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Encyclopedia > George Berkeley
Western Philosophy
18th century philosophy

Name 17th-century Western philosophy is conventionally seen as being dominated by the coming of symbolic mathematics and rationalism to philosophy, many of the most noted philosophers were also mathematicians. ... Portrait of George (Bishop) Berkeley This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

George Berkeley

Birth

12 March 1685 is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ...

Death

14 January 1753 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

School/tradition

Idealism, Empiricism This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ...

Main interests

Metaphysics, Epistemology, Language, Mathematics, Perception Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ...

Notable ideas

Subjective Idealism, The Master Argument Subjective idealism is a theory in the philosophy of perception. ... The Master Argument refers to the following argument originally made by George Berkeley: it is impossible to conceive of an object existing without the mind, because the second you try to do so, the object is in your mind. ...

Influences

John Locke For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ...

Influenced

David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Arthur Schopenhauer This article is about the philosopher. ... Kant redirects here. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher who believed that the will to live is the fundamental reality and that this will, being a constant striving, is insatiable and ultimately yields only suffering. ...

For the second husband of Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, see George Berkeley (MP).

George Berkeley (pronounced /ˈbɑrkli/, like Bark-Lee) (12 March 168514 January 1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley, was an Irish philosopher a primary philosophical achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others). This theory, summed up in his dictum, "Esse est percipi" ("To be is to be perceived"), contends that individuals can only directly know sensations and ideas of objects, not abstractions such as "matter." His most widely-read works are A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) and Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous (1713), in which the characters Philonous and Hylas represent Berkeley himself and his contemporary John Locke. In 1734 he published The Analyst, a critique of the foundations of calculus, which was influential in the development of mathematics. Henrietta Howard (1688 - July 26, 1767), was a mistress of King George II of Great Britain. ... The Honourable George Berkeley (after 1680 - 29 October 1746) was a member of Parliament for Dover in 1720 and in the following two parliaments, and for Hedon, Yorkshire in 1734. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Immaterialism is the theory propounded by Bishop Berkeley in the 18th century which holds that there are no material objects, only minds and ideas in those minds. ... Subjective idealism is a theory in the philosophy of perception. ... For the philosophical movement, see Existentialism. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... In philosophy, an object is a thing, an entity, or a being. ... abstraction in general. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge Wikisource has original text related to this article: A Treatise concerning the principles of human knowledge A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (Commonly called Treatise when referring to Berkeleys works) is a 1710 work by the Irish Empiricist philosopher George... The most important concepts in the Three Dialogues are 1)Perceptual Relativity, 2)Conceivability (master) Argument and 3) Berkeleys phenominalism. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... The Analyst, subtitled A DISCOURSE Addressed to an Infidel Mathematician, is a book published by George Berkeley in 1734. ... For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). ...


Berkeley's influence is also reflected in the institutions of education named in his honour. Both University of California, Berkeley and the city that grew up around the university, were named after him, although the pronunciation has evolved to suit American English. The naming was suggested in 1866 by a trustee of the then College of California, Frederick Billings. Billings was inspired by Berkeley's Verses on the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America, particularly the final stanza: "Westward the course of empire takes its way; The first four Acts already past, A fifth shall close the Drama with the day; Time's noblest offspring is the last." A residential college in Yale University also bears Berkeley's name, as does a reading room of the Library at Trinity College, Dublin. Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... The College of California was the predecessor of the University of California. ... Yale redirects here. ... For other institutions named Trinity College, see Trinity College. ...

