King. London: Thames and Hudson, pp.26–28. ISBN 050025060X. 
  4. ^ a b Hatton, p.29
  5. ^ Hatton, p.34
  6. ^ Hatton, p.30
  7. ^ Hatton, pp.36, 42
  8. ^ Hatton, pp.43–46
  9. ^ There would be one other daughter, born in 1701. Melusine von der Schulenburg acted as George's hostess openly from 1698 until his death.
  10. ^ Hatton, pp.51–61
  11. ^ Hatton, pp.60–64
  12. ^ The Prince-Bishopric was not an hereditary title; instead, it alternated between Protestant and Roman Catholic incumbents.
  13. ^ Schemmel, B. Hanover. rulers.org. Retrieved on 2007-08-21.
  14. ^ Hatton, p.74
  15. ^ Hatton, p.75–76
  16. ^ Hatton, pp.77–78
  17. ^ Hatton, p.90
  18. ^ Hatton, pp.86–89
  19. ^ Hatton, pp.101–104, 122
  20. ^ Hatton, p.104
  21. ^ Velde, François R. (26 September 2006). Holy Roman Empire. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  22. ^ Whatley, Christopher A. (2001). Bough and Sold for English Gold?: Explaining the Union of 1707, Second edition. East Linton, Scotland: Tuckwell Press. ISBN 186232140X. 
  23. ^ Riley, P. W. J. (1978). The Union of England and Scotland: A Study in Anglo-Scottish Politics of the Eighteenth Century. Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 0847661555. 
  24. ^ The Treaty of Union. The Scottish Parliament. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  25. ^ Union with Scotland Act 1706 (c.11). The UK Statute Law Database, Ministry of Justice. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  26. ^ 8 June in the New Style Gregorian calendar adopted by Hanover in 1700.
  27. ^ Hatton, p.108
  28. ^ Hatton, p.109
  29. ^ Hatton, p.123
  30. ^ Hatton, p.158
  31. ^ a b c d Gibbs, G. C. (September 2004; online edn, Jan 2006), "George I (1660–1727)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, DOI:10.1093/ref:odnb/10538. Retrieved on 2007-07-30
  32. ^ a b Plumb, J. H. (1956). The First Four Georges. 
  33. ^ George I. The Official Web Site of the British Monarchy. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  34. ^ Hatton, pp.174–179
  35. ^ Williams, Basil; Revised by C. H. Stuart (1962). The Whig Supremacy 1714–1760. Second edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.151–152. 
  36. ^ Septennial Act 1715 (c.38). The UK Statute Law Database, Ministry of Justice. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  37. ^ Lease, Owen C. (1950), "The Septennial Act of 1716", The Journal of Modern History 22: 42–47
  38. ^ Hatton, pp.199–202
  39. ^ Hatton, p.207–8
  40. ^ Dickinson, Harry T.; Introduced by A. L. Rowse (1973). Walpole and the Whig Supremacy. London: The English Universities Press, p.52. ISBN 0340115157. 
  41. ^ Arkell, R. L. (1937), "George I's Letters to His Daughter", The English Historical Review 52: 492–499
  42. ^ Hatton, p.239
  43. ^ Lenman, Bruce (1980). The Jacobite Risings in Britain 1689–1746. London: Eyre Methuen, pp.192–193. ISBN 0413396509. 
  44. ^ Szechi, Daniel (1994). The Jacobites: Britain and Europe 1688–1788. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, pp.109–110. ISBN 0719037743. 
  45. ^ Hatton, p.238
  46. ^ Williams, pp.13–14
  47. ^ Dickinson, p.49
  48. ^ Carswell, John (1960). The South Sea Bubble. London: Cresset Press, p.72. 
  49. ^ a b Hatton, p.244–246
  50. ^ Carswell, p.103
  51. ^ Carswell, p.104; Hatton, p.249 and Williams, p.176
  52. ^ Carswell, p.115 and Hatton, p.251
  53. ^ Carswell, p.151–152; Dickinson, p.58; and Hatton, p.250
  54. ^ Erleigh, Viscount (1933). The South Sea Bubble. Manchester: Peter Davies Ltd, p.65. 
  55. ^ Erleigh, p.70
  56. ^ Dickinson, p.58; Erleigh, pp.77, 104; and Hatton, p.251
  57. ^ Dickinson, p.59 and Erleigh, pp.72, 90–96
  58. ^ Dickinson, p.59 and Erleigh, pp.99–100
  59. ^ Dickinson, p.59
  60. ^ Erleigh, pp.112–117
  61. ^ Erleigh, p.125 and Hatton, p.254
  62. ^ Erleigh, pp.147–155 and Williams, p.177
  63. ^ Erleigh, p.129; Hatton, p.255 and Williams, p.176
  64. ^ Black, Jeremy (2001). Walpole in Power. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, p.20. ISBN 075092523X. 
  65. ^ Black, pp.19–20 and Dickinson, pp.61–62
  66. ^ Dickinson, p.63
  67. ^ e.g. Black, pp.19–20
  68. ^ Hatton, pp.251–253
  69. ^ Order of the Bath. The Official Web Site of the British Monarchy. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  70. ^ Hatton, p.274
  71. ^ "George I" (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press
  72. ^ Hatton, p.282
  73. ^ His younger brother, Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, was Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück from 1715 until 1728.
  74. ^ 22 June in the New Style Gregorian calendar adopted by Hanover in 1700.
  75. ^ Black, pp.29–31, 53, and 61
  76. ^ a b Hatton, p.291
  77. ^ Hatton, p.172
  78. ^ Hatton, p.131
  79. ^ Ashley, Mike (1998). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. London: Robinson, p.672. ISBN 1841190969. 
  80. ^ Hatton, pp.132–136
  81. ^ Thackeray, W. M. (1860). The Four Georges: Sketches of Manners, Morals, Court and Town Life. 
  82. ^ Smith, Hannah (2006). Georgian Monarchy: Politics and Culture, 1714–1760. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.3–9. ISBN 0521828767. 
  83. ^ Plumb, J. H. (1967). "George I". Collier's Encyclopedia 10. p.703. 
  84. ^ Williams, p.12
  85. ^ Louda, Jiří; Maclagan, Michael (1999). Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe. London: Little, Brown, p.29. ISBN 0856054691. 
  86. ^ Dates given in this table are New Style.

Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alison Weir (born 1951) is a popular British writer of history books for the general public, mostly in the form of biographies about British kings and queens. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Sir John Harold Plumb (20 August 1911 – 21 October 2001), known as Jack, was a British historian, known for his books on British eighteenth century history. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... (Arthur Frederick) Basil Williams OBE (April 4, 1867 - January 5, 1950), was an English historian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Journal of Modern History is an academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press. ... Alfred Leslie Rowse, CH FBA (December 4, 1903 – October 3, 1997), known professionally as A. L. Rowse and to his friends and family as Leslie, was a prolific British historian. ... The English Historical Review is an academic journal published by Oxford University Press. ... Gerald Rufus Isaacs, 2nd Marquess of Reading GCMG CBE MC TD PC QC (10 December 1889-19 September 1960), known as Viscount Erleigh from 1917 to 1935, was a British barrister and Conservative politician. ... Jeremy Black MBE is British historian and a Professor of History at the University of Exeter. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany KG (7 September 1674, Osnabruck –14 August 1728, Osnabruck) was the youngest son of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Sophia of the Palatinate and a younger brother of George I of Great Britain. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... William Makepeace Thackeray (July 18, 1811 – December 24, 1863) was a British novelist of the 19th century. ... Sir John Harold Plumb (20 August 1911 – 21 October 2001), known as Jack, was a British historian, known for his books on British eighteenth century history. ...

References

  • Black, Jeremy (2001). Walpole in Power. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 075092523X. 
  • Carswell, John (1960). The South Sea Bubble. London: Cresset Press. 
  • Dickinson, Harry T.; Introduced by A. L. Rowse (1973). Walpole and the Whig Supremacy. London: The English Universities Press. ISBN 0340115157. 
  • "George I" (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press.
  • Erleigh, Viscount (1933). The South Sea Bubble. Manchester: Peter Davies Ltd. 
  • Gibbs, G. C. (September 2004; online edn, Jan 2006), "George I (1660–1727)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, DOI:10.1093/ref:odnb/10538. Retrieved on 2007-07-30
  • Hatton, Ragnhild (1978). George I: Elector and King. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 050025060X. 
  • Plumb, J. H. (1956). The First Four Georges. 
  • Williams, Basil; Revised by C. H. Stuart (1962). The Whig Supremacy 1714–1760. Second edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Jeremy Black MBE is British historian and a Professor of History at the University of Exeter. ... Alfred Leslie Rowse, CH FBA (December 4, 1903 – October 3, 1997), known professionally as A. L. Rowse and to his friends and family as Leslie, was a prolific British historian. ... Gerald Rufus Isaacs, 2nd Marquess of Reading GCMG CBE MC TD PC QC (10 December 1889-19 September 1960), known as Viscount Erleigh from 1917 to 1935, was a British barrister and Conservative politician. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Sir John Harold Plumb (20 August 1911 – 21 October 2001), known as Jack, was a British historian, known for his books on British eighteenth century history. ... (Arthur Frederick) Basil Williams OBE (April 4, 1867 - January 5, 1950), was an English historian. ...

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
George I of Great Britain
  • Beattie, John M. (1967). The English Court in the Reign of George I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Lundy, Darryl. George I. thepeerage.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-21.
  • Marlow, Joyce; Introduction by Antonia Fraser (1973). The life and times of George I. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0297765922. 
  • Michael, Wolfgang; Translated/adapted by Lewis Namier (1936 and 1939). England under George I (2 volumes). 
  • "George I." (1997). Harvester's Encyclopedia, 252nd ed. Philadelphia: Ben Franklin Press.
George I of Great Britain
House of Hanover
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 28 May 1660
Died: 11 June 1727
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Anne
King of Great Britain and Ireland
1 August 171411 June 1727
Succeeded by
George II
Preceded by
New Creation
Elector of Hanover
7 September 170811 June 1727
Preceded by
Ernest Augustus
Duke of Calenberg and
Elector-designate of Hanover

23 January 16987 September 1708
Preceded by
George William
Duke of Lüneburg-Celle
28 August 17057 September 1708
British royalty
Preceded by
Electress Sophia
Heir to the Thrones
as heir presumptive
8 June1 August 1714
Succeeded by
George, Prince of Wales
Persondata
NAME George I of Great Britain
ALTERNATIVE NAMES George Louis
SHORT DESCRIPTION King of Great Britain, Elector of Hanover
DATE OF BIRTH 28 May; 7 June 1660 (Old and New Style dates)
PLACE OF BIRTH Osnabrück, Hanover
DATE OF DEATH 11 June, 22 June 1727 (Old and New Style dates)
PLACE OF DEATH Osnabrück, Hanover

  Results from FactBites:
 
George I of Great Britain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2974 words)
George I, the first Hanoverian monarch of Great Britain and Ireland, was not a fluent speaker of the English language; instead, he spoke his native German, and was for this ridiculed by his British subjects.
In 1717, the birth of a grandson led George I to quarrel with the Prince of Wales.
George I was extremely unpopular in Great Britain, especially due to his supposed inability to speak English; recent research, however, reveals that such an inability may not have existed later in his reign.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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