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Encyclopedia > George Fox
George Fox
19th-century engraving of George Fox, based on a painting of unknown date.
Born July 1624
Leicestershire, England
Died January 13, 1691
Spouse Margaret Fell
Parents Christopher Fox, Mary Lago

George Fox (July 1624 – January 13, 1691) was an English Dissenter and a major early figure — usually considered the founder — of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers. Living in a time of great social upheaval, he rebelled against the religious and political consensus by proposing an unusual and uncompromising approach to the Christian faith. His journal is a text known even among non-Quakers for its vivid account of his personal journey. George Fox is the name of: George Fox (1624-1691), a founder of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) George Fox (musician), a Canadian country music artist George L. Fox (clown) (1825-1877), an American entertainer George Richard Lane-Fox (1870-1947), a politician from the United Kingdom Category: ... In the public domain by age. ... Leicestershire (IPA: , abbreviated Leics) is a landlocked county in central England. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... Margaret Fell or Margaret Fell-Fox (1614 - April 23, 1702) was one of the founding members of the Religious Society of Friends, and was popularly known as the mother of Quakerism. She was born Margaret Askew in Lancashire, England. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... English Dissenters were dissenters from England who opposed State interference in religious matters and founded their own communities over the 16th to 18th century period. ... The Religious Society of Friends (commonly known as Quakers) is a Christian religious denomination that began in England in the 17th century by people who were dissatisfied with the existing denominations and sects of Christianity. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...

Contents

Early life

George Fox was born at Drayton-in-the-Clay, Leicestershire, England (now known as Fenny Drayton), 24 km (15 miles) southwest of Leicester. His father, Christopher Fox, was a weaver, called "righteous Christer" by his neighbours; his mother, Mary Lago, was—he tells us—"of the stock of the Martyrs". From childhood, Fox was of a serious, religious disposition. His education was based around the faith and practice of the Church of England, of which his parents were members; this parish was strongly puritan, in this case Presbyterian. He had no formal schooling but learned to read and write. Even at a young age, he was fascinated by the Bible, which he studied continually. "When I came to eleven years of age," he said, "I knew pureness and righteousness; for, while I was a child, I was taught how to walk to be kept pure. The Lord taught me to be faithful, in all things, and to act faithfully two ways; viz., inwardly to God, and outwardly to man." (Jones 1908[1]) Leicestershire (IPA: , abbreviated Leics) is a landlocked county in central England. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Fenny Drayton is a village in Leicestershire in the district of Hinckley and Bosworth. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands region of the UK. The city is the traditional county town of Leicestershire. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn made of fiber called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ...

Facsimile of portrait drawn on stone by Thomas Fairland.
Facsimile of portrait drawn on stone by Thomas Fairland.

As he grew up, his relations "thought to have made him a priest," but he was instead made an apprentice to a shoemaker and grazier. This suited his contemplative temperament, and he became well-known for his diligence among the wool traders who had dealings with his master. A constant obsession for Fox was the pursuit of "simplicity" in life, meaning humility and the abandonment of luxury, and the short time he spent as a shepherd was important to the formation of this view. Toward the end of his life, he wrote a letter for general circulation pointing out that Abel, Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Moses and David were all keepers of sheep or cattle, and that a learned education should not therefore be seen as a qualification for ministry. (Marsh 1847, 364) Download high resolution version (499x640, 54 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (499x640, 54 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Shoemaking is a traditional handicraft profession, which has now been largely superseded by industrial manufacture of footwear. ... Shepherd in FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, Romania. ... In the Book of Genesis, Abel (Hebrew הֶבֶל / הָבֶל, Standard Hebrew Hével / Hável, Tiberian Hebrew Héḇel / Hāḇel; Arabic هابيل HābÄ«l) was the second son of Adam. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ...


