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Encyclopedia > George Cross
George Cross



Obverse of the medal. Ribbon: 38mm, dark blue.
Awarded by Commonwealth Realms
Type Civil decoration.
Eligibility Commonwealth subjects.
Awarded for "... acts of the greatest heroism or of the most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme danger."
Status Currently awarded.
Description Height 48mm, max. width 45mm; (Obverse) plain silver cross with circular medallion in the centre depicting the effigy of St. George and the Dragon, surrounded by the words "FOR GALLANTRY". In the angle of each limb is the Royal Cypher GVI; (Reverse) plain, centre engraved with name of recipient and date of award. Cross attached by ring to bar ornamented with laurel leaves, through which the ribbon passes.
Statistics
Established 24 September 1940
Total awarded 158 (including 2 collective awards)
Posthumous
awards
85
Distinct
recipients
158 (including 2 collective awards)
Precedence
Next (lower) George Medal

The George Cross (GC) is the highest civil decoration of the Commonwealth of Nations.[1] The GC is the civilian counterpart of the Victoria Cross and the highest gallantry award for civilians as well as for military personnel in actions which are not in the face of the enemy or for which purely military honours would not normally be granted.[2] Image File history File links GeorgeCrossObv. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... Saint George versus the dragon According to the Golden Legend by Jacobus de Voragine, the story of Saint George and the Dragon took place in a place he called Silene, in Libya. ... The Royal Cypher of Queen Elizabeth II, surmounted with a crown. ... Binomial name Laurus nobilis L. The Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae), also known as True Laurel, Sweet Bay, Grecian Laurel, or just Laurel, is an evergreen tree or large shrub reaching 10–18 m tall, native to the Mediterranean region. ... The George Medal (GM) is the second level civil decoration of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth. ... A civil decoration is a decoration awarded to civilians for distinguished service. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour in the face of the enemy to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. ...

Contents

Creation

The GC was instituted on 24 September 1940 by King George VI.[3] At this time, during the height of The Blitz, there was a strong desire to reward the many acts of civilian courage. The existing awards open to civilians were not judged suitable to meet the new situation, therefore it was decided that the George Cross and the George Medal would be instituted to recognise both civilian gallantry in the face of enemy action and brave deeds more generally. September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Heinkel He 111 German bomber over the Surrey Docks, Southwark, London (German propaganda photomontage). ...


Announcing the new award, the King said: "In order that they should be worthily and promptly recognised, I have decided to create, at once, a new mark of honour for men and women in all walks of civilian life. I propose to give my name to this new distinction, which will consist of the George Cross, which will rank next to the Victoria Cross, and the George Medal for wider distribution."[citation needed] The George Medal (GM) is the second level civil decoration of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth. ...


The Warrant for the GC (along with that of the GM), dated 24 January 1941, was published in the London Gazette on 31 January 1941. January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The London Gazette , front page from Monday 3 - 10 September 1666, reporting on the Great Fire of London. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


The GC was intended to replace the Empire Gallantry Medal (EGM); all holders of the EGM were instructed to exchange their medals for a GC, a substitution of awards unprecedented in the history of British decorations. This substitution policy ignored holders of the Albert Medal (AM) and the Edward Medal (EM), awards which both took precedence over the EGM.[4] The anomaly was only rectified in 1971, when the surviving recipients of the AM and the EM were invited to exchange their award for the George Cross. Of the 65 holders of the Albert Medal and 68 holders of the Edward Medal eligible to exchange, 49 and 59 respectively took up the option.[citation needed] The Empire Gallantry Medal, officially the Medal of the Order of the British Empire for Gallantry was a British award for acts of the highest civilian gallantry, introduced by King George V on 29 December 1922. ... The Albert Medal for Lifesaving was instituted by Royal Warrant on 7 March 1866 and discontinued in 1971. ... The Edward Medal is a British civilian decoration which was instituted by Royal Warrant on 13 July 1907 to recognise acts of bravery of miners and quarrymen in endangering their lives to rescue their fellow workers. ...


Award

The medal, which may be awarded posthumously, is granted in recognition of "acts of the greatest heroism or of the most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme danger."[5]


The medal is primarily a civilian award; however the George Cross may be awarded to military personnel for gallant conduct which is not in the face of the enemy.[6] As the Warrant states:

The Cross is intended primarily for civilians and award in Our military services is to be confined to actions for which purely military Honours are not normally granted.[7]
George Cross as it appears on Commonwealth War Graves Commission headstones.
George Cross as it appears on Commonwealth War Graves Commission headstones.