Contents

Life

Berkeley was born in Kilcrene, County Kilkenny and grew up at Dysart Castle, near Thomastown, Ireland, the eldest son of William Berkeley, a cadet of the noble family of Berkeley. He was educated at Kilkenny College and attended Trinity College, Dublin, completing a Master's degree in 1707. He remained at Trinity College after completion of his degree as a tutor and Greek lecturer. His earliest publication was a mathematical one; but the first which brought him into notice was his Essay towards a New Theory of Vision, published in 1709. Though giving rise to much controversy at the time, its conclusions are now accepted as an established part of the theory of optics. The following publication to appear was the Treatise concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge in 1710, which was followed in 1713 by Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous, in which he propounded his system of philosophy, the leading principle of which is that the world as represented to our senses depends for its existence, as such, on being perceived. Of this theory the Principles gives the exposition and the Dialogues the defence. One of his main objects was to combat the prevailing materialism of the time. The theory was largely received with ridicule; while even those, such as Samuel Clarke and William Whiston, who did acknowledge his "extraordinary genius," were nevertheless convinced that his first principles were false. Shortly afterwards he visited England, and was received into the circle of Addison, Pope, and Steele. In the period between 1714 and 1720 he interspersed his academic endeavours with periods of extensive travel in Europe. In 1721, he took Holy Orders in the Church of Ireland, earning his doctorate in divinity, and once again chose to remain at Trinity College Dublin lecturing this time in Divinity and in Hebrew. In 1724 he was made Dean of Derry. Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Kilkenny Code: KK Area: 2,061 km² Population (2006) 87,394 Website: www. ... This article is about the town in Ireland. ... KCK crest Founded in 1538, Kilkenny College or KCK is a Church of Ireland, fee-paying co-educational secondary school located in the South-Eastern region of Ireland in Kilkenny. ... For other institutions named Trinity College, see Trinity College. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... Samuel Clarke. ... William Whiston William Whiston (December 9, 1667 - August 22, 1752), English divine and mathematician, was born at Norton in Leicestershire, of which village his father was rector. ... Joseph Addison, the Kit-cat portrait, circa 1703–1712, by Godfrey Kneller. ... For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... Sir Richard Steele (bap. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Catholic deacon... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... For other places with similar names, see Derry (disambiguation) and Londonderry (disambiguation). ...


In 1725 he formed the project of founding a college in Bermuda for training ministers for the colonies, and missionaries to the Indians, in pursuit of which he gave up his deanery with its income of £1100. In 1728 he married Anne Forster, daughter of the Lord Chief Justice of Ireland. He then went to America on a salary of £100. He landed near Newport, Rhode Island where he bought a plantation — the famous "Whitehall." On October 4, 1730, Berkeley purchased "a Negro man named Philip aged Fourteen years or thereabout." A few days later he purchased "a negro man named Edward aged twenty years or thereabouts." On June 11, 1731, "Dean Berkeley baptized three of his negroes, 'Philip, Anthony, and Agnes Berkeley'" (The bills of sale can be found in the British Museum (Ms. 39316)[1] Newport, Rhode Island Newport is a city in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Providence. ... Whitehall Museum House is the farmhouse modified by Dean George Berkeley, when he lived in the northern section of Newport, Rhode Island that comprises present-day Middletown, Rhode Island in 1729-31, while planning to open his planned St Pauls College on Bermuda. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ...


Berkeley's sermons explained to the colonists why Christianity supported slavery, and hence slaves should become baptized Christians: "It would be of advantage to their [slave masters'] affairs to have slaves who should 'obey in all things their masters according to the flesh, not with eye-service as men-pleasers, but in singleness of heart, as fearing God;' that gospel liberty consists with temporal servitude; and that their slaves would only become better slaves by being Christian"[2]


He lived at the plantation while he waited for funds for his college to arrive. The funds, however, were not forthcoming and in 1732 he returned to London. In 1734, he was appointed Bishop of Cloyne. Soon afterwards he published Alciphron, or The Minute Philosopher, directed against both Shaftesbury and Bernard de Mandeville, and in 1734–37 The Querist. His last publications were Siris, a treatise on the medicinal virtues of tar-water, and Further Thoughts on Tar-water. The Diocese of Cloyne was established in the year A.D. 580. ... Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (February 26, 1671 – February 4, 1713), was an English politician, philosopher and writer. ... Bernard de Mandeville (1670 – 1733), was a philosopher, political economist and satirist. ...