Even so, he felt no shame in friendship with educated people. He frequently visited Nathaniel Stephens, the clergyman of his hometown, to engage in long discussions on religious matters. Stephens considered Fox to be a gifted young man, but the two disagreed on so many issues that he later called Fox a madman and spoke against him in his subsequent career. George Fox also had friends who were "professors" (followers of the standard religion), but by the age of nineteen he had begun to look down on their behaviour, in particular their drinking of alcohol. He records that in prayer one night he heard an inner voice saying, "Thou seest how young people go together into vanity, and old people into the earth; and thou must forsake all, both young and old, and keep out of all, and be as a stranger unto all." (Jones 1908[2])


First travels

For this reason, he left Drayton-in-the-Clay in September 1643, moving toward London in a state of mental torment and confusion. While in Barnet, where he was torn by depression perhaps from temptations in this relatively free resort town near London, Fox would alternately shut himself in his room for days at a time, or go out alone into the countryside. He thought intensely about Jesus' temptation in the desert, which he compared to his own spiritual condition, but drew strength from his conviction that God would support and preserve him. At times, he attracted the attention of various religious scholars, but he rejected them because he did not feel they lived up to the doctrines they taught. Fox did actively seek out the company of clergy, but "found no comfort from them", as they too seemed unable to help with the matters that were troubling him. One clergyman in Worcestershire advised him to take tobacco (which Fox detested) and sing psalms; another, in Coventry, was helpful at first but lost his temper when Fox accidentally stood on a flower in his garden; a third suggested that bloodletting would cure the "mind diseased". High Barnet or Chipping Barnet is a place in the London Borough of Barnet. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Satan (disambiguation). ... Worcestershire (pronounced ; abbreviated Worcs) is a county located in the West Midlands region of central England. ... Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi (songs sung to a harp, originally from psallein play on a stringed instrument), Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... The Precinct in Coventry city centre. ... Bloodletting (or blood-letting, in modern medicine referred to as phlebotomy) was a popular medical practice from antiquity up to the late 19th century, involving the withdrawal of often considerable quantities of blood from a patient in the belief that this would cure or prevent illness and disease. ...


Unique beliefs begin to form

Over the next few years, George Fox continued to travel around the country as his particular religious beliefs took shape. In prayer and meditation, he came to a greater understanding of the nature of his faith and what it required from him. This process he called "opening", because he experienced it as a series of sudden revelations of ideas that were already complete by the time he became conscious of them. He also came to what he deemed a deep inner understanding of standard Christian beliefs in creation and salvation. Among his ideas were:

  • Christians differ in external practice, but all are considered "saved" because of their belief; rituals can therefore be safely ignored, as long as one experiences a true spiritual conversion.
  • The qualification for ministry is given by the Holy Spirit, not by ecclesiastical study. This implies that anyone has the right to minister, assuming the Spirit guides them, including women.
  • God "dwelleth in the hearts of his obedient people": religious experience is not confined to a church building. Indeed, Fox refused to apply the word "Church" to a building, using instead the name "steeple-house", a usage maintained by many Quakers today. Fox would just as soon worship in fields and orchards, believing that God's presence could be felt anywhere.
  • Though by no means the only charismatic throughout church history, being open to the Spirit could include the charismata. Among other things Fox recorded being used in exorcism, divine healing, and "a word of knowledge" (1 Cor.12:8–10).
A female Quaker preaches at a meeting in London
A female Quaker preaches at a meeting in London

Fox had more than a little experience among "English Dissenters", groups of people who had broken away from practices of the state church because of their divergent beliefs. He had hoped that the dissenters would help his spiritual understanding, whereas those in the established church could not, but this was not the case: he fell out with one group, for example, because he maintained that women had souls. From this comes the famous passage from his journal: In various religions, most notably Trinitarian Christianity, the Holy Spirit (in Hebrew רוח הקודש Ruah haqodesh; also called the Holy Ghost) is the third consubstantial Person of the Holy Trinity. ... St. ... Image File history File links AssemblyOfQuakers. ... Image File history File links AssemblyOfQuakers. ... English Dissenters were dissenters from England who opposed State interference in religious matters and founded their own communities over the 16th to 18th century period. ...