Bars are awarded to the GC in recognition of the performance of further acts of bravery meriting the award, although none have yet been awarded. Recipients are entitled to the postnominal letters GC.[8] In common with the Victoria Cross, a distinction peculiar to these two premier awards for bravery, in undress uniform or on occasions when the medal ribbon alone is worn, a miniature replica of the cross is affixed to the centre of the ribbon.[9] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Azmak Cemetery, near Suvla Bay, Turkey, contains the graves of some of the soldiers who died during the Gallipoli Campaign. ...


The details of all awards are published in the London Gazette with the exception of the two collective bestowals.


Recipients

See also: List of George Cross recipients Since its inception in 1940, the GC has been awarded posthumously to 85 recipients and to 71 living people (excluding the two collective awards to Malta and the Royal Ulster Constabulary). The George Cross is the most prestigious award granted to British citizens (and citizens of certain commonwealth counties) for actions of heroism not involving direct enemy action, for which the Victoria Cross is usually awarded. ... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ...


Recent recipients

The most recent recipient of the George Cross is Corporal Mark Wright, of the 3rd Battalion, the Parachute Regiment, who died in Helmand Province of Afghanistan on 6 September 2006, after entering a minefield in an attempt to save the lives of other injured soldiers. He entered the minefield with a small team after another soldier stepped on a landmine. While the first casualty was being tended to, further landmines detonated as a landing space was cleared for a CASEVAC attempt, causing severe injuries to several others. Cpl Wright remained in the minefield, and ordered others out, but he was himself injured by another mine while making his way to the helicopter. He maintained the morale of the other wounded soldiers, despite his serious injuries, but died of his wounds during the flight to the field dressing station.[10] Corporal Mark Wright (22 April 1979 - 6 September 2006) was a soldier in the British Army. ... The Parachute Regiments display team, the Red Devils at an American airshow The Parachute Regiment is the main body of elite airborne troops of the British Army. ... Helmand (Balochi/Pashto: هلمند) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... A landmine is a type of mine which is placed onto or into the ground and explodes when triggered by a vehicle or person. ... U.S. Army soldier removes fuse from a Russian-made mine to clear a minefield outside of Fallujah, Iraq. ... CASEVAC is a shorthand word that means casualty evacuation. This can apply to injured soldiers or civilians, and is used to denote the emergency evacuation of injured people from a war zone. ... Field hospital of the Radom-Kielce Home Army area, during the Operation Tempest of 1944 A field hospital is a large mobile medical unit that takes care of the casualties outside the hospital buildings. ...


Prior to that, the two most recent military recipients of the George Cross were Captain Peter Norton, an Ammunition Technical Officer of the Royal Logistic Corps, for gallantry when, on 24 July 2005, he led a bomb disposal team at the site of an IED attack on a US military patrol in Iraq. During the incident he sustained serious injuries; and Trooper Christopher Finney of the Blues and Royals, had previously been awarded the George Cross on 31 October 2003 for gallantry during a friendly fire incident in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Finney is also the youngest military recipient of the decoration. Peter Allen Norton GC (born 1962) is an Ammunition Technical Officer with the British Army Royal Logistic Corps who was awarded the George Cross for his service in Iraq. ... An Ammunition Technical Officer (ATO) is an officer of the British Army involved in bomb disposal. ... The Royal Logistic Corps is the British Army corps that provides the logistic support for the Army. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Improvised Explosive Device Disposal be merged into this article or section. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ... Christopher Finney GC (born 23 May 1984 in Brussels, Belgium) is a British soldier of the Blues and Royals awarded the George Cross for bravery under friendly fire during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... The Blues and Royals are a British Army armoured regiment and are part of the Household Cavalry. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


The most recent civilian recipient was Sergeant Stewart Guthrie of the New Zealand Police, who received his award posthumously for apprehending a gunman in the Aramoana massacre in New Zealand.[11] Stewart Graeme Guthrie of New Zealand is the most recent civilian recipient of the George Cross, which is equal to the Victoria Cross, but awarded for conspicuous gallantry not in the face of an enemy. ... The New Zealand Police (Ngā Pirihimana o Aotearoa in Māori) is the national police force of New Zealand, responsible for enforcing criminal and traffic law, enhancing public safety, maintaining order and keeping the peace throughout the country. ... The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ...


