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Encyclopedia > George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw

Born 26 July 1856(1856-07-26)
Dublin, Ireland
Died 2 November 1950 (aged 94)
Hertfordshire, England
Occupation Playwright, critic, political activist
Nationality Irish
Genres Comedy
Influences Arthur Schopenhauer, Richard Wagner, Henrik Ibsen, Friedrich Nietzsche, Henry George, William Morris
Influenced Socialism and Fabianism in the UK, Colin Wilson

George Bernard Shaw (26 July 18562 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. Born in Dublin, he moved to London when he turned twenty. His first success was as a music and literary critic, but he was drawn to drama and authored more than sixty plays during his career. Typically his work is leavened by a delightful vein of comedy, but nearly all of it bears earnest messages Shaw hoped his audiences would embrace. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... PD image from http://www. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about work. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher who believed that the will to live is the fundamental reality and that this will, being a constant striving, is insatiable and ultimately yields only suffering. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Ibsen redirects here. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... Henry George Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist and the most influential proponent of the Single Tax on land. ... This page is about William Morris, the writer, designer and socialist. ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... The Fabian Society is a British socialist intellectual movement, whose purpose is to advance the socialist cause by gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary means. ... For other uses, see Colin Wilson (disambiguation). ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ...


Politically an ardent socialist, he wrote many brochures and speeches for the Fabian Society and became an accomplished orator in furtherance of its causes. Those included gaining equal political rights for men and women, alleviating abuses of the working class, rescinding private ownership of productive land, and promoting healthful lifestyles. Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The Fabian Society is a British socialist intellectual movement, whose purpose is to advance the socialist cause by gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary means. ... Equal Rights can be: One of several groups called the Equal Rights Party. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ...


Shaw married Charlotte Payne-Townshend, a fellow Fabian, whom he survived. They made their home in Ayot St. Lawrence in a house now called Shaw's Corner. Shaw died there, aged 94, from chronic problems exacerbated by injuries incurred on falling from a ladder. He is the only person to have been awarded both the Nobel Prize in Literature (1925) and an Oscar (1938). These were awarded for his contribution to literature, and for his work on the film Pygmalion, respectively. Charlotte Payne-Townshend (1859-1943)[1] was a wealthy Anglo-Irish woman, member of the Fabian Society and dedicated to the struggle for womens rights. ... , Ayot St Lawrence is a small village in Hertfordshire, between Harpenden and Welwyn. ... Shaws Corner was the home of playwright George Bernard Shaw from 1906 until his death in 1950. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... The Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay is one of the Academy Awards, the most prominent film awards in the United States. ... Pygmalion (1938) is a British film based on George Bernard Shaws play of the same name, and adapted by him for the screen. ...

Contents

Biography

George Bernard Shaw was born to George Carr Shaw (1814-1885), an unsuccessful grain merchant and sometime civil servant, and Lucinda Elizabeth Shaw, née Gurly (1830-1913), a professional singer. He had two sisters, Lucinda Frances (1853-1920), a singer of musical comedy and light opera, and Elinor Agnes (1854-1876). He briefly attended the Wesleyan Connexional School, a grammar school operated by the Methodist New Connexion, moved to a private school near Dalkey, transferred to Dublin's Central Model School and ended his formal education at the Dublin English Scientific and Commercial Day School. Boy and man, he was always bitterly opposed to schools and teachers, saying Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theater combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... Comic opera, or light opera, denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending. ... Methodist New Connexion was a Protestant nonconformist church, also known as the Kilhamite Methodists. ...

"Schools and schoolmasters, as we have them today, are not popular as places of education and teachers, but rather prisons and turnkeys in which children are kept to prevent them disturbing and chaperoning their parents." [1]

He epitomized this attitude in the prologue of Cashel Byron's Profession where young Byron's educational experience is a fictionalized description of Shaw's own formal schooling and underscored it later in his Treatise on Parents and Children.[2] Cover from Penguins 1979 edition. ...


Just before Shaw’s sixteenth birthday (1872), his mother left home and followed her voice teacher, George Vandeleur Lee, to London. The daughters accompanied their mother,[3] but Shaw remained in Dublin with his father, first as a reluctant pupil, then as a clerk in an estate office, where he worked efficiently, albeit discontentedly, for several years.[4] In 1876, Shaw joined his mother’s London household. She, Vandeleur Lee, and his sister Lucy, provided him with a pound a week while he frequented public libraries and the British Museum reading room where he studied earnestly and began writing professionally. He earned his allowance by ghost-writing Vandeleur Lee’s music column,[5] which appeared in the London Hornet. Between 1879 and 1883, due to a series of rejected novels, his literary earnings remained negligible. His situation improved after 1885, when he became self-supporting as an art and literary critic.