But as I had forsaken the priests, so I left the separate preachers also, and those esteemed the most experienced people; for I saw there was none among them all that could speak to my condition [address my spiritual needs]. And when all my hopes in them and in all men were gone, so that I had nothing outwardly to help me, nor could tell what to do, then, oh, then, I heard a voice which said, "There is one, even Christ Jesus, that can speak to thy condition"; and when I heard it my heart did leap for joy. Then the Lord let me see why there was none upon the earth that could speak to my condition, namely, that I might give Him all the glory; for all are concluded under sin, and shut up in unbelief as I had been, that Jesus Christ might have the pre-eminence who enlightens, and gives grace, and faith, and power. Thus when God doth work, who shall let [hinder] it? and this I knew experimentally [through experience]. (QFP §19.02)

The Religious Society of Friends takes shape

In 1648 Fox began to exercise his ministry publicly: he would preach in market-places, in the fields, in appointed meetings of various kinds, or even sometimes in "steeple-houses" after the priests had finished. His preaching was powerful, and many people were convinced to share his beliefs in the spirituality of "true religion". The worship of Friends, in the form of silent waiting, seems to have been well-established by this time, though it is not recorded how this came to be. It is not even clear at what point the Society of Friends was formed—although a monthly meeting was set up in County Durham in 1653—but there was certainly a group of people who often travelled together. The term "children of the light" was at one time used, as well as simply "friends". Fox seems, however, to have had no desire to found a sect, but only to proclaim what he saw as the pure and genuine principles of Christianity in their original simplicity — though he afterward showed great prowess as a religious legislator, in the organization which he gave to the new society. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Fox's preaching was grounded in scripture, but mainly effective because of the intense personal experience he was able to project. He was scathing about contemporary immorality, especially deceit and the exacting of tithes, and urged his listeners to lead lives without sin — though avoiding the Ranter (or Antinomian) view that all acts of a believer became automatically sinless. At the time, there were a great many rival Christian denominations holding very diverse opinions; the atmosphere of dispute and confusion gave George Fox an opportunity to put forward his own beliefs through his personal sermons. By 1651 he had gathered many other talented preachers around him, and continued to roam the country seeking out new converts. They continued to do this despite a harsh reception from some listeners, who would whip and beat them to drive them away. The Ranters were a radical English sect in the time of the Commonwealth, who were regarded as heretical by the established Church of that period. ... Antinomianism in Christian theology is a pejorative term for a heresy that teaches that Christians are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality. ... A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ...


An interest in social justice was slowly developing, marked by Fox's complaints to judges about decisions he considered morally wrong — for example, his letter on the case of a woman due to be executed for theft. Oppression by the powerful was a very real concern for the English people, in the turmoil of the English Civil War following the excesses of Charles I (executed in 1649) and the beginnings of the Commonwealth of England. George Fox's conflict with civil authority was inevitable. The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395...


In 1652 Fox felt that God led him to walk up Pendle Hill. There he had a vision of thousands of souls coming to Christ. From there he traveled to Sedbergh in Westmorland, where he heard a group of Seekers were meeting. He preached on the nearby Firbank Fell and convinced many, including Francis Howgill, to accept his teachings on Christ being able to speak to people directly. For the Quaker Retreat Center in Pennsylvania, see Pendle Hill Quaker Center for Study and Contemplation Pendle Hill (summit 557 m above mean sea level) is located in the north-east of Lancashire, England, near the towns of Burnley, Colne, Nelson and Clitheroe. ... Sedbergh (pronounced Sedber or even, by the locals, Sebber) is a small town in the county of Cumbria, traditionally part of the West Riding of Yorkshire. ... Westmorland (formerly also spelt Westmoreland, an even older spelling is Westmerland) is an area of north west England and one of the 39 historic counties of England. ... Firbank Fell is a hill in Westmorland between the towns of Kendal and Sedbergh that is renowned as a place where George Fox, an early leader in the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), preached. ... Francis Howgill (1618-November 20, 1668) was a prominent early member of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in England. ...


Imprisonment

At Derby in 1650 Fox was imprisoned for blasphemy; a judge mocked Fox's exhortation to "tremble at the word of the Lord", calling him and his followers "Quakers" — now the common name of the Society of Friends.[3] He suffered harsh treatment in prison following his refusal to fight against the return of the monarchy (or indeed to take up arms for any reason). A further conviction came in 1653 in Carlisle; it was even proposed to put him to death, but Parliament requested his release rather than have "a young man… die for religion".[4] For other uses, see Derby (disambiguation). ... Look up blasphemy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the English city. ... The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ...


