FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > George Germain, 1st Viscount Sackville
Lord George Germain (1780).
Lord George Germain (1780).

George Sackville, 1st Viscount Sackville (January 26, 1716August 26, 1785) was a British soldier and politician who was Secretary of State for America in Lord North's cabinet during the American Revolution. His ministry received much of the blame for Britain's loss of her American colonies. His issue of detailed instructions in military matters, coupled with his failure to understand the either the geography of the colonies or the determination of the colonists may justify this conclusion. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (918x1502, 306 KB) Lord George Germaine. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (918x1502, 306 KB) Lord George Germaine. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events August 5 - In the Battle of Peterwardein 40. ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford (April 13, 1732–August 5, 1792), more often known by his earlier title, Lord North, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782, and a major actor in the American Revolution. ... -1...


Lord George Germain was born George Sackville, the third son of Lionel Sackville, the Duke of Dorset and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He had two careers. His military career had some distinction, but ended with a court martial. His political career ended with the North ministry after the loss of the American colonies. He graduated from Trinity College, Dublin in 1737 before he entered the army. Lionel Cranfield Sackville, 1st Duke Of Dorset (January 18, 1688 - October 10, 1765) was an English political leader and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. ... Official standard of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (also known as the Viceroy or in the Middle Ages as the Lord Deputy) was the head of the Kingdom of Englands (before the Act of Union 1707) or Kingdom of Great Britains (after 1707... The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin or more commonly Trinity College, Dublin was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I, and is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, Irelands oldest university. ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ...

Contents


Military career

He started as a Captain in the 7th Horse (later the 6th Dragoon Guards). In 1740 he transferred to the Gloucestershire Regiment of Foot as a Lieutenant Colonel. The regiment was sent to Germany to participate in the War of the Austrian Succession. In 1743 Sackville was advanced to brevet Colonel. Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748). ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ...


George finally saw his first battle, leading the charge of the Duke of Cumberland's infantry in the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745. He was captured, but since he was wounded in the charge, the French treated and released him. When he returned home, it was to duty in Scotland as the Colonel of the 20th Foot (Lancashire Fusiliers) Regiment. Duke of Cumberland is a peerage title that was conferred upon junior members of the British royal family. ... The Battle of Fontenoy was fought at Fontenoy in the Austrian Netherlands on May 11, 1745, during the War of Austrian Succession. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected...


In 1747 and 1748 he again joined the Duke of Cumberland. He became Colonel of the 7th Irish horse and served in Holland. There was a break in his military career between wars when he served as first secretary to his father and as a MP in the Irish House of Commons. During this time he also earned a reputation for homosexual behavior. // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


During the Seven Years' War George returned to active service. In 1755 he was promoted to Major General and returned to active service to oversee ordinance. In 1758 he was given a fourth regiment and joined the Duke of Marlborough as a Lieutenant General. They joined the allied forces of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick in Germany. When Marlborough died, Sackville became Commander of the British forces. The Seven Years War, sometimes referred to as the Pomeranian War or the French and Indian War, (1754 and 1756–1763) pitted Great Britain, Prussia, and Hanover against France, Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Saxony. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough (1706-1758) was a British politician of the 18th century. ... Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick (October 9, 1735 - November 10, 1806), German general, was born at Wolfenbüttel. ...


Battle of Minden

On August 1, 1759 the British Hessian infantry made a successful attack on the center of the French line in the Battle of Minden. Their attacking line formation even repulsed the French cavalry charge by holding till the last moment then firing a massive volley when the charge came within ten yards. As the French forces began to fall back on Minden, Ferdinand called for a British cavalry charge, but Sackville withheld permission for their advance. Ferdinand sent his order several times, but Sackville was estranged with Lord Granby the force commander. He continued to withhold permission for Granby to gain glory through an attack, and the allies lost the opportunity for a decisive victory or a rout. For this action, he was cashiered and sent home. August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of Minden was a battle fought on August 1, 1759 during the Seven Years War. ... Minden is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... John Manners, Marquess of Granby (1721 - October 18, 1770), British soldier, was the eldest son of the 3rd Duke of Rutland. ...


Court martial

Sackville refused to accept responsibility for refusing to obey orders. Back in England, he demanded a court martial, and made it a large enough issue that he got his demand in 1760. The court found him guilty, and imposed one of the strangest or strongest verdicts ever rendered against a general officer. The court's verdict not only upheld his discharge, but ruled that he was "...unfit to serve his Majesty in any military capacity whatsoever", then ordered that their verdict be read to and entered in the orderly book of every regiment in the Army. The king had his name struck from the Privy Council rolls. 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Political career

Sackville had been a Member of Parliament at intervals since 1741. He had served terms in both the Dublin and the Westminster bodies, sometimes simultaneously. but had never taken sides in political wrangles. As George III took the throne, he began his political rehabilitation. // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius...


