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Encyclopedia > George Eastman
A 1954 U.S. stamp featuring George Eastman.
A 1954 U.S. stamp featuring George Eastman.

George Eastman (July 12, 1854March 14, 1932) founded the Eastman Kodak Company and invented the roll of film, helping to bring photography to the mainstream. The roll film was also the basis for the invention of the motion picture film in 1888 by world's first filmmaker, Louis Le Prince, and a decade later by his followers Léon Bouly, Thomas Edison, the Lumière Brothers and Georges Méliès. u. ... u. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... 48-star flag, 1957 This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the United States. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is an American multinational public company which produces photographic materials and equipment. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Photography [fÓ™tÉ‘grÓ™fi:],[foÊŠtÉ‘grÓ™fi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Film stock is the term for photographic film on which films are recorded. ... Louis Aimé Augustin Le Prince (28 August 1841, vanished 16 September 1890) was an inventor who is generally recognized as the first person to record motion images on film. ... Léon Guillaume Bouly (1872 - 1932) was a French inventor who devised and created the cinématographe. ... Edison redirects here. ... The Lumière Brothers, Louis Jean (October 5, 1864–June 6, 1948) and Auguste Marie Louis Nicholas (October 19, 1862–April 10, 1954), were the creators of the cinematographic projector. ... Georges Méliès (December 8, 1861 – January 21, 1938), full name Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès, was a French filmmaker famous for leading many technical and narrative developments in the earliest cinema. ...

Contents

Biography

Eastman was born in Waterville, Oneida County, New York. He was the thrid and youngest child of George Washington Eastman and Maria Kilbourn, both from the bordering town of Marshall. His third sister died shortly after her birth. In 1854, his father established the Eastman Commercial College in Rochester. The Eastman family moved to Rochester in 1865. Two years later after his father's death, George Eastman left high school to support his mother and sisters. At age 14 he began working as an office boy.[1] Waterville is a village in Oneida County, New York, USA. The population was 1,721 at the 2000 census. ... This article is about the state. ... Marshall is a town located in Oneida County, New York. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the city of Rochester in Monroe County. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ...


In 1874, Eastman became intrigued with photography but found the process awkward. It required coating a glass plate with a liquid emulsion, that had to be quickly used before it dried. After three years of experimentation with British gelatin emulsions, Eastman developed a dry photographic plate and patented it in both England and the US. In 1880 he began a photographic business. For the art collective, see Gelitin. ...


In 1884, Eastman patented a photographic medium that replaced fragile glass plates with a photo-emulsion coated on paper rolls. The invention of roll film greatly sped up the process of recording multiple images.[2]

Ad for the Kodak camera.

Eastman then received a patent in 1888 for a camera designed to use roll film. He coined the marketing phrase, "You press the button, we do the rest."[3] The phrase entered the public consciousness. It was even incorporated into a Gilbert & Sullivan operetta (Utopia, Limited). Image File history File links Kodak_ad_1888. ... Image File history File links Kodak_ad_1888. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is an American multinational public company which produces photographic materials and equipment. ... For other uses, see Camera (disambiguation). ... Playwright/lyricist William S. Gilbert (1836-1911) and composer Arthur S. Sullivan (1842-1900) defined operetta in Victorian England with a series of their internationally successful and timeless works. ... Utopia, Limited, or The Flowers of Progress is a Gilbert and Sullivan operetta. ...


The camera owner could send in the camera with a processing fee of $10. The company would develop the film, print 100 pictures, and also send along a new roll of 100-exposures film.[4] A photograph with an exposure time of 25 seconds A photograph of a night-time sky with an exposure time of 8 seconds In photography, exposure is the total amount of light allowed to fall on the photographic medium (photographic film or image sensor) during the process of taking a...


On September 4, 1888 Eastman registered the trademark Kodak. The letter "K" had been a favorite of Eastman's. He said, "[I]t seems a strong, incisive sort of letter".[5] Eastman and his mother devised the name Kodak with an anagram set. He used three principal concepts to create the name: it must be short, it could not be mispronounced, and it could not resemble anything else or be associated with anything but Kodak.[6] is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


By 1896, 100 Kodak cameras had been sold. The first Kodak cost USD $15. In an effort to bring photography to the masses, Eastman introduced the Brownie in 1900 at a price of just $1. It became a great success. The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The Brownie No 2 The Kodak Brownie box camera, introduced in 1900, was a very simple camera that anyone could use. ...


In 1925, Eastman gave up his daily management of Kodak, to become chairman of the board. He thereafter concentrated on philanthropic activities, to which he had already donated substantial sums. He was one of the major philanthropists of his time, ranking only slightly behind Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and a few others, but did not seek publicity for his activities. He concentrated on institution-building and causes which could help people's health. He donated to the University of Rochester, establishing the Eastman School of Music and School of Dentistry; to Tuskegee Institute; and to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), donations which provided capital to build several of their first buildings at their second campus along the Charles River. The University of Rochester (UR) is a private, coeducational and nonsectarian research university located in Rochester, New York. ... The Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester (also known more simply as The Eastman School, Eastman, or ESM) is a music conservatory located in the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Doctor of Dental Medicine. ... There is also the Tuskegee Airmen, a corps of African-American military pilots trained there during World War II Tuskegee University is an American institution of higher learning located in Tuskegee, Alabama. ... “MIT” redirects here. ...