While living on London's Saville Street, he took part in the efforts to create a home for the city's abandoned children. The Foundling Hospital was founded by Royal Charter in 1739 and Berkeley is listed as one of its original governors. The Foundling Hospital, London, was founded in 1739 by the philanthropic sea captain Thomas Coram. ... For the ship of the same name, see Royal Charter (ship). ...


He remained at Cloyne until 1752, when he retired and went to Oxford to live with his son. His affectionate disposition and genial manners made him much loved and held in warm regard by many of his contemporaries. He is buried in Christ Church Cathedral. Christ Church Cathedral spire. ...


Contributions to philosophy

Berkeley's theorizing was empiricism at its most extreme. In his first publication, regarding vision, he stated that we only really perceive two spatial dimensions, height and width. The third spatial dimension of depth is not directly known; rather, it is inferred by the mind. As a young man, Berkeley theorized that individuals cannot know if an object is, individuals can only know if an object is perceived by a mind. He stated that individuals cannot think or talk about an object's being but rather think or talk about an object's being perceived by someone; individuals cannot know any "real" object or matter "behind" the object as they perceive it, which "causes" their perceptions. He thus concludes that all that individuals know about an object is their perception of it. In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ...


Under his empiricism, the object individuals perceive is the only object that they know and experience. If individuals need to speak at all of the "real" or "material" object, the latter in particular being a confused term which Berkeley sought to dispose of, it is this perceived object to which all such names should exclusively refer.


This raises the question whether this perceived object is "objective" in the sense of being "the same" for fellow humans, in fact if even the concept of other human beings, beyond individual perception of them, is valid. Berkeley argues that since an individual experiences other humans in the way they speak to him —something which is not originating from any activity of his own —and since they learn that their view of the world is consistent with his, he can believe in their existence and in the world being identical or similar for everyone.


It follows that:

  1. Any knowledge of the empirical world is to be obtained only through direct perception.
  2. Error comes about through thinking about what individuals perceive.
  3. Knowledge of the empirical world of people and things and actions around them may be purified and perfected merely by stripping away all thought, and with it language, from their pure perceptions.

From this it follows that:

  1. The ideal form of scientific knowledge is to be obtained by pursuing pure de-intellectualized perceptions.
  2. If individuals would pursue these, we would be able to obtain the deepest insights into the natural world and the world of human thought and action which is available to man.
  3. The goal of all science, therefore, is to de-intellectualize or de-conceptualize, and thereby purify, human perceptions.

Theologically, one consequence of Berkeley's views is that they require God to be present as an immediate cause of all our experiences. God is not the distant engineer of Newtonian machinery that in the fullness of time led to the growth of a tree in the university's quadrangle. Rather, my perception of the tree is an idea that God's mind has produced in mine, and the tree continues to exist in the Quad when "nobody" is there simply because God is an infinite mind that perceives all. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ...


The philosophy of David Hume concerning causality and objectivity is an elaboration of another aspect of Berkeley's philosophy. As Berkeley's thought progressed, his works took on a more Platonic character: Siris, in particular, displays an interest in highly abstruse and speculative metaphysics which is not to be found in the earlier works. However, A.A. Luce, the most eminent Berkeley scholar of the twentieth century, constantly stressed the continuity of Berkeley's philosophy. The fact that Berkeley returned to his major works throughout his life, issuing revised editions with only minor changes, also counts against any theory that attributes to him a significant volte-face. This article is about the philosopher. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Volte-face is a total change of position, as in policy or opinion; an about-face. ...


Over a century later Berkeley's thought experiment was summarised in a limerick and reply by Ronald Knox; This article is about the poetic form. ... Ronald Arbuthnott Knox (1888-1957) was an English theologian and crime writer. ...

There was a young man who said "God
Must find it exceedingly odd
To think that the tree
Should continue to be
When there's no one about in the quad."
"Dear Sir: Your astonishment's odd;
I am always about in the quad.
And that's why the tree
Will continue to be
Since observed by, Yours faithfully, God."