Shaw in 1925, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature
Shaw in 1925, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature

Influenced by his reading, he became a dedicated Socialist and a founding member of the Fabian Society, a middle class organization established in 1884 to promote the gradual spread of socialism[4] by peaceful means. In the course of his political activities he met Charlotte Payne-Townshend, an Irish heiress and fellow Fabian; they married in 1898. In 1906 the Shaws moved into a house, now called Shaw's Corner, in Ayot St Lawrence, a small village in Hertfordshire; it was to be their home for the remainder of their lives, although they also maintained a flat in London. During his final years Shaw enjoyed attending to the grounds at Shaw's Corner; his death when he was 94 resulted from injuries from falling from a ladder while he was pruning a tree. His ashes, mixed with those of his wife, were scattered along footpaths and around the statue of Saint Joan in their garden.[6] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... The Fabian Society is a British socialist intellectual movement, whose purpose is to advance the socialist cause by gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary means. ... Shaws Corner was the home of playwright George Bernard Shaw from 1906 until his death in 1950. ... Ayot St Lawrence is a small village in Hertfordshire, between Harpenden and Welwyn. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ...


Shaw's plays were first performed in the 1890s. By the end of the decade he was an established playwright. He wrote sixty-three plays and his output as novelist, critic, pamphleteer, essayist and private correspondent was prodigious. He is known to have written more than 250,000 letters.[7]


Literary works

The International Shaw Society provides a detailed chronological listing of Shaw's writings.[8] See also George Bernard Shaw, Unity Theatre[9]


Criticism

As a music, art, and drama critic he wrote under the pseudonym "Corno di Bassetto" ("basset horn") for the Wolverhampton Star and, as GBS, for Dramatic Review (1885-86), Our Corner (1885-86), and The Pall Mall Gazette (1885-88). Shaw chose the pseudonym because it sounded European, and because nobody knew what a Corno di Bassetto was.[10] From 1895 to 1898, Shaw was the drama critic for Frank Harris’ Saturday Review. His earnings as a critic made him self-supporting. Basset horn The basset horn is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family. ... Saturday Review is a UK publication for which Winston Churchill reported. ...


Shaw’s early journalism ranged from book reviews and art criticism to music columns (many of them defending the work of the German composer Richard Wagner). The Perfect Wagnerite, printed in 1898, typifies Shaw’s views on Wagner. Conversely, Shaw disparaged Brahms, deriding A German Requiem by saying "it could only have come from the establishment of a first-class undertaker."[11] As drama critic for the Saturday Review, a post he held from 1895 to 1898, Shaw also championed the Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen, about whom he had already written the influential The Quintessence of Ibsenism(1891). His music criticism has been collected in Shaw's Music (1981).[12] Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of classical music. ... Ein deutsches Requiem (A German Requiem) is a large-scale choral work written by Johannes Brahms in 1868; it is Brahms Op. ... Ibsen redirects here. ...


Novels

Shaw wrote five unsuccessful novels between 1879 and 1883, at the start of his career. Eventually all were published. They are:

  • Cashel Byron's Profession (London, The Modern Press, 1886)
  • An Unsocial Socialist (London, Swan Sonnenschein, Lowrey & Co., 1887)
  • Love Among the Artists (Chicago, Herbert S. Stone and Company, 1900, UK, 1914)
  • The Irrational Knot, Being the Second Novel of his Nonage (revised, New York, Brentano’s, 1905)
  • Immaturity (London, Constable, 1931) His first novel. Written in 1879, it was the last one to be printed.

Plays

Although an earlier fragment exists, Shaw began working on his first play destined for publication,Widowers' Houses, in 1885 in collaboration with critic William Archer, who supplied the structure. Archer decided that Shaw could not write a play, so the project was abandoned. Years later, Shaw tried again and, in 1892, completed the play without collaboration. Widower's Houses, a scathing attack on slumlords, was first performed at London's Royalty Theatre on December 9, 1892. Shaw would later call it one of his worst works, but he had found his medium. His first significant financial success as a playwright came from Richard Mansfield's American production of The Devil's Disciple (1897). He went on to write 63 plays, most of them full-length. --204. ... The Devils Disciple is the only full-length play by G. Bernard Shaw set in America. ...


Often his plays succeeded in America and Germany before they did in London. Although major London productions of many of his earlier pieces were delayed for years, they are still being performed there. Examples include Mrs. Warren's Profession (1893), Arms and the Man (1894), Candida (1894) and You Never Can Tell (1897). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Arms and the Man is a comedy by G. Bernard Shaw. ... Candida can have various meanings: Candida is a comedic play by George Bernard Shaw published in 1898 that satirizes socialist reformers in the Church of England. ... You Never Can Tell is an 1899 play by George Bernard Shaw. ...


With the exception of Oscar Wilde, the humor in Shaw's writing was unmatched by his contemporaries, and he is remembered for his comedy. However, his wittiness should not obscure his important role in revolutionizing British drama. In the Victorian Era, the London stage had been regarded as a place for frothy, sentimental entertainment. Shaw made it a forum for considering moral, political and economic issues. In this, he considered himself indebted to Henrik Ibsen, who pioneered modern realistic drama. Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... Ibsen redirects here. ...


