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Encyclopedia > George Eliot
Mary Anne Evans

George Eliot at 30 by François D'Albert Durade
Pseudonym: George Eliot
Born November 22, 1819(1819-11-22)
South Farm, Arbury, near Nuneaton
Died December 22, 1880 (aged 61)
4 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, London
Occupation Novelist
Influenced Virginia Woolf

Mary Ann (Marian) Evans (22 November 181922 December 1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist. She was one of the leading writers of the Victorian era. Her novels, largely set in provincial England, are well known for their realism and psychological perspicacity. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... A picture of George Eliot This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A pseudonym (Greek: , pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons legal name. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Arbury Hall is a country house near Nuneaton in Warwickshire, England, and is the ancestral home of the Newdegate family. ... , Nuneaton is the largest town in the English county of Warwickshire, and the borough of Nuneaton and Bedworth. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about work. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ...


She used a male pen name, she said, to ensure that her works were taken seriously. Female authors published freely under their own names, but Eliot wanted to ensure that she was not seen as merely a writer of romances. An additional factor may have been a desire to shield her private life from public scrutiny and to prevent scandals attending her relationship with the married George Henry Lewes. George Henry Lewes (April 18, 1817 – November 28, 1878) was a British philosopher and literary critic. ...

Contents

Biography

George Eliot's birthplace at South Farm, Arbury
George Eliot's birthplace at South Farm, Arbury

Mary Ann Evans was the third child of Robert Evans (1773-1849) and Christiana Evans (née Pearson, the daughter of a local farmer, ?1788-1836). When born, Mary Ann, sometimes shortened to Marian,[1] had two teenage siblings, a half-brother, Robert (1802-1864), and sister, Fanny (1805-1882), from her father's previous marriage to Harriet Poynton (d. 1809). Robert Evans was the manager of the Arbury Hall Estate for the Newdigate family in Warwickshire, and Mary Anne was born on the estate at South Farm, Arbury, near Nuneaton. In early 1820 the family moved to a house named Griff, part way between Nuneaton and Coventry. Her full siblings were Christiana, known as Chrissey (1814–1859), Isaac (1816–1890), and twin brothers who survived a few days in March 1821. Image File history File links George_Eliot's_birthplace_-_South_Farm_-_Arbury_Project_-_Gutenberg_eText_19222. ... Image File history File links George_Eliot's_birthplace_-_South_Farm_-_Arbury_Project_-_Gutenberg_eText_19222. ... Arbury Hall is a country house near Nuneaton in Warwickshire, England, and is the ancestral home of the Newdegate family. ... The Newdigate Baronetcy, of Arbury, Warwickshire, was created on 24 July 1677 in the Baronetage of England. ... A detailed map Stratford-upon-Avon Kenilworth Castle Warwickshire (pronounced // or //) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... , Arbury is a district and electoral ward of the city of Cambridge, England. ... , Nuneaton is the largest town in the English county of Warwickshire, and the borough of Nuneaton and Bedworth. ... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ...


The young Evans was obviously intelligent, and due to her father's important role on the estate, she was allowed access to the library of Arbury Hall, which greatly aided her education and breadth of learning. Her classical education left its mark; Christopher Stray has observed that "George Eliot's novels draw heavily on Greek literature (only one of her books can be printed without the use of a Greek font), and her themes are often influenced by Greek tragedy".[2] Her frequent visits also allowed her to contrast the wealth in which the local landowner lived with the lives of the often much poorer people on the estate, and different lives lived in parallel would reappear in many of her works. The other important early influence in her life was religion. She was brought up within a narrow low church Anglican family, but at that time the Midlands was an area with many religious dissenters, and those beliefs formed part of her education. She boarded at schools in Attleborough, Nuneaton and Coventry. At the second she was taught by the evangelical Maria Lewis—-to whom her earliest surviving letters are addressed—-and at the Coventry school she received instruction from Baptist sisters. Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... English Dissenters were dissenters from England who opposed State interference in religious matters and founded their own communities over the 16th to 18th century period. ... Attleborough is a suburb of the Warwickshire town of Nuneaton in England. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is...