In reference to Berkeley's philosophy, Dr. Samuel Johnson kicked a heavy stone and exclaimed, "I refute it thus!" A philosophical empiricist might reply that the only thing that Dr. Johnson knew about the stone was what he saw with his eyes, felt with his foot, and heard with his ears. That is, the existence of the stone consisted exclusively of Dr. Johnson's perceptions. It might be possible that Dr. Johnson had actually kicked an unusually grey tree stump, or perhaps that a sudden attack of arthritis had flared up just when he was about to kick a random patch of grass with a painting of a rock. Whatever the stone really was, apart from the sensations that he felt and the ideas or mental pictures that he perceived, was completely unknown to him. The kicked stone existed, ultimately, as an idea in his mind, nothing more and nothing less. For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ...


Berkeley shows this in the Dialogues by saying we define an object by its primary and secondary qualities. He takes heat as an example of a secondary quality. If you put one hand in a bucket of cold water, and your other hand in a bucket of warm water, then put both hands in a bucket of lukewarm water, one of your hands is going to tell you that the water is cold and the other that the water is hot. Berkeley says that since two different objects (your hands) perceive the water to be hot and cold, then the heat is not a quality of the water. The primary/secondary quality distinction is a conceptual distinction in epistemology and metaphysics, concerning the nature of reality. ...


Primary qualities are treated the same way. Berkeley says that size is not a quality of an object because the size of the object depends on the distance between the observer and the object, or the size of observer. Since an object is a different size to different observers, then size is not a quality of the object. Berkeley refutes shape with a similar argument, then asks: if neither primary qualities nor secondary qualities are of the object, then how can we say that there is anything more than the qualities we observe?


Berkeley's Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge was published three years before the publication of Arthur Collier's Clavis Universalis, which made assertions similar to those of Berkeley. However, there seemed to have been no influence between the two writers. Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge Wikisource has original text related to this article: A Treatise concerning the principles of human knowledge A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (Commonly called Treatise when referring to Berkeleys works) is a 1710 work by the Irish Empiricist philosopher George... Arthur Collier (12th of October 1680 - 1732) was an English philosopher. ...


German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer once wrote of him: "Berkeley was, therefore, the first to treat the subjective starting-point really seriously and to demonstrate irrefutably its absolute necessity. He is the father of idealism…"[3]. Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher who believed that the will to live is the fundamental reality and that this will, being a constant striving, is insatiable and ultimately yields only suffering. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ...


There are problems with Berkeley's argument however. He uses the image of God's 'thoughts', that are actually what we are; he postulated that God does not directly see us; but he is thinking of us as an image in his mind, and is thus creating our very existence. Several philosophers disagreed with his theory, however none could prove him wrong because of one very simple reason; it is impossible to know for sure in a philosopher's world, or indeed the world of society, that God exists or not. Since nobody can physically prove that he exists, and nobody can prove that he doesn't, you are essentially heading for a corner-stone.


The Analyst controversy

In addition to his contributions to philosophy, Bishop Berkeley was also very influential in the development of mathematics, although in a rather indirect sense. In 1734 he published The Analyst, subtitled A DISCOURSE Addressed to an Infidel Mathematician. The infidel mathematician in question is believed to have been either Edmond Halley, or Isaac Newton himself, although the discourse would then have been posthumously addressed as Newton died in 1727. The Analyst represented a direct attack on the foundations and principles of calculus, and in particular the notion of fluxion or infinitesimal change which Newton and Leibniz had used to develop the calculus. The Analyst, subtitled A DISCOURSE Addressed to an Infidel Mathematician, is a book published by George Berkeley in 1734. ... // Portrait of Edmond Halley painted around 1687 by Thomas Murray (Royal Society, London) Portrait of Edmond Halley Bust of Edmond Halley in the Museum of the Royal Greenwich Observatory Edmond Halley FRS (sometimes Edmund; IPA: ) (November 8, 1656 – January 14, 1742) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). ... Method of Fluxions was a book by Isaac Newton. ... Infinitesimals have been used to express the idea of objects so small that there is no way to see them or to measure them. ... Leibniz redirects here. ...