As his experience and popularity increased, his plays became increasingly verbose, which did not detract from their success. These works, from what might be called the beginning of his "middle" period, include Caesar and Cleopatra (1898), Man and Superman (1903), Major Barbara (1905) and The Doctor's Dilemma (1906). From 1904 to 1907, several of his plays had their London premieres in notable productions at the Court Theatre, managed by Harley Granville-Barker and J.E. Vedrenne. The first of his new plays to be performed at the Court Theatre, John Bull's Other Island (1904), while not especially popular today, made his reputation in London when King Edward VII laughed so hard during a command performance that he broke his chair. Caesar and Cleopatra is a 1901 play by George Bernard Shaw. ... Man and Superman is a 1903 play in four acts by G. Bernard Shaw. ... Major Barbara is a 1905 three act play by George Bernard Shaw that was first produced at the Royal Court Theatre in London. ... The Doctors Dilemma is a play by George Bernard Shaw first staged in 1906. ... John Bulls Other Island is a comedy about Ireland, written by George Bernard Shaw in 1904. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. ...


By the 1910s, Shaw was a well-established playwright. New works such as Fanny's First Play (1911) and Pygmalion (1912) — on which My Fair Lady (1956) is based — had long runs in front of large London audiences. A musical adaptation of Arms and the Man (1894)—The Chocolate Soldier by Oscar Strauss (1908)— was also very popular, but Shaw detested it and, for the rest of his life, forbade musicalization of his work, including a proposed Franz Lehar operetta based on Pygmalion; the Broadway musical My Fair Lady could be produced only after Shaw's death. Fannys First Play is a 1911 play by George Bernard Shaw. ... Play cover, depicting Mrs Campbell as Eliza Pygmalion (1913) is a play by George Bernard Shaw based on Ovids tale of Pygmalion. ... My Fair Lady is a musical with a book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe, based on George Bernard Shaws Pygmalion. ... Arms and the Man is a comedy by G. Bernard Shaw. ... My Fair Lady is a musical with a book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe, based on George Bernard Shaws Pygmalion. ...


Shaw's outlook was changed by World War I, which he vigorously opposed, despite incurring outrage from the public as well as from many friends. His first full-length piece presented after the War, written mostly during it, was Heartbreak House (1919). A new Shaw had emerged--the wit remained, but his faith in humanity had dwindled. In the preface to Heartbreak House he said In the words of AC Ward in his introduction to Bernard Shaw’s play Heartbreak House ‘the prime theme… was, that cultured, leisured Europe (words used at the beginning of the Preface) was drifting to destruction because those in a position to guide it to safety had failed to learn...

"It is said that every people has the Government it deserves. It is more to the point that every Government has the electorate it deserves; for the orators of the front bench can edify or debauch an ignorant electorate at will. Thus our democracy moves in a vicious circle of reciprocal worthiness and unworthiness."

Shaw had previously supported gradual democratic change toward socialism, but now he saw more hope in government by benign strong men. This sometimes made him oblivious to the dangers of dictatorships. Near his life's end that hope failed him too. In the preface of Buoyant Billions (1946-48), his last full-length play, he asks

"Why appeal to the mob when ninetyfive per cent of them do not understand politics, and can do nothing but mischief without leaders? And what sort of leaders do they vote for? For Titus Oates and Lord George Gordon with their Popish plots, for Hitlers who call on them to exterminate Jews, for Mussolinis who rally them to nationalist dreams of glory and empire in which all foreigners are enemies to be subjugated."

In 1921, Shaw completed Back to Methuselah, his "Metabiological Pentateuch." The massive, five-play work starts in the Garden of Eden and ends thousands of years in the future; it showcases Shaw's conviction that a "Life Force" purposefully directs evolution toward ultimate perfection. Shaw proclaimed the play a masterpiece, but many critics disagreed. (The theme of a benign force directing evolution reappears in Geneva (1938), wherein Shaw maintains humans must develop longer lifespans in order to acquire the wisdom needed for self-government.) Back to Methuselah (A Metabiological Pentateuch) is a 1921 series of five plays and a preface by George Bernard Shaw. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ...


Methuselah was followed by Saint Joan (1923), which is generally conceded to be one of his better works. Shaw had long considered writing about Joan of Arc, and her canonization supplied a strong incentive. The play was an international success, and is believed to have led to his Nobel Prize in Literature. He wrote plays for the rest of his life, but very few of them are as notable—or as often revived—as his earlier work. The Apple Cart (1929) was probably his most popular work of this era. Later full-length plays like Too True to Be Good (1931), On the Rocks (1933), The Millionairess (1935), and Geneva (1938) have been seen as marking a decline. His last significant play, In Good King Charles Golden Days has, according to St. John Ervine,[13] passages that are equal to Shaw's major works. Saint Joan is a 1923 play by G. Bernard Shaw that he wrote shortly after the Roman Catholic Church canonized Joan of Arc. ... For other uses, see Joan of Arc (disambiguation). ... The Apple Cart: A Political Extravaganza is a 1929 play by George Bernard Shaw. ...