The beginnings of persecution forced Fox to develop his position on oaths and violence. Previously implicit in his teaching, the refusal to swear or take up arms came to be a much more important part of his public statements: he was determined that neither he nor his followers would give in under pressure. In a letter of 1652 (That which is set up by the sword), he urged Friends not to use "carnal weapons" but "spiritual weapons", saying "let the waves [the power of nations] break over your heads". An oath (from Old Saxon eoth) is either a promise or a statement of fact calling upon something or someone that the oath maker considers sacred, usually a god, as a witness to the binding nature of the promise or the truth of the statement of fact. ...


Further imprisonments came at London in 1654, Launceston in 1656, Lancaster in 1660 and 1663, Scarborough in 1666, and Worcester in 1674. Often, Fox was arrested on no charge other than generally causing "disturbance", but he and the other Friends were also accused of more specific offences. Quakers fell foul of laws forbidding unauthorized worship, though these statutes were very irregularly enforced. Actions motivated by belief in social equality — never using titles, or taking hats off in court — were seen as disrespectful. Refusal to take oaths meant that Quakers could be prosecuted under laws compelling subjects to pledge allegiance, as well as making testifying in court problematic. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Launceston (pronounced Lanson, Larnson or Lawnson by the Cornish, but Lawnston by most other people) is a town in the north of Cornwall, England, with a population of approximately 7,000. ... A view of Lancaster showing the Lune, the Millennium Bridge and the Ashton Memorial Lancaster (2001 census population 45,952: source ONS) is a city in Lancashire, in the north-west of England, UK. It is a commercial, cultural and educational centre. ... The South Bay at Scarborough Scarborough lies on the North Sea coast of North Yorkshire, England. ... The city of Worcester (pronounced Wuh-ster) is the county town of Worcestershire in England; the river Severn runs through the middle, with the citys large Worcester Cathedral overlooking the river. ... An oath of allegiance is an oath whereby a subject or citizen acknowledges his duty of allegiance and swears loyalty to his monarch or country. ...


Even in prison, George Fox continued writing and preaching. He felt that a benefit of being imprisoned was that it brought him into contact with people who needed his help — the jailers as well as his fellow prisoners. He also sought to set an example by his actions there, turning the other cheek when being beaten and refusing to let his captors make him feel dejected.


Encounters with Oliver Cromwell

Cromwell was sympathetic to Fox and almost agreed to follow his teaching – but persecution of Quakers continued.
Cromwell was sympathetic to Fox and almost agreed to follow his teaching – but persecution of Quakers continued.

The Commonwealth had grown suspicious of monarchist plots, and fearful that the large group travelling with George Fox aimed to overthrow the government – by this time, his meetings were regularly attracting crowds of thousands. In 1653 Fox was arrested and taken to London for a meeting with the Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell. After affirming that he had no intention of taking up arms, Fox was able to speak with Cromwell for some time about the differences between Friends and members of the traditional denominations, and advised him to listen to God's voice and obey it. He records that on leaving, Cromwell "with tears in his eyes said, 'Come again to my house; for if thou and I were but an hour of a day together, we should be nearer one to the other'; adding that he wished [Fox] no more ill than he did to his own soul." George Fox was at liberty again.[5] Oliver Cromwell - Statue - Palace of Westminster - Westminster - London - England - 240404 Photo taken by Tagishsimon on the 24th April 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Oliver Cromwell - Statue - Palace of Westminster - Westminster - London - England - 240404 Photo taken by Tagishsimon on the 24th April 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lord Protector is a particular English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599–September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ...


(This episode was later recalled as an example of "speaking truth to power", a preaching technique by which subsequent Quakers hoped to influence the powerful. Although not used until the 20th century, the phrase is related to the ideas of plain speech and simplicity which George Fox practiced, but motivated by the more worldly goal of eradicating war, injustice and oppression.)


Fox met Cromwell again in 1656, petitioning him over the course of several days to alleviate the persecution of Quakers. On a personal level, the meeting went well; despite the serious disagreements between the two men, they had a certain rapport. Fox even felt moved to invite Cromwell to "lay down his crown at the feet of Jesus" — which, however, Cromwell declined to do.[6] Their third meeting was in 1658 at Hampton Court, though they could not speak for long, because of the Protector's worsening illness — Fox even wrote that "he looked like a dead man".[7] Cromwell died in September of that year. The clock tower straddles the entrance between the inner and outer courts Hampton Court Palace is a former royal place on the north bank of the River Thames in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames about 12 miles (19 km) southwest and upstream of Central London, nowadays open to...