In 1836 her mother died and Evans returned home to act as housekeeper, but she continued her education with a private tutor and advice from Maria Lewis. When she was 21, her brother Isaac married and took over the family home, so Evans and her father moved to Foleshill near Coventry. The closeness to Coventry society brought new influences, most notably those of Charles and Cara Bray. Charles Bray had become rich as a ribbon manufacturer and had used his wealth in building schools and other philanthropic causes. He was a freethinker in religious matters, a progressive in politics, and his home, Rosehill, was a haven for people who held and debated radical views. The people whom the young woman met at the Brays' house included Robert Owen, Herbert Spencer, Harriet Martineau and Ralph Waldo Emerson. Through this society, Evans was introduced to more liberal theologies, many of which cast doubt on the supernatural elements of Biblical stories, and she stopped going to church. This caused a rift between herself and her family, with her father threatening to throw her out, although that did not happen. Instead, she respectably attended church and continued to keep house for him until his death in 1857. Her first major literary work was the translation of David Strauss' Life of Jesus (1862), which she completed after it had been begun by another member of the Rosehill circle. Tower Court and Foleshill Rd, Foleshill. ... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... Philanthropy involves the donation or granting of money to various worthy charitable causes. ... For other uses, see Robert Owen (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Herbert Spencer, see Herbert Spencer (disambiguation). ... Harriet Martineau Harriet Martineau (June 12, 1802 - June 27, 1876) was an English writer and philosopher, renowned in her day as a controversial journalist, political economist, abolitionist and life-long feminist. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Portrait of David Strauss. ... This article is about 1862 . ...


Before her father's death, she travelled to Switzerland with the Brays, and on her return moved to London with the intent of becoming a writer and calling herself Marian Evans. She stayed at the house of John Chapman, the radical publisher whom she had met at Rosehill and who had printed her translation. Chapman had recently bought the campaigning, left-wing journal The Westminster Review, and Evans became its assistant editor in 1858. Although Chapman was the named editor, it was Evans who did much of the work in running the journal for the next three years, contributing many essays and reviews. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... John Chapman (1821 - 1894) was a publisher who had medical training and was based at 142 the Strand, London. ... The Westminster Review was founded in 1823 by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill as a journal for philosophical radicals, and was published from 1824 to 1914. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Now in this vast ugliness resides a most powerful beauty which, in a very few minutes, steals forth and charms the mind, so that you end, as I ended, in falling in love with her.... — Henry James, in a letter to his father
Now in this vast ugliness resides a most powerful beauty which, in a very few minutes, steals forth and charms the mind, so that you end, as I ended, in falling in love with her....
— Henry James, in a letter to his father

Women writers were not uncommon at the time, but Evans's role at the head of a literary enterprise was. The mere sight of an unmarried young woman mixing with the predominantly male society of London at that time was unusual, even scandalous to some. Although clearly strong-minded, she was frequently sensitive, depressed, and crippled by self-doubt. She was well aware of her ill-favoured appearance,[3] and she formed a number of embarrassing, unreciprocated emotional attachments, including that to her employer, the married Chapman, and Herbert Spencer. However, another highly inappropriate attraction would prove to be much more successful and beneficial for Evans. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (516x663, 61 KB) George Eliot Source: based on http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (516x663, 61 KB) George Eliot Source: based on http://www. ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Herbert Spencer, see Herbert Spencer (disambiguation). ...


The philosopher and critic George Henry Lewes met Evans in 1851, and by 1854 they had decided to live together. Lewes was married to Agnes Jervis, but they had decided to have an open marriage, and in addition to having three children together, Agnes had also had several children with other men. As he was named on the birth certificate as the father of one of these children despite knowing this to be false, and since he was therefore complicit in adultery, he was not able to divorce Agnes. In July 1854 Lewes and Evans travelled to Weimar and Berlin together for the purpose of research. Before going to Germany, Evans continued her interest in theological work with a translation of Ludwig Feuerbach's Essence of Christianity and while abroad she wrote essays and worked on her translation of Baruch Spinoza's Ethics, which she would however never complete. George Henry Lewes (April 18, 1817 – November 28, 1878) was a British philosopher and literary critic. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Open marriage typically refers to a marriage in which the partners agree that each may engage in extramarital sexual relationships, without this being regarded as infidelity. ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach (July 28, 1804 - September 13, 1872), German philosopher, fourth son of the eminent jurist Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach, was born in Landshut, Bavaria and died in Rechenberg (since 1899 a district of Nuremberg). ... Baruch de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Ethics is a philosophical book written by Baruch Spinoza. ...