Shaw's published plays come with lengthy prefaces. These tend to be more about Shaw's opinions on the issues addressed by the plays than about the plays themselves. Often his prefaces are longer than the plays themselves. For example, the Penguin Books edition of his one-act The Shewing-up Of Blanco Posnet (1909) has a 67-page preface for the 29-page playscript. It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ...

George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. ... Widowers Houses (1892) was the first play by George Bernard Shaw, the famous Irish playwright and Nobel Prize winner. ... The Philanderer is an 1898 play by G. Bernard Shaw. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Arms and the Man is a comedy by G. Bernard Shaw. ... Candida is a comedy by playwright George Bernard Shaw. ... The Man of Destiny is an 1897 play by George Bernard Shaw. ... You Never Can Tell is an 1899 play by George Bernard Shaw. ... The Devils Disciple is the only full-length play by G. Bernard Shaw set in America. ... Caesar and Cleopatra is a 1901 play by George Bernard Shaw. ... Captain Brassbounds Conversion (1900) is a play by George Bernard Shaw. ... Cover of the first edition, 1886. ... Man and Superman is a 1903 play in four acts by G. Bernard Shaw. ... Man and Superman is a 1903 play in four acts by G. Bernard Shaw. ... John Bulls Other Island is a comedy about Ireland, written by George Bernard Shaw in 1904. ... Major Barbara is a 1905 three act play by George Bernard Shaw that was first produced at the Royal Court Theatre in London. ... The Doctors Dilemma is a play by George Bernard Shaw first staged in 1906. ... Misalliance is a play written in 1909-1910 by the Nobel Prize-winning playwright G. Bernard Shaw. ... Fannys First Play is a 1911 play by George Bernard Shaw. ... Androcles and the Lion is a 1912 play written by George Bernard Shaw. ... Play cover, depicting Mrs Campbell as Eliza Pygmalion (1913) is a play by George Bernard Shaw based on Ovids tale of Pygmalion. ... In the words of AC Ward in his introduction to Bernard Shaw’s play Heartbreak House ‘the prime theme… was, that cultured, leisured Europe (words used at the beginning of the Preface) was drifting to destruction because those in a position to guide it to safety had failed to learn... Back to Methuselah (A Metabiological Pentateuch) is a 1921 series of five plays and a preface by George Bernard Shaw. ... Saint Joan is a 1923 play by G. Bernard Shaw that he wrote shortly after the Roman Catholic Church canonized Joan of Arc. ... The Apple Cart: A Political Extravaganza is a 1929 play by George Bernard Shaw. ... The Millionairess is a 1960 romantic comedy film starring Peter Sellers and Sophia Loren set in London. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

Polemical writing

In a letter to Henry James dated 17 January, 1909, Shaw said: For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ...

“I, as a Socialist, have had to preach, as much as anyone, the enormous power of the environment. We can change it; we must change it; there is absolutely no other sense in life than the task of changing it. What is the use of writing plays, what is the use of writing anything, if there is not a will which finally moulds chaos itself into a race of gods.”[14]

Thus he viewed writing as a way to further his humanitarian and political agendas. His works were very popular because of their comedic content, but the public tended to disregard his messages and enjoy his work as pure entertainment. He was acutely aware of that. His preface to Heartbreak House (1919) attributes the rejection to the need of post-World War I audiences for frivolities, after four long years of grim privation, more than to their inborn distaste of instruction. His crusading nature led him to adopt and tenaciously hold a variety of causes, which he furthered with fierce intensity, heedless of opposition and ridicule. For example, Common Sense about the War (1914) lays out Shaw's strong objections at the onset of World War I. His stance ran counter to public sentiment and cost him dearly at the box-office, but he never compromised. Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ...


Shaw joined in the public’s hysterical attack on vaccination against smallpox,[15] a dire disease that might have killed him when he contracted it in 1881. In the preface to “Doctor’s Dilemma” he made it plain he regarded traditional medical treatment as dangerous quackery that should be replaced with sound public sanitation, good personal hygiene and diets devoid of meat. Shaw became a vegetarian while he was twenty-five, after hearing a lecture by H. F. Lester.[16] In 1901, remembering the experience, he said "I was a cannibal for twenty-five years. For the rest I have been a vegetarian."[17] As a staunch vegetarian, he was firmly anti-vivisectionist and antagonistic to cruel sports for the balance of his life. The belief in the immorality of eating animals was one of the Fabian causes near his heart and is frequently a topic in his plays and prefaces. His position, succinctly stated, was "A man of my spiritual intensity does not eat corpses."[18] A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Pietro Longhi: The Charlatan, 1757 Quackery is a derogatory term used to describe questionable medical practices. ... E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ...


