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Encyclopedia > George B. McClellan
George B. McClellan
December 3, 1826(1826-12-03)October 29, 1885 (aged 58)

George B. McClellan, portrait by Mathew Brady, 1861
Nickname Little Mac, the Young Napoleon
Place of birth Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Place of death Orange, New Jersey
Allegiance Union
Service/branch Union Army
Years of service 1846 – 1864
Rank Major General
Commands Army of the Potomac
Battles/wars Mexican-American War
American Civil War
Other work 1864 Democratic candidate for President, Governor of New Jersey
George Brinton McClellan

In office
January 15, 1878 – January 18, 1881
Preceded by Joseph D. Bedle
Succeeded by George C. Ludlow

Preceded by Stephen A. Douglas (Northern Democrats)
John C. Breckinridge (Southern Democrats)
Succeeded by Horatio Seymour

Born December 3, 1826(1826-12-03)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Died October 29, 1885 (aged 58)
Orange, New Jersey
Political party Democratic
Spouse Ellen Mary Marcy McClellan
Profession Soldier (General)

George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826October 29, 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly (November 1861 to March 1862) as the general-in-chief of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union. However, although McClellan was meticulous in his planning and preparations, these attributes may have hampered his ability to challenge aggressive opponents in a fast-moving battlefield environment. He chronically overestimated the strength of enemy units and was reluctant to apply principles of mass, frequently leaving large portions of his army unengaged at decisive points. is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... George McClellan (19th century photograph) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Mathew B. Brady, circa 1875 For other persons named Matthew Brady, see Matthew Brady (disambiguation). ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Map of City of Orange in Essex County The City of Orange Township is a City in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac; 105,445 Army of Northern Virginia; 90,500 Casualties 1,734 killed 8,062 wounded 6,053 missing/captured 3,286 killed 15,009 wounded 946 missing/captured Peninsula... Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, of September 1862 is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Jon Corzine 54th Governor of New Jersey; Incumbent Christine Christie Todd Whitman, the first female governor of New Jersey The Governor of New Jersey is the chief executive of the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... Jon Corzine 54th Governor of New Jersey; Incumbent Christine Christie Todd Whitman, the first female governor of New Jersey The Governor of New Jersey is the chief executive of the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Joseph Dorsett Bedle (January 5, 1821 - October 21, 1894) was a U.S. politician who served as Governor of New Jersey from 1875-1878. ... George Craig Ludlow (April 6, 1830 - December 18, 1900) was a U.S. politician who served as Governor of New Jersey from . ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major United States political parties. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States that the U.S. Democratic Party has nominated since its founding. ... The United States presidential election of 1864 saw Abraham Lincoln, the Republican running on a coalition ticket, win by a landslide over the Democratic candidate, George B. McClellan. ... Stephen Arnold Douglas (nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short but was considered by many a giant in politics) was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... Governor Horatio Seymour Horatio Seymour (May 31, 1810 - February 12, 1886) was an American politician. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Map of City of Orange in Essex County The City of Orange Township is a City in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major United States political parties. ... This article is about a military rank. ... George Brinton McClellan served as the 13th Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, from November 1, 1963 to August 14, 1967. ... George Brinton McClellan, Jr. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union...


McClellan's Peninsula Campaign in 1862 ended in failure, with retreats from attacks by General Robert E. Lee's smaller army and an unfulfilled plan to seize the Confederate capital of Richmond. His performance at the bloody Battle of Antietam blunted Lee's invasion of Maryland, but allowed Lee to eke out a precarious tactical draw and avoid destruction, despite being outnumbered. As a result, McClellan's leadership skills during battles were questioned by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, who eventually removed him from command, first as general-in-chief, then from the Army of the Potomac. Lincoln was famously quoted as saying, "If General McClellan does not want to use the army, I would like to borrow it for a time." Despite this, he was the most popular of that army's commanders with its soldiers, who felt that he had their morale and well-being as paramount concerns. McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...


General McClellan also failed to maintain the trust of Lincoln, and proved to be frustratingly insubordinate to the commander-in-chief. After he was relieved of command, McClellan became the unsuccessful Democratic nominee opposing Lincoln in the 1864 presidential election. His party had an anti-war platform, promising to end the war and negotiate with the Confederacy, which McClellan was forced to repudiate, damaging the effectiveness of his campaign. He served as the 24th Governor of New Jersey from 1878 to 1881. He eventually became a writer, defending his actions during the Peninsula Campaign and the Civil War. Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... This is a list of governors of New Jersey. ... Jon Corzine 54th Governor of New Jersey; Incumbent Christine Christie Todd Whitman, the first female governor of New Jersey The Governor of New Jersey is the chief executive of the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Although the majority of modern historians assess McClellan poorly as a battlefield general, a small but vocal faction of historians maintain that McClellan was indeed a highly capable commander, but his reputation suffered unfairly at the hands of pro-Lincoln partisans who needed a scapegoat for the Union's setbacks. Thus, his legacy defies easy categorization. After the war, Ulysses S. Grant was asked to evaluate McClellan as a general. He replied, "McClellan is to me one of the mysteries of the war."[1] Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ...