Female awards

In its history, the GC has been awarded directly to only four women, Odette Sansom, Violette Szabo, and Noor Inayat Khan (all members of FANY, who were awarded the George Cross for actions carried out while serving as agents in the Special Operations Executive (SOE) during World War II), and Barbara Harrison, an Air Stewardess, on a BOAC flight at Heathrow Airport, who died on 8 April 1968 after helping many passengers escape from an onboard fire. Odette Sansom while in service of the SOE Odette Marie Celine Sansom (April 28, 1912 - March 13, 1995) was an Allied heroine of World War II. Biography Odette Marie Celine Brailly was born in Amiens in the Somme département of France. ... Violette Reine Elizabeth Bushell Szabo, G.C., M.B.E., CdG (June 26, 1921 – February 5?, 1945) was a World War II secret agent. ... Noor Inayah Khan[[1]] Noor-un-Nisa Inayat Khan GC MBE (January 1, 1914 - September 13, 1944), usually known as Noor Inayat Khan, was a Special Operations Executive agent in World War II. // Noor was born in Moscow of a Muslim Indian father (Hazrat Inayat Khan) and an American mother... Centenary Logo of FANY (PRVC) The First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (Princess Royals Volunteer Corps) (FANY(PRVC) - pronounced Fanny) is a British independent all-female unit and registered charity affiliated to, but not part of, the Territorial Army. ... The Special Operations Executive (SOE), sometimes referred to as the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organization initiated by Winston Churchill and Hugh Dalton in July 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... After technical problems with the Comet, BOAC resumed jet service with imported Boeing 707s. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ...


Collective awards

The Flag of Malta proudly displays its George Cross
The Flag of Malta proudly displays its George Cross

The George Cross has, on the express instruction of the Sovereign, been awarded twice on a collective basis,[12] to the island of Malta and the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 Civil ensign; Flag ratio: 2:3 The Flag of Malta is a basic bi-colour, with white in the hoist and red in the fly -- the banner of the arms of Malta. ... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ...


Malta

Main article: George Cross (Malta)

The GC was awarded to the island of Malta in a letter dated 15 April 1942 from King George VI to the island's Governor Lieutenant-General Sir William Dobbie: The George Cross award The George Cross was awarded to the island of Malta by King George VI in a letter dated 15 April 1942 [1] to the islands Governor Lieutenant-General Sir William Dobbie, so as to bear witness to the heroism and devotion of its people [2... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Sir William Dobbie, during World War II, was a Lieutenant General, of the British Army, who served as the military governor of Malta. ...

To honour her brave people, I award the George Cross to the Island Fortress of Malta to bear witness to a heroism and devotion that will long be famous in history.

The Governor answered:

By God's help Malta will not weaken but will endure until victory is won.

The cross and the messages are today found in the War Museum in Fort Saint Elmo, Valletta. The fortitude of the population under sustained enemy air raids and a naval blockade which almost saw them starved into submission, won widespread admiration in Britain and other Allied nations. Some historians argue that the award was in fact a propaganda gesture to justify the huge losses sustained by Britain to prevent Malta from capitulating as Singapore had done in the Battle of Singapore.[13] Fort St Elmo is a fortification on the island of Malta. ... Valletta, population 6,315 (official estimate for 2005), is the capital city of Malta. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ...


The George Cross is woven into the Flag of Malta and can be seen wherever the flag is flown. Flag ratio: 2:3 Civil ensign; Flag ratio: 2:3 The Flag of Malta is a basic bi-colour, with white in the hoist and red in the fly -- the banner of the arms of Malta. ...


Royal Ulster Constabulary

The GC was awarded to the Royal Ulster Constabulary in 1999 by Queen Elizabeth II following the advice of her Government. Buckingham Palace announced, Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ...

The Queen has awarded the George Cross to the Royal Ulster Constabulary, to honour the courage and dedication of the officers of the Royal Ulster Constabulary and their families who have shared their hardships.

The Queen paid her own personal tribute to the RUC by presenting the George Cross to the organisation in person at Hillsborough Castle, County Down. The official entrance of Hillsborough Castle Hillsborough Castle in County Down is a mansion in Northern Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Downpatrick Area: 2,448 km² Population (est. ...


The citation published in the London Gazette on November 23, 1999 states: The London Gazette , front page from Monday 3 - 10 September 1666, reporting on the Great Fire of London. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ...