Suffering and growth

The persecutions of these years — with about a thousand Friends in prison by 1657 — hardened George Fox's opinions of traditional religious and social practices. In his preaching, he often emphasised the Quaker rejection of baptism by water; this was a useful way of highlighting how the focus of Friends on inward transformation differed from what he saw as the superstition of outward ritual. It was also deliberately provocative to adherents of those practices, providing opportunities for Fox to argue with them on matters of scripture. This pattern was also found in his court appearances: when a judge challenged him to remove his hat, Fox riposted by asking where in the Bible such an injunction could be found. Baptism in early Christian art. ...


The Society of Friends became increasingly organised towards the end of the decade. Large meetings were held, including a three-day event in Bedfordshire, the precursor of the present Britain Yearly Meeting system. Fox also commissioned two Friends to travel around the country collecting the testimonies of imprisoned Quakers, as evidence of their persecution; this led to the establishment in 1675 of Meeting for Sufferings, which has been in continuing existence to the present day. [QFP §7] Britain Yearly Meeting is the umbrella body for the Britain (England, Scotland, Wales, the Channel Isles and the Isle of Man). ... Meeting for Sufferings is an executive committee of Britain Yearly Meeting, the body which acts on behalf of members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in Great Britain and the crown dependencies, It has about 200 members, who meet once a month to make decisions when the Yearly Meeting...


Practically all observers agree that the 1650s, when the Friends were most confrontational, was the most creative period of their history, and as the end of the decade approached Fox was quite optimistic that the movement was on the verge of becoming, as he phrased it, "the church in England." In 1659, he sent parliament his most politically radical pamphlet, Fifty nine Particulars laid down for the Regulating things, but the year was so chaotic that it never considered them; the document was not reprinted until the 21st century. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Fifty nine Particulars laid down for the Regulating things Fifty nine Particulars laid down for the Regulating things was a pamphlet believed by scholars to have been published in 1659 by George Fox (though some dispute this; see discussion page), one of...


The Restoration

With the restoration of the monarchy, the fate of the Quakers turned out differently. George Fox was again accused of conspiracy, this time against Charles II, and fanaticism — a charge he resented. Once again, Fox was released after demonstrating that he had no military ambitions. During imprisonment in Lancaster, he even wrote to the king offering advice on governance: Charles should refrain from war and domestic religious persecution, and discourage oath-taking, plays, and maypole games. These last suggestions reveal Fox's Puritan leanings, which continued to influence Quakers for centuries after his death. Fox counseled his followers to openly violate numerous laws that attempted to suppress the movement, sending many Friends to jail over the next two and a half decades. King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... Romeo and Juliet by Ford Madox Brown A play, written by a playwright, or dramatist, is a form of literature, almost always consisting of dialog between characters, and intended for performance rather than reading. ... Dancing around the maypole, in Ã…mmeberg, Sweden The maypole is a tall wooden pole (traditionally of hawthorn or birch), sometimes erected with several long coloured ribbons suspended from the top, festooned with flowers, draped in greenery and strapped with large circular wreaths, depending on local and regional variances. ... A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was any person seeking purity of worship and doctrine, especially the parties that rejected the Laudian reform of the Church of England. ...


At least on one point, Charles listened to George Fox. The seven hundred Quakers who had been imprisoned under Richard Cromwell were released, though the government remained uncertain about the group's links with other, more violent, movements. A 1661 revolt by the Fifth Monarchy men led to the suppression of that sect and the repression of other nonconformists, including Quakers.[8] In the aftermath of this attempted coup, Fox and eleven other Quakers issued a broadside proclaiming what became known among Friends in the 20th century as the "peace testimony": they committed themselves to oppose all outward wars and strife as contrary to the will of God. Not all his followers accepted this statement; Isaac Penington, for example, dissented for a time. Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ... The Fifth Monarchy Men were a radical Puritan politico-religious party active from 1649 to 1661 (the Interregnum) during Oliver Cromwells government. ... Non conformism is the term of KKK ...