Contents

Early life and career

McClellan was born in Philadelphia, the son of a prominent surgical ophthalmologist, Dr. George McClellan, the founder of Jefferson Medical College. His mother was Elizabeth Steinmetz Brinton McClellan, daughter of a leading Pennsylvania family. The couple produced five children: a daughter, Frederica; then three sons, John, George, and Arthur; and a second daughter, Mary. McClellan first attended the University of Pennsylvania in 1840 at age 13, resigning himself to the study of law. After two years, he changed his goal to military service. With the assistance of his father's letter to President John Tyler, young George was accepted at the United States Military Academy in 1842, the academy having waived its normal minimum age of 16.[2] He graduated in 1846, second in his class of 59 cadets. He was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.[3] Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Thomas Jefferson University is an independent medical school, health professions and medical research institution. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... John Tyler, Jr. ... USMA redirects here. ... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ...


Mexican-American War

McClellan's first assignment was with a company of engineers formed at West Point, but he quickly received orders to sail for the Mexican-American War. He arrived near the mouth of the Rio Grande in October 1846, well prepared for action with a double-barreled shotgun, two pistols, a saber, a dress sword, and a Bowie knife. He complained that he had arrived too late to take any part in the American victory at Monterrey in September. During a temporary armistice in which the forces of Gen. Zachary Taylor awaited action, McClellan was stricken with dysentery and malaria, which kept him in the hospital for nearly a month. The malaria would recur in later years—he called it his "Mexican disease."[4] He served bravely as an engineering officer during the war, subjected to frequent enemy fire, and was brevetted to first lieutenant for Contreras and Churubusco and to captain for Chapultepec,[3] but his reputation for performing reconnaissance missions for Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott was overshadowed by the daring engineering captain, Robert E. Lee. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... “Río Bravo” redirects here. ... The Battle of Monterrey (September 21–September 23, 1846) was an engagement in the Mexican-American War in which General Pedro de Ampudia and the Mexican Army of the North managed to fight US troops to a standstill at the important fortress town of Monterrey. ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... First Lieutenant is a military rank. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Gabriel Valencia Strength 8,500 20,000 Casualties 60 killed and wounded 700 killed 843 surrendered Gen Frontera dead Gen Salas, Nicolas Mendoza captured The Battle of Contreras (also known, particularly in Mexico, as the Battle of... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Manuel Rincón Strength 8,497 2,641 Casualties 133 dead 865 wounded 40 missing 263 dead 1,261 captured 20 missing. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo #, Mariano Monterde School Commandant, Juan N. Perez commander Remants Leon Brigade) Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total Gen. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ...


Peacetime service

McClellan returned to West Point to command his engineering company, which was attached to the academy for the purpose of training cadets in engineering activities. He chafed at the boredom of peacetime garrison service, although he greatly enjoyed the social life. In June 1851 he was ordered to Fort Delaware, a masonry work under construction on an island in the Delaware River, 40 miles (64 km) downriver from Philadelphia. In March 1852 he was ordered to report to Capt. Randolph B. Marcy at Fort Smith, Arkansas, to serve as second-in-command on an expedition to discover the sources of the Red River. By June the expedition reached the source of the north fork of the river and Marcy named a small tributary McClellan's Creek. Upon their return to civilization on July 28, they were astonished to find that they had been given up for dead. A sensational story had reached the press, which McClellan blamed on "a set of scoundrels, who seek to keep up agitation on the frontier in order to get employment from the Govt. in one way or other," that the expedition had been ambushed by 2,000 Comanches and slaughtered to the last man.[5] Fort Delaware is a harbor defense facility built in 1859 on Pea Patch Island in the Delaware River. ... For the Delaware River in Kansas, see Delaware River (Kansas) The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. ... Randolph Barnes Marcy (April 9, 1812 - November 22, 1887) was a career officer in the United States Army, achieving the rank of Brigadier General before retiring in 1881. ... Fort Smith is a city situated at the junction of the Arkansas and Poteau rivers. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Red River is one of several rivers with that name, and of two rivers with that name in the United States. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Comanche (disambiguation). ...