The trip to Germany also doubled as a honeymoon as they were now effectively married, with Evans calling herself Marian Evans Lewes, and referring to George Lewes as her husband. It was not unusual for men in Victorian society to have mistresses, including both Charles Bray and John Chapman. What was scandalous was the Lewes's open admission of the relationship. On their return to England, they lived apart from the literary society of London, both shunning and being shunned in equal measure. While continuing to contribute pieces to the Westminster Review, Evans had resolved to become a novelist, and she set out a manifesto for herself in one of her last essays for the Review: Silly Novels by Lady Novelists. The essay criticised the trivial and ridiculous plots of contemporary fiction by women. In other essays she praised the realism of novels written in Europe at the time, and subsequently an emphasis placed on realistic story-telling would become clear throughout her subsequent fiction. She also adopted a new nom-de-plume, the one for which she would become best known: George Eliot. This masculine name was chosen partly in order to distance herself from the lady writers of silly novels, but it also quietly hid the tricky subject of her marital status. For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


In 1864 Amos Barton, the first of the Scenes of Clerical Life, was published in Blackwood's Magazine and, along with the other Scenes, was well received. Her first complete novel, published in 1859, was Adam Bede and was an instant success, but it prompted an intense interest in who this new author might be. Scenes of Clerical Life was widely believed to have been written by a country parson or perhaps the wife of a parson. With the release of the incredibly popular Adam Bede, speculation increased markedly, and there was even a pretender to the authorship, one Joseph Liggins. In the end, the real George Eliot stepped forward: Marian Evans Lewes admitted she was the author. The revelations about Eliot's private life surprised and shocked many of her admiring readers, but this apparently did not affect her popularity as a novelist. Eliot's relationship with Lewes afforded her the encouragement and stability she so badly needed to write fiction, and to ease her self-doubt, but it would be some time before they were accepted into polite society. Acceptance was finally confirmed in 1867, when they were introduced to Princess Louise, the daughter of Queen Victoria, who was an avid reader of George Eliot's novels. 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Blackwoods Magazine was a British magazine and miscellany printed between 1817 and 1980. ... Adam Bede is the first novel written by George Eliot and was published in 1859. ... A parson is a member of the Protestant clergy. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, (Louise Caroline Alberta; 18 March 1848 - 3 December 1939) was a member of the British Royal Family, the sixth child and fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ...


After the popularity of Adam Bede, she continued to write popular novels for the next fifteen years. Her last novel was Daniel Deronda, published in 1873, whereafter she and Lewes moved to Witley, Surrey; but by this time Lewes's health was failing and he died two years later on 25 November 1873. Eliot spent the next two years editing Lewes's final work Life and Mind for publication, and she found solace with John Walter Cross, an American banker whose mother had recently passed away. Daniel Deronda is a novel by George Eliot, first published in 1876. ... Witley, in Surrey, England (grid reference SU946396) has existed as a village since at least Saxon times, as is clear from the surviving Saxon stonework in All Saints Church. ... This article is about the English county. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

George Eliot died at 4 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea.
George Eliot died at 4 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea.

On 16 May 1880 George Eliot courted controversy once more by marrying a man twenty years younger than herself, and again changing her name, this time to Mary Anne Cross. The legal marriage at least pleased her brother Isaac, who sent his congratulations after breaking off relations with his sister when she had begun to live with Lewes. John Cross was a rather unstable character, and apparently jumped or fell from their hotel balcony into the Grand Canal in Venice during their honeymoon. Cross survived and they returned to England. The couple moved to a new house in Chelsea but Eliot fell ill with a throat infection. This, coupled with the kidney disease she had been afflicted with for the past few years, led to her death on the 22 December 1880 at the age of 61. Image File history File linksMetadata 4_Cheyne_Walk_GE_ILN_1881. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 4_Cheyne_Walk_GE_ILN_1881. ... Cheyne Walk (pronounced Chaynee) is the most historic street in Chelsea, a bit of picturesque old London. Most of the houses were built in the early eighteenth century. ... Statue of Thomas More on Cheyne Walk. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The possibility of burial in Westminster Abbey being rejected due to her denial of Christian faith and "irregular" though monogamous life with Lewes, she was buried in Highgate Cemetery (East), Highgate, London in the area reserved for religious dissenters, next to George Henry Lewes. In 1980, on the centenary of her death, a memorial stone was established for her in the Poets’ Corner. The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Circle of Lebanon, West Cemetery Entrance to the Egyptian Avenue, West Cemetery Highgate Cemetery is a famous cemetery located in Highgate, London, England. ... View of Highgate, John Constable, 1st quarter of 19th century. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... George Henry Lewes (April 18, 1817 – November 28, 1878) was a British philosopher and literary critic. ... Poets corner Poets’ Corner is the name traditionally given to a section of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey due to the number of poets, playwrights, and writers now buried and commemorated there. ...