In his final two years, Eastman was in intense pain, caused by a degenerative disorder affecting his spine. He had trouble standing and his walking became a slow shuffle. Today it might be diagnosed as spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the spinal canal caused by calcification in the vertebrae. Eastman grew depressed, as he had seen his mother spend the last two years of her life in a wheelchair from the same condition. On March 14, 1932, Eastman committed suicide.[7] He left a suicide note that read, "To my Friends, My work is done. Why wait?"[8] His funeral was held at St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Rochester. Eastman, who never married, was buried on the grounds of the company he founded at Kodak Park in Rochester, New York. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dystrophic calcification is the mineralization of soft tissue without a systemic mineral imbalance. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... A suicide note is a message left by someone who later attempts or commits suicide. ... Kodak Park is a large industrial complex run by Eastman Kodak located two miles north of downtown Rochester, New York. ...


Legacy

During his lifetime, he donated $100 million, mostly to the University of Rochester and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (under the alias "Mr. Smith").[9] The Rochester Institute of Technology has a building dedicated to Mr. Eastman, in recognition of his support and substantial donations. He endowed the Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester. The University of Rochester (UR) is a private, coeducational and nonsectarian research university located in Rochester, New York. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... RIT redirects here. ... The Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester (also known more simply as The Eastman School, Eastman, or ESM) is a music conservatory located in the United States. ...


MIT has a plaque of Eastman (the rubbing of which is traditionally considered by students to bring good luck) in recognition of his donation. Eastman also made substantial gifts to the Tuskegee Institute and the Hampton Institute. Upon his death, his entire estate went to the University of Rochester, where his name can be found on the Eastman Quadrangle of the River Campus. His former home at 900 East Avenue in Rochester, New York was opened as the George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film in 1949. On the 100th anniversary of his birth in 1954, Eastman was honored with a postage stamp from the United States Post Office. Brass rubbing was originally a British mania for reproducing brasses -- commemorative embossed brass reliefs found in church memorials from the 14th and 15th centuries -- onto paper. ... There is also the Tuskegee Airmen, a corps of African-American military pilots trained there during World War II Tuskegee University is an American institution of higher learning located in Tuskegee, Alabama. ... Hampton University is a historically black university located in Hampton, Virginia. ... The George Eastman House International Museum of Photography is located in Rochester, New York. ...

A First Day Cover Honoring George Eastman 1954.
A First Day Cover Honoring George Eastman 1954.

Eastman had a very astute business sense. He focused his company on making film when competition heated up in the camera industry. By providing quality and affordable film to every camera manufacturer, Kodak managed to turn its competitors into de facto business partners. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (1513 × 851 pixel, file size: 896 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is from a photo taken of an original first day cover. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (1513 × 851 pixel, file size: 896 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is from a photo taken of an original first day cover. ...


See also

The Eastman Dental Center, along with the Eastman Department of Dentistry, is a unit of the University of Rochester Medical Center, serving as the University of Rochesters primary dental care and education facility. ... Eastmaninstitutet (The Eastman Institute) is a dental care center for children located in Vasastaden, Stockholm. ... The George Eastman House Motion Picture Collection in Rochester, New York, comprises over 23,000 titles, including features, shorts, documentaries, newsreels, and paper artifacts. ...

References

  1. ^ George Eastman - The Man: About His Life. Kodak: History of Kodak. Retrieved on December 7, 2006.
  2. ^ Kodak film patented on October 14, 1884
  3. ^ George Eastman - The History of Kodak and Rolled Photographic Film (2006). About.com.
  4. ^ Building the Foundation. Kodak: History of Kodak. Retrieved on December 7, 2006.
  5. ^ Kodak Origins. Retrieved on 2007-02-02.
  6. ^ Rochester's History. George Eastman. Retrieved on 2007-02-02.
  7. ^ - George Eastman Biography (2006) nnbd.com.
  8. ^ - Famous Suicide Notes (2006) corsinet.com.
  9. ^ Ford, Carin T. (2004). George Eastman: The Kodak Camera Man. Enslow Publishers, INC.. 

Books

  • Carl W. Ackerman, George Eastman: Founder of Kodak and the Photography Business (1930), Beard Books, ISBN 1-89312299-9
  • Elizabeth Brayer, George Eastman: A Biography (1996), John's Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-5263-3, University of Rochester Press 2006 reprint: ISBN 1-58046247-2

is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Patents

{TIFF format images} This article is about TIFF, the computer image format. ...

  • U.S. Patent 226,503  "Method and Apparatus for Coating Plates", filed September 1879, issued April 1880
  • U.S. Patent 306,594  "Photographic Film", filed March 1884, issued October, 1884
  • U.S. Patent 317,049  "Roll Holder for Photographic Films", filed August 1884, issued May 1885
  • U.S. Patent 388,850  "Camera", filed March, 1888, issued September, 1888

 
 

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