Berkeley regarded his criticism of calculus as part of his broader campaign against the religious implications of Newtonian mechanics – as a defence of traditional Christianity against deism, which tends to distance God from His worshippers. Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ...


As a consequence of the resulting controversy, the foundations of calculus were rewritten in a much more formal and rigorous form using limits. It was not until 1966, with the publication of Abraham Robinson's book Non-standard Analysis, that the concept of the infinitesimal was made rigorous, thus giving an alternative way of overcoming the difficulties which Berkeley discovered in Newton's original approach. For the medical term see rigor (medicine) Rigour (American English: rigor) has a number of meanings in relation to intellectual life and discourse. ... Wikibooks Calculus has a page on the topic of Limits In mathematics, the concept of a limit is used to describe the behavior of a function as its argument either gets close to some point, or as it becomes arbitrarily large; or the behavior of a sequences elements as... Abraham Robinson Abraham Robinson (October 6, 1918 – April 11, 1974) was a mathematician who is most widely known for development of non-standard analysis, a mathematically rigorous system whereby infinitesimal and infinite numbers were incorporated into mathematics. ... Non-standard analysis is that branch of mathematics that formulates analysis using a rigorous notion of infinitesimal, where an element of an ordered field F is infinitesimal if and only if its absolute value is smaller than any element of F of the form 1/n, for n a natural...


See also

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Jorge Luis Borges short story has been widely translated. ... This is a list of people on the postage stamps of the Republic of Ireland, including the years when they appeared on a stamp. ...

Bibliography

Primary

Ewald, William B., ed., 1996. From Kant to Hilbert: A Source Book in the Foundations of Mathematics, 2 vols. Oxford Uni. Press.

  • 1707. Of Infinites, 16–19.
  • 1709. Letter to Samuel Molyneaux, 19–21.
  • 1721. De Motu, 37–54.
  • 1734. The Analyst, 60–92.

Secondary

  • This article incorporates public domain text from: Cousin, John William (1910). A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London, J.M. Dent & sons; New York, E.P. Dutton.
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: George Berkeley by Lisa Downing.
  • R.H. Nichols and F A. Wray (1935). The History of the Foundling Hospital. London: Oxford Univ. Press.  p. 349.
  • John Daniel Wild (1962). George Berkeley: a study of his life and philosophy. New York: Russell & Russell. 

The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature is a collection of biographies of writers by John W. Cousin, published around 1910. ... John Daniel Wild (April 10, 1902 – October 23, 1972) was a twentieth century American philosopher. ...

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ...

References

  1. ^ See George C. Mason, Annals of Trinity Church, 1698–1821, 51).
  2. ^ Berkeley, Proposal, 347. See his sermon in Newport, preached October, 1729.
  3. ^ Parerga and Paralipomena, Vol. I, "Fragments for the History of Philosophy," § 12
Persondata
NAME Berkeley, George
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Bishop Berkeley
SHORT DESCRIPTION philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH 12 March 1685
PLACE OF BIRTH County Kilkenny
DATE OF DEATH 14 January 1753
PLACE OF DEATH Oxford

  Results from FactBites:
 
George Berkeley [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] (7594 words)
Berkeley's objective in the New Theory of Vision was "to shew the manner wherein we perceive by sight the distance, magnitude, and situation of objects.
Berkeley explores the relationships between the objects of sight and touch by introducing the notions of minimum visibles and tangibles, the smallest points one actually can perceive by sight and touch, points which must be taken to be indivisible.
As Berkeley put it, "all the choir of heaven and furniture of the earth, in a word all those bodies which compose the mighty frame of the world, have not any subsistence without a mind, that their being is to be perceived or known" (PHK §6).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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