Meanwhile, Quakers in New England had been banished, and Charles was advised by his councillors to issue a mandamus condemning this practice and allowing them to return. George Fox was able to meet some of the New England Friends when they came to London, stimulating his interest in the colonies. Fox was unable to travel there immediately: he was imprisoned again in 1663 for his refusal to swear oaths, and on his release in 1666 was preoccupied with organizational matters — he normalized the system of monthly and quarterly meetings throughout the country, and extended it to Ireland. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... A writ of mandamus or simply mandamus, which means we order in Latin, is the name of one of the prerogative writs and is a court order directing someone, most frequently a government official, to perform a specified act. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ...


Visiting Ireland also gave him the opportunity to preach against what he saw as the excesses of the Roman Catholic Church, in particular the use of ritual. More recent Quaker commentators have noted points of contact between the denominations: both claim the actual presence of God in their meetings, and both allow the collective opinion of the church to augment Biblical teaching. Fox, however, did not perceive this, brought up as he was in a wholly Protestant environment hostile to "Popery". He was also more strict in his reliance on the Bible than most of his followers. The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In 1669 Fox married Margaret Fell of Swarthmoor Hall, Swarthmoor, a lady of high social position, and one of his early converts. Her husband Thomas Fell had died in 1658, and she had been imprisoned in Lancaster alongside Fox for several years. Their shared religious work was at the heart of their life together, and they later collaborated on a great deal of the administration the Society required. Margaret Fell or Margaret Fell-Fox (1614 - April 23, 1702) was one of the founding members of the Religious Society of Friends, and was popularly known as the mother of Quakerism. She was born Margaret Askew in Lancashire, England. ... Swarthmoor Hall was the home of Margaret Fell, a 17th Century English Quaker. ... Location within the British Isles Swarthmoor is a village near Ulverston, in the administrative county of Cumbria, England. ...


Travels in America and Europe

In 1671 he went to Barbados and the English settlements in America, remaining two years. From Barbados he sent an epistle to Friends spelling out the role of women's meetings in the Quaker marriage ceremony, a point of controversy when he returned home, and wrote a letter to the governor and assembly of the island in which he refuted charges that Quakers were stirring up the slaves to revolt and tried to affirm the orthodoxy of Quaker beliefs; this letter, particularly its doctrinal portions, would two centuries later become important in a division among his followers. Fox's first landfall on the North American continent was at Maryland, where he participated in a four-day meeting of local Quakers. He remained there while various of his English companions travelled to the other colonies, because he wished to meet with some Native Americans who were interested in Quaker ways — though he relates that they had "a great debate" among themselves about whether to participate in the meeting. Fox was impressed by their general demeanour, which he said was "loving" and "respectful".[9] Fox left no record of encountering slaves on the mainland. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,417 sq mi (32,160 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ...


Elsewhere in the colonies, Fox helped to establish organizational systems for the Friends there, along the same lines as he had done in Britain. He also preached to many non-Quakers, some of whom were converted; others, including Ranters and some Catholics, were unconvinced. He did not seem to mind this so much as he resented the suggestion (from a man in North Carolina) that "the Light and Spirit of God ... was not in the Indians", a proposition which Fox refuted.[10] Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ...

Fox established a Yearly Meeting in Amsterdam for Friends in the Netherlands and German states.
Fox established a Yearly Meeting in Amsterdam for Friends in the Netherlands and German states.

Following extensive travels around the various American colonies, George Fox returned to England in 1673 where he found his movement sharply divided among mostly provincials who resisted establishment of women's meetings and the power of those who resided in or near London. With William Penn and Robert Barclay as allies, he successfully put down this challenge. He was soon imprisoned again, and his health began to suffer. Margaret Fell petitioned the king for his release; this took place, but Fox felt too weak to take up his travels immediately. He compensated by increasing his written output: letters, both public and private, as well as books and essays; he also began dictating what would be published after his death as his journal. Much of his energy was devoted to the topic of oaths, having become convinced of its importance to Quaker ideas. By refusing to swear, he felt that he could bear witness to the value of truth in everyday life, as well as to God, who he associated with truth and the inner light. Download high resolution version (1081x770, 136 KB)Amsterdam, Dam square, Jan Adriaensz. ... Download high resolution version (1081x770, 136 KB)Amsterdam, Dam square, Jan Adriaensz. ... Nickname: Mokum Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province North Holland Government  - Mayor Job Cohen  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... William Penn William Penn (October 14, 1644 – July 30, 1718) founded the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony that became the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Robert Barclay (1648? - October 3, 1690), one of the most eminent writers belonging to the Society of Friends, or Quakers, was born in 1648 at Gordonstown in Morayshire. ... The concept of the Inner Light is central to many versions of Quaker (or Religious Society of Friends) theology. ...


