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Encyclopedia > George Cayley

Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet (December 27, 1773December 15, 1857) was a prolific English engineer from Brompton-by-Sawdon, near Scarborough in Yorkshire. He was a pioneer of aeronautical engineering, though he worked over a century before the development of powered flight. He served for the Whig party as Member of Parliament for Scarborough from 1832 to 1835, and helped found the Royal Polytechnic Institution (now University of Westminster), serving as its chairman for many years. He was a founding member of the British Association for the Advancement of Science and was a distant cousin of the mathematician Arthur Cayley. December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... Brompton is a village and civil parish in the Scarborough district of North Yorkshire, England, about 8 miles west of Scarborough itself, close to the North York Moors and on the A170 road. ... The South Bay at Scarborough Scarborough lies on the North Sea coast of North Yorkshire, England. ... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Scarborough was a parliamentary constituency, centred on the town of Scarborough in North Yorkshire. ... The University of Westminster is a university in London, England, formed in 1992 as a result of the Further and Higher Education Act, 1992, which allowed the London Polytechnic (Polytechnic of Central London or PCL ) to rename itself as a university. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Arthur Cayley (August 16, 1821 - January 26, 1895) was a British mathematician. ...

Cayley inherited Brompton Hall and its estates on the death of his father, the 5th baronet. Captured by the optimism of the times, he engaged in a wide variety of engineering projects. Among the many things that he developed are self-righting life-boats, tension-spoke wheels, the "Universal Railway" (his term for caterpillar tractors), automatic signals for railway crossings, seat belts, small scale helicopters, and a kind of prototypical internal combustion engine fuelled by gunpowder. He also contributed in the fields of prosthetics, heat engines, electricity, theatre architecture, ballistics, optics and land reclamation. Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... For the 1944 movie, see Lifeboat (movie). ... Wire wheels, (wire spoked wheels), today are still used on many motorcycles and most bicycles. ... U.S. M60 Patton tank. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors consisting of two or more rotor blades. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms. ... A United States soldier demonstrates Foosball with two prosthetic limbs In medicine, a prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing part of the body. ... A heat engine is a physical or theoretical device that converts thermal energy to mechanical output. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... Ballistics (gr. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices. ...

He is mainly remembered, however, for his flying machines, including the working, piloted glider that he designed and built. To measure the drag on objects at different speeds and angles of attack, he built a "whirling-arm apparatus" - a development of earlier work into ballistics and air resistance. He also experimented with rotating wing sections of various forms in the stairwells at Brompton Hall. These scientific experiments led him to develop an efficient cambered airfoil and to identify the four vector forces that influence an aircraft: thrust, lift, drag, and weight. He discovered the importance of dihedral for lateral stability in flight, and deliberately set the centre of gravity of many of his models well below the wings for this reason. Investigating many other theoretical aspects of flight, many now acknowledge him as the first aeronautical engineer. Template:Public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Template:Public domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... When Martians invade Earth in the H. G. Wells novel The War of the Worlds, they bring fighting machines, handling machines, and digging machines. ... Gliders or Sailplanes are heavier-than-air aircraft primarily intended for unpowered flight. ... In physics, the drag equation gives the drag experienced by an object moving through a fluid. ... In this diagram, the black arrow represents the direction of the wind. ... Camber may refer to: Camber, East Sussex, a seaside resort in England, near to Camber Sands. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In geometry, the dihedral is the angle between two planes. ... In physics, the center of gravity (CoG) of an object is the average location of its weight. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering concerning aircraft, spacecraft and related topics. ...

By 1804 his model gliders appeared similar to modern aircraft: a pair of large monoplane wings towards the front, with a smaller tailplane at the back comprising horizontal stabilisers and a vertical fin. During some point prior to 1849 he designed and built a triplane powered with 'flappers' in which an unknown ten-year-old boy flew. Later, with the continued assistance of his grandson George John Cayley and his resident engineer Thomas Vick, he developed a larger scale glider (also probably fitted with 'flappers') which flew across Brompton Dale in 1853. The first adult aviator has been claimed to be either Cayley's coachman, footman or butler: one source (Gibbs-Smith) has suggested that it was John Appleby, a Cayley employee - however there is no definitive evidence to fully identify the pilot. An obscure entry in volume IX of the 8th Encyclopaedia Britannica of 1855 is the most contemporaneous account with any authority regarding what was probably the earliest manned, heavier-than-air flight by an adult; an event which occurred some fifty years before the Wright Brothers. 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A monoplane is an aircraft with one main set of wing surfaces, in contrast to a biplane or triplane. ... Tailplane or horizontal stabilizer of a Boeing 737 A tailplane, also known as horizontal stabilizer, is a small lifting surface located behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes. ...

A replica of Cayley's glider being flown by Derek Piggott in 1985
A replica of Cayley's glider being flown by Derek Piggott in 1985

A replica of the machine was flown at the original site in Brompton Dale in 1974 and in the mid 1980s by Derek Piggott (right). Another replica flew there in 2003, first piloted by Allan McWhirter and later by Richard Branson. Image File history File linksMetadata Cayley_Glider_Replica_Flown_By_Derek_Piggott_2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Cayley_Glider_Replica_Flown_By_Derek_Piggott_2. ... A blonde haired, very skilled worker with a 70s look. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alan Derek Piggott MBE is one of Britains leading glider pilots and instructors. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ...

See also

This is a listing of early flying machines. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This is a timeline of aviation history. ... Arthur Cayley (August 16, 1821 - January 26, 1895) was a British mathematician. ...

External links

Parliament of the United Kingdom (1801–present)
Preceded by
Charles Manners-Sutton
Edmund Phipps
Member of Parliament for Scarborough
with Sir John Vanden-Bempde-Johnstone, Bt

Succeeded by
Sir John Vanden-Bempde-Johnstone, Bt
Sir Frederick Trench
Baronetage of England
Preceded by
Thomas Cayley
(of Brompton)
Succeeded by
Digby Cayley

  Results from FactBites:
Sir George Cayley û Making Aviation Practical (1122 words)
Sir George Cayley, born in 1773, is sometimes called the ôFather of Aviation.ö A pioneer in his field, he is credited with the first major breakthrough in heavier-than-air flight.
Cayley described many of the concepts and elements of the modern airplane and was the first to understand and explain in engineering terms the concepts of lift and thrust.
It had a fixed main wing, a fuselage, a cruciform tail unit with surfaces for vertical and horizontal control, a cockpit for the pilot, and a rudimentary means of propulsion that consisted of revolving vanes, a precursor to the propeller.
  More results at FactBites »



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