For the past 30 years, the Royal Ulster Constabulary has been the bulwark against, and the main target of, a sustained and brutal terrorism campaign. The Force has suffered heavily in protecting both sides of the community from danger—302 officers have been killed in the line of duty and thousands more injured, many seriously. Many officers have been ostracised by their own community and others have been forced to leave their homes in the face of threats to them and their families. As Northern Ireland reaches a turning point in its political development this award is made to recognise the collective courage and dedication to duty of all of those who have served in the Royal Ulster Constabulary and who have accepted the danger and stress this has brought to them and to their families.

Within two years (on 4 November 2001), the RUC was replaced with the Police Service of Northern Ireland. November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (Irish: Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart na hÉireann) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ...


Awards by nation

There have been 10 crosses awarded to Canadians: eight military, one Merchant Navy, and one woman. The GC is no longer awarded to Canadians by the Queen of Canada, who awards the Cross of Valour (Canadian) instead. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, wearing the Sovereigns insignia of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit The style of the Canadian Sovereign has varied over the years. ... Cross of Valour The Cross of Valour (official post-nominal letters CV) is the highest ranking of the Canadian Bravery Decorations. ...


Australia

Memorial to Australian recipients, George Cross Park, Canberra
Memorial to Australian recipients, George Cross Park, Canberra

The last Australian to be awarded the GC, and the most recent surviving civilian recipient, was Constable Michael Pratt of the Victoria Police, Melbourne, for arresting two armed bank robbers.[14] The Queen of Australia established the Cross of Valour (Australian) in 1975 to be awarded by the Australian Crown "only for acts of the most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme peril". This is now used instead of the George Cross. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Melbournes CBD has grown to straddle the Yarra River in three major precincts. ... Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, in 1952 and 2002 The title Queen of Australia has existed since 1973, when the Parliament of Australia passed the Royal Style and Titles Act (1973). ... The Cross of Valour is Australias highest civilian award for bravery. ...


A memorial to Australian recipients was opened in the Capital, Canberra, on 4 April 2001 by the Governor General of Australia, Sir William Deane. George Cross Park is in Blamey Crescent bounded by Moten Street, Campbell. For other meanings see Canberra (disambiguation). ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Governor-General of Australia is the highest constitutional officer in the Commonwealth of Australia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... See also Field Marshal (Australia) Field Marshal Sir Thomas Albert Blamey GBE KCB CMG DSO ED (24 January 1884 – 27 May 1951) was an Australian General of World War II, and Australias first (and only) Field Marshal. ... Campbell (postcode: 2612) is a suburb of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. ...


Annuity

Holders of the George Cross or Victoria Cross are entitled to an annuity, the amount of which is determined by the awarding government.[15] Since 2002, the annuity paid by the British government is £1,495 per year.[citation needed] As at January 2005, under the Canadian Gallantry Awards Order, members of the Canadian Forces, or people who joined the British forces before 31 March 1949 while domiciled in Canada or Newfoundland, receive $3,000 per year.[citation needed] For Australian holders, the amount is determined by clause 11A1.2 of the Australian Defence Forces Pay and Conditions, and as of January 2005 is $250 per year. Annuity contracts are offered by organizations and individuals that may accumulate value and take a current value and pay it out over a period of years. ... ISO 4217 Code GBP User(s) United Kingdom, Crown Dependencies Inflation 2. ... The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Loonie. ... The Australian Defence Force (ADF) consists of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), Australian Regular Army (ARA), and Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia, Kiribati, Nauru, Tuvalu, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island Inflation 3. ...