Literary assessment

Eliot's most famous work, Middlemarch, is a turning point in the history of the novel[citation needed]. Making masterful use of a counterpointed plot, Eliot presents the stories of a number of denizens of a small English town on the eve of the Reform Bill of 1832. The main characters, Dorothea Brooke and Tertius Lydgate, long for exceptional lives but are powerfully constrained both by their own unrealistic expectations and by a conservative society. The novel is notable for its deep psychological insight and sophisticated character portraits. See also Middlemarch, New Zealand. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Throughout her career, Eliot wrote with a politically astute pen. From Adam Bede to The Mill on the Floss and the frequently-read Silas Marner, Eliot presented the cases of social outsiders and small-town persecution. No author since Jane Austen had been as socially conscious and as sharp in pointing out the hypocrisy of the country squires. Felix Holt, the Radical and The Legend of Jubal were overtly political novels, and political crisis is at the heart of Middlemarch. Readers in the Victorian era particularly praised her books for their depictions of rural society, for which she drew on her own early experiences, and she shared with Wordsworth the belief that there was much interest and importance in the mundane details of ordinary country lives. Eliot did not, however, confine herself to her bucolic roots. Romola, an historical novel set in late 15th century Florence and touching on the lives of several real persons such as the priest Girolamo Savonarola, displays her wider reading and interests. In The Spanish Gypsy, Eliot made a foray into verse, creating a work whose initial popularity has not endured. Adam Bede is the first novel written by George Eliot and was published in 1859. ... The Mill on the Floss is a novel by George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans), first published in three volumes in 1860. ... Silas Marner : The Weaver of Raveloe is a novel by George Eliot (the pen name of Mary Ann Evans) which was first published in 1861. ... 1873 engraving of Jane Austen, based on a portrait drawn by her sister Cassandra. ... Felix Holt, the Radical (1866) is a novel written by George Eliot. ... See also Middlemarch, New Zealand. ... William Wordsworth (April 7, 1770 – April 23, 1850) was a major English romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their 1798 joint publication, Lyrical Ballads. ... Bucolic, although often used as an adjective, is a noun originally describing a type of pastoral poetry that praises rural life over that of the city. ... Romola is a novel by George Eliot, deemed her greatest by many, being a deep study of life in the city of Florence from an intellectual, artistic, religious, and social point of view. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Girolamo Savonarola by Fra Bartolomeo, c. ... The Spanish Gypsy is an English Jacobean tragicomedy, written and licensed in 1623 and published in quarto format in 1653 (Q1) and 1661 (Q2). ...


The religious elements in her fiction also owe much to her upbringing, with the experiences of Maggie Tulliver from The Mill on the Floss sharing many similarities with the young Mary Anne Evans' own development. When Silas Marner is persuaded that his alienation from the church means also his alienation from society, the author's life is again mirrored with her refusal to attend church. She was at her most autobiographical in Looking Backwards, part of her final printed work Impressions of Theophrastus Such. By the time of Daniel Deronda, Eliot's sales were falling off, and she faded from public view to some degree. This was not helped by the biography written by her husband after her death, which portrayed a wonderful, almost saintly, woman totally at odds with scandalous life they knew she had led. In the 20th century she was championed by a new breed of critics; most notably by Virginia Woolf, who called Middlemarch "one of the few English novels written for grown-up people". The various film and television adaptations of Eliot's books have re-introduced her to the wider-reading public. Daniel Deronda is a novel by George Eliot, first published in 1876. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ...