As well as plays and prefaces, Shaw wrote long political treatises, such as Fabian Essays in Socialism (1889), [19] and The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism (1912),[20], a 495-page book detailing all aspects of socialistic theory as Shaw interpreted it. Excerpts of the latter were republished in 1928 as Socialism and Liberty,[21] Late in his life he wrote another guide to political issues, Everybody's Political What's What (1944).[22] The Intelligent Womans Guide to Socialism and Capitalism is a short book with a deliberately cute title, written by the famous Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw. ...


Friends and correspondents

Shaw corresponded with an array of people, many of them well-known. His letters to and from Mrs. Patrick Campbell were adapted for the stage by Jerome Kilty as Dear Liar: A Comedy of Letters; as was his correspondence with the poet Lord Alfred 'Bosie' Douglas (the intimate friend of Oscar Wilde), into the drama Bernard and Bosie: A Most Unlikely Friendship by Anthony Wynn. His letters to the prominent actress, Ellen Terry,[23] to the boxer Gene Tunney,[24] and to H.G. Wells,[25] have also been published. Eventually the volume of his correspondence became insupportable, as can be inferred from apologetic letters written by assistants.[26] Mrs Patrick Campbell (February 9, 1865 - April 9, 1940) was a British stage actress, the most successful of her generation. ... Jerome Kilty (born 1922, Pala Indian Reservation, California) is an actor and playwright. ... Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas (22 October 1870 – 20 March 1945) was a poet, a translator and a prose writer, better known as the intimate friend and lover of the writer Oscar Wilde. ... Anthony Wynn Anthony Wynn (born 1962, Eugene, Oregon) is an American author and playwright. ... Dame Ellen Terry, GBE (February 27, 1848 – July 21, 1928) was an English stage actress. ... James Joseph Gene Tunney (May 25, 1897 – November 7, 1978) was the heavyweight boxing champion from 1926-28 who defeated Jack Dempsey in 1926 and 1927 in what became known as The Long Count Fight and retired undefeated after winning against Tom Heeney in 1928. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ...


Shaw campaigned against the executions of the rebel leaders of the Easter Rising, and he became a personal friend of the Cork-born IRA leader Michael Collins, whom he invited to his home for dinner while Collins was negotiating the Anglo-Irish Treaty with Lloyd George in London. After Collins's assassination in 1922, Shaw sent a personal message of condolence to one of Collins's sisters. He had an enduring friendship with G. K. Chesterton, the Roman Catholic-convert British writer.[27] Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Cork Code: C (CK proposed) Area: 7,457 km² Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ... Following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921, the Irish Republican Army in the 26 counties that were to become the Irish Free State split between supporters and opponents of the Treaty. ... Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Another friend was the composer Edward Elgar. The latter dedicated one of his late works, Severn Suite, to Shaw; and Shaw exerted himself (eventually with success) to persuade the BBC to commission from Elgar a third symphony, though this piece remained incomplete at Elgar's death. Shaw's correspondence with the motion picture producer Gabriel Pascal, who was the first to successfully bring Shaw's plays to the screen and who later tried to put into motion a musical adaptation of Pygmalion, but died before he could realize it, is published in a book titled Bernard Shaw and Gabriel Pascal (ISBN 0-8020-3002-5). A stage play based on a book by Hugh Whitemore, The Best of Friends, provides a window on the friendships of Dame Laurentia McLachlan, OSB (late Abbess of Stanbrook) with Sir Sydney Cockerell and Shaw through adaptations from their letters and writings. A composer is a person who writes music. ... Sir Edward Elgar Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English Romantic composer. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gabriel Pascal (June 4, 1894 – July 6, 1954) was a film producer and director. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sir Sydney Carlyle Cockerell (1867-1962) was a British museum curator, collector, and well-connected figure in the literary world. ...


Socialism and political beliefs

Shaw asserted each social class strove to serve its own ends with the upper and middle classes winners in the struggle and the working class the loser. He excoriated the democratic system of his time, saying workers, ruthlessly exploited by greedy employers, lived in abject poverty and were too ignorant and apathetic to vote intelligently.