Restriction of Use

As of 1943 in accordance with the George Cross (Restriction of Use) Ordinance, in Malta it is unlawful to use the George Cross or an imitation of it or the words George Cross, for the purposes of trade or business without the authorisation of the Prime Minister. Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Although certain Commonwealth Realms have now instituted their own indigenous honours systems, replacing the GC and other Commonwealth awards so far as their citizens are concerned.
  2. ^ Mackay, J. (Author), Mussell, P. (Author), Mussell, J.W. (Editor), (2005), The Medal Yearbook 2006, (Token Publishing Ltd: Devon)
  3. ^ British Gallantry Medals, p. 138
  4. ^ British Gallantry Awards, p. 138
  5. ^ London Gazette, 31 January 1941 - Warrant, Fifth clause
  6. ^ Which could not therefore be recognised by a military decoration, given that they typically require gallantry in the face of the enemy.
  7. ^ London Gazette, 31 January 1941 - Warrant, Second clause
  8. ^ London Gazette, 31 January 1941 - Warrant, Eighth clause
  9. ^ One miniature replica signifying a single award. In the event of a second award of the GC (the award of a bar), a second replica would be worn on the ribbon, and so on for further awards. London Gazette, 31 January 1941 - Warrant, Seventh clause
  10. ^ Operational Honours: VC and GC for acts of exceptional valour, MOD press release, 14 December 2006.
  11. ^ London Gazette, 15 February 1992.
  12. ^ Such collective awards have only been bestowed on three occasions—two separate awards of the George Cross to Malta and the RUC and one award of the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross to the Royal Irish Regiment.
  13. ^ The Siege of Malta in World War Two. Retrieved on April 15, 2007.
  14. ^ London Gazette, July 5, 1978
  15. ^ London Gazette, 15 June 1965 - Warrant, Fourteenth clause

The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... Examples of Medal Bars A medal bar or medal clasp is a thin metal bar attached to the ribbon of a military decoration, civil decoration, or other medal. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The London Gazette , front page from Monday 3 - 10 September 1666, reporting on the Great Fire of London. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Conspicuous Gallantry Cross (CGC) is a second level military decoration of the United Kingdom armed forces. ... In the British Army, there have been two regiments titled the Royal Irish Regiment. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The London Gazette , front page from Monday 3 - 10 September 1666, reporting on the Great Fire of London. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...

Bibilography

  • Abbott, PE and Tamplin, JMA - British Gallantry Awards, (1981), Nimrod Dix and Co.
  • Duckers, P - British Gallantry Awards 1855-2000, (2001), Shire Publications
  • Mackay, J and Mussell, J (eds) - Medal Yearbook - 2005, (2004), Token Publishing.
  • The Register of the George Cross, This England, 2nd Edition (1990) ISBN 0-906324-17-3
  • The George Cross, Ian Bisset, MacGibbon & Kee (1961)
  • The Story of the George Cross, Sir John Smyth, Arthur Baker Ltd. (1968) ISBN 0213763079
  • 'Gainst All Disaster, Allan Stanistreet, Picton Publishing Ltd. (1986) ISBN 0-948251-16-6
  • George Cross (Restriction of Use) Ordinance, Government of Malta, (1943)
  • One Step Further, Those who gallantry was rewarded with the George Cross. Series of 10 books. Marion Hebblethwaite, Chameleon HH Publishing Ltd from 2005 (ISBN 0954691717 onwards)

See also

This article concerns British and Commonwealth of Nations orders and decorations awarded by the British Sovereign. ... The George Medal (GM) is the second level civil decoration of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth. ... This article is about the decoration. ... The St Georges cross, a red cross on a white background, is the national flag of England and has been since about 1277. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Flag ratio: 2:3 Civil ensign; Flag ratio: 2:3 The Flag of Malta is a basic bi-colour, with white in the hoist and red in the fly -- the banner of the arms of Malta. ... For the Sanskrit word Soham Soham is a small town in the English county of Cambridgeshire. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
George Cross (GC) Database - Highest civilian gallantry award (1723 words)
The George Cross and George Medal were intended primarily to reward civilian bravery, but as many members of the armed forces were unavoidably engaged in work not appropriate for strictly military awards, they became eligible for the GC and GM.
Eighthly: It is ordained that the award of the George Cross shall entitle the recipient on all occasions when the use of such letters is customary, to have placed after his or her names the letters "G.C.".
It is also ordained that when the George Cross is awarded posthumously and the matter is a responsibility of the United Kingdom Government, the sum of fifty pounds should be credited to the estate of the deceased recipient of the award*.
George Cross (1133 words)
When, in 1940, King George VI instituted the George Cross and George Medal the total nature of World War Two had brought war into all civilian life, and there were many acts of outstanding gallantry for which the terms of award of the existing non-military medals were deemed to be inappropriate.
When the George Cross was introduced, it superseded the Empire Gallantry Medal (EGM) whose living recipients were required to exchange their EGM for the George Cross.
The George Cross is of silver, with the words "For Gallantry" as described in the warrant, and is suspended from a dark blue ribbon one and half inches wide, and is worn on the left breast before all other medals and orders except the Victoria Cross.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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