In 1677 and 1684 he visited the Friends in the Netherlands, and organized their meetings for discipline. He also made a brief visit to what is now Germany. Meanwhile, Fox was participating by letter in a dispute among Friends in Britain over the role of women in meetings, a struggle which took much of his energy and left him exhausted. Returning to England, he stayed in the south in order to try to end the dispute. Fox's health became worse towards the end of 1684, but he continued his new, more restricted form of activities — writing to leaders in Poland, Denmark, Germany, and elsewhere about his beliefs, and their treatment of Quakers.


In the last years of his life, Fox continued to participate in Yearly Meetings, and still made representations to Parliament about the sufferings of Friends. The 1689 Act of Toleration put an end to the uniformity laws under which Quakers had been persecuted, and in that year many Friends were released from prison. The Act of Toleration was an act of the English Parliament (24 May 1689) which granted freedom of worship to Nonconformists , Protestants who dissented from the Church of England such as Baptists, Congregationalists, Quakers and Methodists. ...




Death and legacy

George Fox died on January 13, 1691, and was interred in the Quaker Burying Ground at Bunhill Fields in London. January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... Blake Memorial in Bunhill Fields Bunhill Fields is a cemetery located in the London Borough of Islington, north of the City of London, and managed by the Corporation of London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

George Fox's marker in Bunhill Fields, next to the Meeting House.
George Fox's marker in Bunhill Fields, next to the Meeting House.

His journal was first published in 1694, after editing by Thomas Ellwood — a friend of John Milton — and William Penn. Like most similar works of its time the journal was not written contemporaneously to the events it describes, but rather compiled many years later, much of it dictated. As a religious autobiography, it has been compared to such works as Augustine's Confessions and John Bunyan's Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners — an intensely personal work that nevertheless succeeds in appealing to readers. It has also been used by historians because of its wealth of detail on ordinary life in the 17th century, and the many towns and villages which Fox visited. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x1067, 154 KB) Summary The burial marker for George Fox in Bunhill Fields Quaker Burial Ground next to Bunhill Fields Meeting House, 26 Grafton Terrace, LONDON NW5 4JJ. Taken by Mark Barker on 2005-x-20 at 13·55. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x1067, 154 KB) Summary The burial marker for George Fox in Bunhill Fields Quaker Burial Ground next to Bunhill Fields Meeting House, 26 Grafton Terrace, LONDON NW5 4JJ. Taken by Mark Barker on 2005-x-20 at 13·55. ... Thomas Ellwood (1639-1713) was an English religious writer. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... William Penn William Penn (October 14, 1644 – July 30, 1718) founded the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony that became the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Confessions is the name of a series of thirteen autobiographical books by St. ... John Bunyan. ...


Hundreds of Fox's letters — mostly epistles intended for wide circulation, along with a few private communications — have also been published. Written from the 1650s onwards, with such titles as Friends, seek the peace of all men or To Friends, to know one another in the light, the letters give enormous insight into the detail of Fox's beliefs, and show his determination to spread them. These writings have found an audience beyond Quakers, with many other church groups using them to illustrate principles of Christianity.


Fox is described by Ellwood as "graceful in countenance, manly in personage, grave in gesture, courteous in conversation." Penn says he was "civil beyond all forms of breeding." We are told that he was "plain and powerful in preaching, fervent in prayer," "a discerner of other men's spirits, and very much master of his own," skillful to "speak a word in due season to the conditions and capacities of most, especially to them that were weary, and wanted soul's rest;" "valiant in asserting the truth, bold in defending it, patient in suffering for it, immovable as a rock." [1694 Journal front matter]