As an author, Eliot was not only very successful in sales, but she was, and remains, one of the most widely praised for her style and clarity of thought. Eliot's sentence structures are clear, patient, and well balanced, and she mixes plain statement and unsettling irony with rare poise. Her commentaries are never without sympathy for the characters, and she never stoops to being arch or flippant with the emotions in her stories. Villains, heroines and bystanders are all presented with awareness and full motivation.


Works

Novels

Adam Bede is the first novel written by George Eliot and was published in 1859. ... The Mill on the Floss is a novel by George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans), first published in three volumes in 1860. ... Silas Marner : The Weaver of Raveloe is a novel by George Eliot (the pen name of Mary Ann Evans) which was first published in 1861. ... Romola is a novel by George Eliot, deemed her greatest by many, being a deep study of life in the city of Florence from an intellectual, artistic, religious, and social point of view. ... Felix Holt, the Radical (1866) is a novel written by George Eliot. ... See also Middlemarch, New Zealand. ... Daniel Deronda is a novel by George Eliot, first published in 1876. ...

Other works

  • Translation of "The Life of Jesus Critically Examined" by David Strauss, 1846
  • Translation of "The Essence of Christianity" by Ludwig Feuerbach, 1854
  • Scenes of Clerical Life, 1858
    • Amos Barton
    • Mr Gilfil's Love Story
    • Janet's Repentance
  • The Lifted Veil, 1859
  • Brother Jacob, 1864
  • Impressions of Theophrastus Such, 1879

Portrait of David Strauss. ... Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach (July 28, 1804 - September 13, 1872), German philosopher, fourth son of the eminent jurist Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach, was born in Landshut, Bavaria and died in Rechenberg (since 1899 a district of Nuremberg). ... The Lifted Veil is a novella by George Eliot, first published in 1859. ...

Poetry

Poems by George Eliot include:

  • The Spanish Gypsy (a dramatic poem) 1868
  • Agatha, 1869
  • Armgart, 1871
  • Stradivarius, 1873
  • The Legend of Jubal, 1874
  • Arion, 1874
  • A Minor Prophet, 1874
  • A College Breakfast Party, 1879
  • The Death of Moses, 1879
  • From a London Drawing Room,
  • Count That Day Lost, ?

Notes

  1. ^ http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/collections/projects/eliot/middlemarch/bio.html#mary According to a University of Virginia research forum published here,] her baptismal records record the spelling as Mary Ann, and she uses this spelling in her earliest letters. Around 1857, she began to use Mary Ann. In 1859, she was using Marian, but she reverted to Mary Ann in 1880.
  2. ^ Classics Transformed, p. 81
  3. ^ She had a low forehead, a dull grey eye, a vast pendulous nose, a huge mouth full of uneven teeth and a chin and jawbone 'qui n'en finissent pas'... Now in this vast ugliness resides a most powerful beauty which, in a very few minutes, steals forth and charms the mind, so that you end, as I ended, in falling in love with her. Yes, behold me in love with this great horse-faced bluestocking.Henry James, in a letter to his father, published in Edel, Leon (ed.) Henry James: Selected Letters (1990)

Christopher Stray, Classics Transformed: Schools, Universities, and Society in England, 1830-1960. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998. For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ...


Bibliography

  • Haight, Gordon S., George Eliot: A Biography, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1968, ISBN 0-19-811666-7.
  • Haight, Gordon S., ed., George Eliot: Letters, New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1954, ISBN 0-300-01088-5.
  • Uglow, Jennifer, George Eliot, London, Virago, 1987, ISBN 0-394-75359-3.
  • Jenkins, Lucien, Collected Poems of George Eliot, London, Skoob Books Publishing, 1989, ISBN 1-871438-35-7

Gordon Sherman Haight was a professor of English at Yale University from 1950 to 1968. ...