In 1882, influenced by Henry George's views on land nationalization, Shaw concluded private ownership of land and its exploitation for personal profit was a form of theft and advocated equitable distribution of land and natural resources and their control by governments intent on promoting the commonweal. Shaw believed income for individuals should come solely from the sale of their own labour and that poverty could be eliminated by giving equal pay to everyone. This ideology led Shaw to apply for membership the Social Democratic Federation (SDF), led by H. M. Hyndman who introduced him to the works of Karl Marx. Shaw never joined the SDF, which favored reform by outright revolution, and he never was a Marxist. Instead, in 1884, he helped found the Fabian Society, which accorded with his view that reform should be gradual and induced by peaceful means rather than by outright revolution. He was an active Fabian, writing many of their pamphlets,[28] lecturing and supplying money to set up the independent socialist journal The New Age. As a Fabian he participated in the formation of the Labour Party. The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism[20] provides a clear statement of his socialistic views. As evinced in plays like Major Barbara and Pygmalion, class struggle is a motif in much of Shaw's writing. Henry George Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist and the most influential proponent of the Single Tax on land. ... Commonweal is a New York based American journal of opinion edited and managed by lay Catholics. ... This article is about the British political party. ... Henry Mayers Hyndman (March 7, 1842 - November 20, 1921) was a British writer and politician, and the founder of the Social Democratic Federation. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... The Fabian Society is a British socialist intellectual movement, whose purpose is to advance the socialist cause by gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary means. ... The New Age was a British literary magazine, noted for its wide influence under the editorship from 1907 to 1922 of A. R. Orage. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Intelligent Womans Guide to Socialism and Capitalism is a short book with a deliberately cute title, written by the famous Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw. ...


After visiting the USSR in the 1930s and meeting Stalin, Shaw became an ardent supporter of the Stalinist USSR. The preface to his play On the Rocks (1933) is primarily an effort to justify the pogroms conducted by the OGPU. In an open letter to the Manchester Guardian, he dismisses stories of a Soviet famine as slanderous and calls reports of its exploited workers falsehoods.[29] Asked why he did not stay permanently in the Soviet 'earthly paradise', Shaw jokingly explained that England was a hell and he was a small devil. He wrote a defense of Stalin's espousal of Lysenkoism, in a letter printed in the January 1949 issue of Labour Monthly.[30] Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Soviet poster of the 1920s: The GPU strikes on the head the counter-revolutionary saboteur State Political Directorate was the secret police of the RSFSR and USSR until 1934. ... The Guardian was also the name of a U.S. television series. ... Child victim of the Holodomor Map of Ukrainian SRR in 1932-1933 (7 Oblast`s (Regions) + Moldavian ASSR) administrative borders given in light grey The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Shaw's legacy

In his old age, Shaw was a household name in both Britain and Ireland, and was famed throughout the world. His ironic wit endowed English with the adjective "Shavian" to characterize observations like "My way of joking is to tell the truth. It's the funniest joke in the world."[31] Concerned about the vagaries of English spelling, he willed a portion of his wealth (probated at £367,233 13s)[32] to fund the creation of a new phonemic alphabet for the English language. The money available was insufficient to support the project, so it was neglected for a time. That changed when his estate began earning significant royalties from the rights to Pygmalion once My Fair Lady—a musical adapted from the play by Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe—became a hit. However, the Public Trustee found grounds to challenge the will as being badly worded.[33] In the end an out-of-court settlement granted only £8600 for promoting the new alphabet, which is now called the Shavian alphabet. The National Gallery of Ireland, RADA and the British Museum all received substantial bequests. His home, now called Shaw's Corner, in the small village of Ayot St Lawrence, Hertfordshire is now a National Trust property, open to the public. The Shaw Theatre, Euston Road, London, opened in 1971, was named in his honour. Near the Shaw Theatre entrance opposite the new British Library there is a contemporary statue, Saint Joan, comemorating the writer. His birthplace on Synge Street in Dublin now houses a small Shaw Museum. In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... My Fair Lady is a musical with a book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe, based on George Bernard Shaws Pygmalion. ... Alan Jay Lerner (August 31, 1918 – June 14, 1986) was an American Broadway lyricist and librettist. ... Frederic Loewe, an Austrian-American composer (June 10, 1901 - February 14, 1988) worked with lyricist Alan J. Lerner in musical theater. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The National Gallery of Ireland houses the Irish national collection of Irish and European art. ... Rada is the term for council or assembly borrowed by Polish from Middle High German Rat (council) and later passed into Czech, Ukrainian, and Belarusian languages. ... The British Museum in London, England is a museum of human history and culture. ... Shaws Corner was the home of playwright George Bernard Shaw from 1906 until his death in 1950. ... Ayot St Lawrence is a small village in Hertfordshire, between Harpenden and Welwyn. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... The standard of the National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as The National Trust, is a British preservation organization. ... Euston Road is an important thoroughfare in central London. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ...


The Shaw Festival, an annual theater festival in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, began as an eight week run of Don Juan in Hell (as the long third act dream sequence of Man And Superman is called when staged alone) and Candida in 1962, and has grown into an annual festival with over 800 performances a year, dedicated to producing the works of Shaw and his contemporaries. The Shaw Festival is a major Canadian theatre festival in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, the second largest repertory theatre company in North America. ... Categories: Canada geography stubs | Ontario communities | Coastal towns of Canada ... Man and Superman is a 1903 play in four acts by G. Bernard Shaw. ... Candida is a comedy by playwright George Bernard Shaw. ...