There did not seem to be negative repercussions to the European stalemate of the Seven Year's War. The victories over the French within the colonial empire provided a chance for events of the war to be forgotten. The difficulty of repaying the debts incurred to fight the war caused a period of unstable ministries and shifting political alliances. In 1763 King George quietly returned him to the rolls of the Privy Council. 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


He increasing lined up as a supporter of Lord North and in 1769 he made this alliance formal. Then in 1769 Lady Elizabeth Germain died without natural heirs, and left her estates to him. This not only improved his finances, it also gave him the chance to formally take that name. After 1770 he was known as Lord George Germain. Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford (April 13, 1732–August 5, 1792), more often known by his earlier title, Lord North, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782, and a major actor in the American Revolution. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1770 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


On November 10, 1775, Germain was appointed Secretary of State for the America. At that time North's cabinet had three secretaries of state; one each for Europe, America, and the rest of the world. Besides international relations, these secretaries were responsible for a great deal of Colonial administration and for military operations within their area. November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 1775 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


This made Germain the primary minister responsible for suppressing the revolt in the colonies. He promoted or relieved Generals, took care of provisions and supplies, and became involved with the strategic planning of the war. His general approach as based on his idea that "...the rabble ... ought not trouble thmselves with politics and government, which they do not understand." and that "...these country clowns cannot whip us."


Lord Germain and Prime Minister Lord North made three assumptions about the war they were about to face. One was that the American forces could not withstande the assaults of the British. Secondly, the war would be similar to wars they had fought successfully in Europe. Lastly, theire victory would bring about their goal of having the colonies allegiance. All of their assumptions proved to be false.


In 1776 he worked with General Burgoyne to plan, support, and issue orders for the Saratoga Campaign. However, the fact that his orders for General Howe were not clear contributed to the campaign's failure. In 1781 the confusion between orders for Cornwallis and Clinton contributed to the loss at Yorktown. This article is about the year 1776. ... John Burgoyne John Burgoyne (February 24, 1723 – August 4, 1792) was a British general during the American Revolutionary War, infamous for his arrogance, pompous attitude, and vanity. ... The Saratoga Campaign was a 1777 initiative by the British Army in the American Revolutionary War. ... For the surrealist painter, see William Howe (painter). ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis (December 31, 1738 – October 5, 1805) was a British general and colonial governor. ... General Sir Henry Clinton K.B. Commander-in-Chief of British troops in America. ... Combatants Britain United States France Commanders Charles Cornwallis George Washington Comte de Rochambeau Strength 7,500 8,845 Americans 7,800 French Casualties 156 killed 326 wounded 7,018 captured Americans: 20 killed, 56 wounded French: 52 killed, 134 wounded The Battle of Yorktown (1781) was a victory by a...


After the Revolution

When Lord North stepped down in 1782, Germain gave up both his cabinet post and his seat in parliament. King George made him a peer as the Viscount Sackville, but the controversy over his handling of the war continued. Some members were opposed to his seat in the House of Lords, but his declining health soon made the issue moot. He retired to his country home at Stoneland Lodge in Sussex, and died there in 1785. 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The titles of Viscount Sackville and Baron Bolebrooke were created in 1782 in the Peerage of Great Britain for Lord George Germaine (previously Sackville), the soldier and politician. ... Sussex is a traditional county in south-eastern England, corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

Preceded by:
Edward Weston
Chief Secretary for Ireland
1750–1755
Succeeded by:
Henry Seymour Conway
Preceded by:
The Earl of Dartmouth
First Lord of Trade
1775–1779
Succeeded by:
The Earl of Carlisle
Preceded by:
The Earl of Dartmouth
Colonial Secretary
1776–1782
Succeeded by:
Welbore Ellis
Preceded by:
New Creation
Viscount Sackville Succeeded by:
Charles Sackville

  Results from FactBites:
 
George Germain, 1st Viscount Sackville - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1160 words)
George Sackville, 1st Viscount Sackville (January 26, 1716 – August 26, 1785) was a British soldier and politician who was Secretary of State for America in Lord North's cabinet during the American Revolution.
Lord George Germain was born George Sackville, the third son of Lionel Sackville, the Duke of Dorset and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
George finally saw his first battle, leading the charge of the Duke of Cumberland's infantry in the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m