Fox's influence on the Society of Friends was of course tremendous, and his beliefs have largely been carried forward by that group. Perhaps his most significance achievement, other than his predominant influence in the early movement, was his leadership in overcoming the twin challenges of government prosecution after the Restoration and internal disputes that threatened its stability during the same period. Not all of his beliefs were welcome to all Quakers: his Puritan-like opposition to the arts and rejection of theological study, forestalled development of these practices among Quakers for some time. The name of George Fox is often invoked by traditionalist Friends who dislike modern liberal attitudes to the Society's Christian origins. At the same time, Quakers and others can relate to Fox's religious experience, and even those who disagree with him regard him as a pioneer. Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


Walt Whitman, who was raised in a Quaker home and always felt close to them, later wrote: "George Fox stands for something too—a thought—the thought that wakes in silent hours—perhaps the deepest, most eternal thought latent in the human soul. This is the thought of God, merged in the thoughts of moral right and the immortality of identity. Great, great is this thought—aye, greater than all else."[11] Walt Whitman Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ...


George Fox University in Oregon, founded as Pacific College in 1891, was renamed for him in 1949. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ...


See also

Christian anarchism is the belief that the only source of authority to which Christians are ultimately answerable is God, embodied in the teachings of Jesus. ... English Dissenters were dissenters from England who opposed State interference in religious matters and founded their own communities over the 16th to 18th century period. ... This is a list of people on the postage stamps of the Republic of Ireland, including the years when they appeared on a stamp. ... Not everyone listed here is Christian or a mystic, but all have contributed to the Christian understanding of connection to or direct experience of God. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
George Fox

Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Arms of Harwich Town Council Harwich (IPA, /hɑːˈɹɪtʃ/) is a town in Essex, England, located on the coast with the North Sea to the east. ... A Serjeant at Arms (also spelt Sergeant at Arms, and sometimes Serjeant-at-Arms) is an officer appointed by a deliberative body, usually a legislature, to keep order during its meetings. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ [3]
  4. ^ [4]
  5. ^ [5]
  6. ^ [6]
  7. ^ [7]
  8. ^ [8]
  9. ^ [9]
  10. ^ [10]
  11. ^ Essay in November

General

Various editions of Fox's journal have been published from time to time since the first printing in 1694. The John Nickalls revisions of 1952 and following are generally considered to contain the most accurate text (Philadelphia Yearly Meeting; ISBN 0-941308-05-7). The linked reference above is to a 1908 version by Rufus Jones, which is also available in print (Friends United Press, 1976; ISBN 0-913408-24-7).


Other useful sources include:

  • An Apology for the True Christian Divinity, Robert Barclay (1678). A systematic treatment of Quaker theology at the end of the seventeenth century; available online.
  • First Among Friends: George Fox and the Creation of Quakerism, H. Larry Ingle (Oxford University Press; ISBN 0-19-510117-0 [1996 reprint]). First scholarly biography, showing how Fox's used his influence within the Society of Friends to ensure conformity to his views and the survival of the group.
  • A Popular Life of George Fox, Josiah Marsh (London: Charles Gilpin, 1847). Somewhat biased but thorough biography of Fox.
  • Quaker Faith and Practice, Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in Britain. (ISBN 0-85245-307-8 [1999 revision]). Shows a modern Quaker view of Fox, and a great deal of historical information about Friends and their institutions.

References

  • This article includes content derived from the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 1914, which is in the public domain.

The Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge is a 1914 religious encyclopedia, published in thirteen volumes. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
George Fox: Biography and Much More from Answers.com (5266 words)
George Fox was a 17th-century Christian leader who rejected the formal trappings of religion, encouraged believers to follow their "inner light," and became the leader of the Society of Friends, known as the Quakers.
Fox was unable to travel there immediately: he was imprisoned again in 1663 for his refusal to swear oaths, and on his release in 1666 was preoccupied with organizational matters — he normalized the system of monthly and quarterly meetings throughout the country, and extended it to Ireland.
George Fox died on January 13, 1691, and was interred in the Quaker Burying Ground at Bunhill Fields in London.
George Fox - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4239 words)
George Fox (July 1624 – January 13, 1691) was an English Dissenter and a major early figure — often considered the founder — of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers.
George Fox was able to meet some of the New England Friends when they came to London, stimulating his interest in the colonies.
George Fox University in Oregon, founded as Pacific College in 1891, was renamed for him in 1949.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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