Works available online

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Novels

The full texts of Cashel Byron's Profession (London, The Modern Press, 1886), An Unsocial Socialist (London, Swan Sonnenschein, Lowrey & Co., 1887), The Irrational Knot, Being the Second Novel of his Nonage (revised, New York, Brentano’s, 1905) and Love Among the Artists (Brentano's, 1921) are available online.[4] [5] Cover from Penguins 1979 edition. ...


Drama

  • Fanny's First Play (1911)[29]
  • Overruled (1912)[30]
  • Androcles and the Lion (1912)[31]
  • Pygmalion (1912-13)[32]
  • The Great Catherine (1913)[33]
  • The Inca of Perusalem (1915) [34]
  • O'Flaherty VC (1915)[35]
  • Augustus Does His Bit (1916)[36]
  • Heartbreak House (1919)[37]
  • Back to Methuselah (1921)[38]
    • In the Beginning
    • The Gospel of the Brothers Barnabas
    • The Thing Happens
    • Tragedy of an Elderly Gentleman
    • As Far as Thought Can Reach
  • Saint Joan (1923)[39]
  • The Apple Cart (1929)[40]
  • Too True To Be Good (1931)[41]
  • On the Rocks (1933)[42]
  • The Six of Calais (1934)[43]
  • The Simpleton of the Unexpected Isles (1934)[44]
  • The Shewing Up of Blanco Posnet (1909)[45]
  • The Millionairess (1936)[46]
  • Geneva (1938)[47]
  • In Good King Charles' Golden Days (1939)[48]
  • Buoyant Billions (1947)[49]
  • Shakes versus Shav (1949)[50]

Widowers Houses (1892) was the first play by George Bernard Shaw, the famous Irish playwright and Nobel Prize winner. ... The Philanderer is an 1898 play by G. Bernard Shaw. ... Mrs Warrens Profession is a play written by G. Bernard Shaw in 1893. ... Arms and the Man is a comedy by G. Bernard Shaw. ... Candida is a comedy by playwright George Bernard Shaw. ... The Man of Destiny is an 1897 play by George Bernard Shaw. ... You Never Can Tell is an 1899 play by George Bernard Shaw. ... The Devils Disciple is the only full-length play by G. Bernard Shaw set in America. ... Caesar and Cleopatra is a 1901 play by George Bernard Shaw. ... Captain Brassbounds Conversion (1900) is a play by George Bernard Shaw. ... Cover of the first edition, 1886. ... Man and Superman is a 1903 play in four acts by G. Bernard Shaw. ... John Bulls Other Island is a comedy about Ireland, written by George Bernard Shaw in 1904. ... Major Barbara is a 1905 three act play by G. Bernard Shaw that was first produced at the Royal Court Theatre in London. ... The Doctors Dilemma is a play by George Bernard Shaw first staged in 1906. ... Misalliance is a play written in 1909-1910 by the Nobel Prize-winning playwright G. Bernard Shaw. ... Fannys First Play is a 1911 play by George Bernard Shaw. ... Androcles and the Lion is a 1912 play written by George Bernard Shaw. ... Play cover, depicting Mrs Campbell as Eliza Pygmalion (1913) is a play by George Bernard Shaw based on Ovids tale of Pygmalion. ... In the words of AC Ward in his introduction to Bernard Shaw’s play Heartbreak House ‘the prime theme… was, that cultured, leisured Europe (words used at the beginning of the Preface) was drifting to destruction because those in a position to guide it to safety had failed to learn... Back to Methuselah (A Metabiological Pentateuch) is a 1921 series of five plays and a preface by George Bernard Shaw. ... Saint Joan is a 1923 play by G. Bernard Shaw that he wrote shortly after the Roman Catholic Church canonized Joan of Arc. ... The Apple Cart: A Political Extravaganza is a 1929 play by George Bernard Shaw. ...

Essays

The Intelligent Womans Guide to Socialism and Capitalism is a short book with a deliberately cute title, written by the famous Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw. ...

Debate

  • Shaw V. Chesterton, a debate between George Bernard Shaw and G.K. Chesterton 2000 Third Way Publications Ltd. ISBN 0-9535077-7-7[58]