Context and background

  • Beer, Gillian, Darwin's Plots: Evolutionary Narrative in Darwin, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Fiction, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983, ISBN 0-521-78392-5.
  • Beer, Gillian, George Eliot, Prentice Hall / Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1986, ISBN 0-7108-0511-X.
  • Chapman, Raymond, The Sense of the Past in Victorian Literature, London, CroomHelm, 1986, ISBN 0-7099-3441-6.
  • Cosslett, Tess, The 'Scientific Movement' and Victorian Literature, Brighton, Harvester, 1982, ISBN 0-312-70298-1.
  • Gilbert, Sandra M., and Gubar, Susan, The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination, New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1979, ISBN 0-300-08458-7.
  • Hughes, Kathryn, George Eliot: The Last Victorian, New York, Farrar Straus Giroux, 1998, ISBN 0-374-16138-0.
  • Edel, Leon (ed.) Henry James: Selected Letters, Belknap Press (1990) ISBN 0674387945
  • Jay, Elisabeth, The Religion of the Heart: Anglican Evangelicalism and the Nineteenth-Century Novel, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1979, ISBN 0-19-812092-3.
  • Pinney, Thomas, ed., Essays of George Eliot, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963, ISBN 0-231-02619-6.
  • Shuttleworth, Sally, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Science: The Make-Believe of a Beginning, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-521-25786-7.
  • Uglow, Jenny, George Eliot, London, Virago Press, 1988, ISBN 0 86068 400 8.
  • Willey, Basil, Nineteenth-Century Studies: Coleridge to Matthew Arnold, London, Chatto & Windus, 1964, ISBN 0-14-021709-6.
  • Williams, Raymond, The Country and the City, London, Chatto & Windus, 1973, ISBN 0-19-519810-7.

Critical studies

  • Alley, Henry, "The Quest for Anonymity: The Novels of George Eliot", University of Delaware Press, 1997.
  • Ashton, Rosemary, George Eliot, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1983.
  • Beaty, Jerome, 'Middlemarch'from Notebook to Novel: A Study of George Eliot's Creative Method, Champaign, Illinois, University of Illinois, 1960.
  • Carroll, David, ed., George Eliot: The Critical Heritage, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971.
  • Daiches, David, George Eliot: Middlemarch, London, Edward Arnold, 1963.
  • Dentith, Simon, George Eliot, Brighton, Harvester, 1986.
  • Garrett, Peter K., The Victorian Multiplot Novel: Studies in Dialogical Form, New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1980.
  • Graver, Suzanne, George Eliot and Community: A Study in Social Theory and Fictional Form, Berkeley, California, University of California Press, 1984.
  • Harvey, W. J, The Art of George Eliot, London, Chatto & Windus, 1961.
  • Kettle, Arnold. An Introduction to the English Novel, vol. I, London, Hutchinson, 1951.
  • Leavis, F RThe Great Tradition, London, Chatto & Windus, 1948.
  • Neale, Catherine, Middlemarch: Penguin Critical Studies,London, Penguin, 1989
  • Swinden, Patrick, eel., George Eliot: Middlemarch, London, Macmillan, 1972.

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... David Daiches (1912-2005) on the cover of Two Worlds and Promised Lands David Daiches (September 2, 1912 –July 15, 2005) was a British literary historian and critic, scholar and writer. ...

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George Eliot
Persondata
NAME Evans, Mary Anne
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Eliot, George
SHORT DESCRIPTION English novelist
DATE OF BIRTH 22 November 1819(1819-11-22)
PLACE OF BIRTH South Farm, Arbury, near Nuneaton
DATE OF DEATH 22 December 1880
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
George Eliot - Books and Biography (1243 words)
George Eliot (1819-1880) was born in Chilvers Coton, Warwickshire.
Eliot did not inform her close friends Caroline and Sarah Hennell about her decision to live with Lewes - the both friends were shocked and angry because she had not trusted them.
Eliot's first collection of tales, SCENES OF CLERICAL LIFE, appeared in 1858 under the pseudonym George Eliot - in those days writing was considered to be a male profession.
"George Eliot" by Virginia Woolf (2905 words)
George Eliot was the pseudonym of novelist, translator, and religious writer Mary Ann Evans (1819-1880).
George Eliot was not charming; she was not strongly feminine; she had none of those eccentricities and inequalities of temper which give to so many artists the endearing simplicity of children.
George Eliot had far too strong an intelligence to tamper with those facts, and too broad a humour to mitigate the truth because it was a stern one.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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