References and footnotes

  1. ^ George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Anglo-Irish playwright, critic. Letter, August 7, 1919, to Thomas Demetrius O'Bolger. "Biographers' Blunders Corrected," Sixteen Self Sketches, Constable (1949)
  2. ^ "Treatise on Parents and Children". online-literature.com. Retrieved on 3 June 2007.
  3. ^ "George Bernard Shaw". britainunlimited.com. Retrieved on 3 June 2007.
  4. ^ a b .Mazer, Cary M. "Bernard Shaw: a Brief Biography". english.upenn.edu. Retrieved on 3 June, 2007.
  5. ^ Morrow, Laurie.The Playwright in Spite of Himself". The World & I. Retrieved on 3 June 2007.
  6. ^ Holroyd, Michael. "Bernard Shaw" v.3, p. 509 (Random House, NY 1991) ISBN 0-394-57554
  7. ^ G.B. Shaw's Epistolomania. Hesperus Press. Retrieved on 3 June, 2007.
  8. ^ Pharand, Michael (2004). Chronology of (Shaw's) Works. International Shaw Society. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  9. ^ "George Bernard Shaw (1856 - 1950)". unitytheatre.org.uk. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  10. ^ Cox, Gareth"Shaw and the Don". Limerick Philosophical Society, 1993. Retrieved on 3 June, 2007.
  11. ^ Thuleen, Nancy. "Ein deutsches Requiem: (Mis)conceptions of the Mass". Music 415, University of Wisconsin, 1998. Retrieved on 3 June, 2007.
  12. ^ Shaw's Music, Bodley Head Ltd, London, 1981. ISBN 0-3703-0249-4
  13. ^ St. John Ervine, Bernard Shaw: His Life, Work and Friends (London: Constable and Company Limited, 1949), p. 383
  14. ^ "George Bernard Shaw". spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. Retrieved on 3 June, 2007.
  15. ^ www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/smallpox/sp_resistance.html<Smallpox Resistance>. Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  16. ^ Archibald Henderson, George Bernard Shaw: Man of the Century (N.Y.: Appleton-Century-Crofts Inc., 1956)
  17. ^ Who I Am, and What I Think, Sixteen Self Sketches,' Constable (1949)
  18. ^ Hesketh Pearson, Bernard Shaw: His Life and Personality, ch. 9 ((Atheneum Press, 1963)
  19. ^ "[1]", Fabian Essays in Socialism by George Bernard Shaw; H. G. Wilshire, eds. The Humboldt Publishing Co. New York, 1891. First edition: 1889 Retrieved on 12 September, 2007
  20. ^ a b Shaw,Bernard, Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Communism, (Bretano's Publishers, New York 1928)
  21. ^ www.marxists.org/reference/archive/shaw/works/guide2.htm<Socialism and Liberty. Retrieved on 2007-07-13..
  22. ^ Everybody's Political What's What, Constable, 1944. ASIN B000O6EXWG
  23. ^ Ellen Terry and Bernard Shaw : A Correspondence / The Shaw - Terry Letters : A Romantic Correspondence, (Christopher St. John, Editor)
  24. ^ Collier’s Magazine. 23 June 1951.
  25. ^ Bernard Shaw and H.G. Wells (Selected Correspondence of Bernard Shaw) (J. Percy Smith, Editor)
  26. ^ "Mr. Shaw regrets". Boston College Magazine, 2005. Retrieved on 3 June, 2007.
  27. ^ The e-text of their famed debate, Shaw V. Chesterton is available, as is a book, Shaw V. Chesterton, a debate between George Bernard Shaw and G.K. Chesterton.
  28. ^ Fabian Essays in Socialism by George Bernard Shaw; H. G. Wilshire, eds., The Humboldt Publishing Co. New York, 1891.[2]
  29. ^ Shaw, George Bernard, [and twenty others]. "Social Conditions in Russia". Letters to the Editor, The Manchester Guardian, 2 March 1933. Retrieved on 3 June, 2007.
  30. ^ "The Lysenko Muddle". Labour Monthly, January, 1949. Retrieved on 3 June, 2007.
  31. ^ "[3]". John Bull's Other Island (1907).
  32. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National biography
  33. ^ "Public Trustee". Offices of Court Funds.

is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

For the town of Chesterton in Cambridgeshire, see Chesterton (Cambridge). ... Michael Holroyd (born August 27, 1935) is a biographer, born in London and educated at Eton College. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Shaw, George Bernard
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Irish playwright, critic, and political activist
DATE OF BIRTH 26 July, 1856
PLACE OF BIRTH Dublin, Ireland
DATE OF DEATH November 2, 1950
PLACE OF DEATH Ayot St Lawrence

  Results from FactBites:
 
George Bernard Shaw - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2458 words)
Shaw campaigned against the executions of the rebel leaders of the Easter Rising, and he became a personal friend of the Cork-born IRA leader Michael Collins, whom he invited to his home for dinner while Collins was negotiating the Anglo-Irish Treaty with Lloyd-George in London.
Shaw held that each class worked towards its own ends, and that those from the upper echelons had won the struggle; for him, the working class had failed in promoting their interests effectively, making Shaw highly critical of the democratic system of his day.
Shaw was a motorcyclist, and gave TE Lawrence a Brough Superior.
George Bernard Shaw - LoveToKnow 1911 (857 words)
GEORGE BERNARD SHAW (1856-), British dramatist and publicist, was born in Dublin on the 26th of July 1856.
His father, George Carr Shaw, was a retired civil servant, the younger son of Bernard Shaw, high sheriff of Kilkenny.
Shaw joined the Fabian Society in 1884, a year after its formation, and was active in socialistic propaganda, both as a street orator and as a pamphleteer.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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