In the fall of 1852, McClellan published a manual on bayonet tactics that he had translated from the original French. He also received an assignment to the Department of Texas, with orders to perform a survey of Texas rivers and harbors. In 1853 he participated in the Pacific Railroad surveys, ordered by Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, to select an appropriate route for the upcoming transcontinental railroad. McClellan surveyed the northern corridor along the 47th and 49th parallels from St. Paul to the Puget Sound. During this assignment, he demonstrated a tendency for insubordination toward senior political figures. Isaac Stevens, governor of the Washington Territory, became dissatisfied with McClellan's performance in scouting passes across the Cascade Range. (McClellan selected Yakima Pass without a thorough reconnaissance and refused the governor's order to lead a party through it in winter conditions, relying on faulty intelligence about the depth of snowpack in that area. He also neglected to find three greatly superior passes in the near vicinity, which would be the ones eventually used for railroads and interstate highways.) The governor ordered McClellan to turn over his expedition logbooks, but McClellan steadfastly refused, most likely because of embarrassing personal comments that he had made throughout.[6] The Pacific Railroad Surveys (1853-1855) explored possible routes for a transcontinental railroad across North America. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... This article refers to a railroad built in the United States between Omaha and Sacramento completed in 1869. ... State capitol building in Saint Paul Saint Paul is the capital and second-largest city of the state of Minnesota in the United States of America. ... Puget Sound For the university in this region, see University of Puget Sound. ... Isaac Ingalls Stevens (March 25, 1818 - September 1, 1862) was the first governor of Washington Territory, and served as a brigadier general in the Union Army during the Civil War until his death at the Battle of Chantilly. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Washington history | U.S. historical regions and territories ... “Cascades” redirects here. ...


Returning to the East, McClellan began courting Ellen Mary Marcy (1836 – 1915), the daughter of his former commander. Ellen, or Nelly, refused McClellan's first proposal of marriage, one of nine that she received from a variety of suitors, including his West Point friend, A.P. Hill. Ellen accepted Hill's proposal in 1856, but her family did not approve and he withdrew.[7] Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ...


In June 1854, McClellan was sent on a secret reconnaissance mission to Santo Domingo at the behest of Jefferson Davis. McClellan assessed local defensive capabilities for the secretary. (The information was not used until 1870, when President Ulysses S. Grant unsuccessfully attempted to annex the Dominican Republic.) Davis was beginning to treat McClellan almost as a protégé, and his next assignment was to assess the logistical readiness of various railroads in the United States, once again with an eye toward planning for the transcontinental railroad.[8] In March 1855, McClellan was promoted to captain and assigned to the 1st U.S. Cavalry regiment.[3] Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ...


Because of his political connections and his mastery of French, McClellan received the assignment to be an official observer of the European armies in the Crimean War in 1855. Traveling widely, and interacting with the highest military commands and royal families, McClellan observed the siege of Sevastopol. Upon his return to the United States in 1856 he requested assignment in Philadelphia to prepare his report, which contained a critical analysis of the siege and a lengthy description of the organization of the European armies. He also wrote a manual on cavalry tactics that was based on Russian cavalry regulations. A notable failure of the observers, including McClellan, was that they neglected to explain the importance of the emergence of rifled muskets in the Crimean War, and how that would require fundamental changes in tactics for the coming Civil War.[9] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Combatants Second French Empire, United Kingdom Russian Empire Commanders General François Canrobert (later replaced by General Pélissier) Lord Raglen Admiral Kornilov (later replaced by Admiral Pavel Nakhimov) Lt. ... The rifled musket is a long-barreled infantry weapon (to be distinguished from the shorter rifle carried by some light infantry units), usually percussion, that was common in the 19th century. ...


The Army adopted McClellan's cavalry manual and also his design for a saddle, the "McClellan Saddle", which he claimed to have seen used by Hussars in Prussia and Hungary. It became standard issue for as long as the U.S. horse cavalry existed and is currently used for ceremonies.[10] Tack is a term used to describe any of the various equipment and accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... The McCellan Saddle was that saddle designed by George B. McClellan, a career Army officer in the U.S. Army, and adopted by the Army in 1859. ... A British Hussar from the Crimean War Hussar (original Hungarian spelling: huszár, plural huszárok, Polish: Husaria) refers to a number of types of cavalry used throughout Europe since the 15th century. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ...


Civilian pursuits

George B. McClellan and Ellen Mary Marcy McClellan
George B. McClellan and Ellen Mary Marcy McClellan

McClellan resigned his commission January 16, 1857, and capitalizing on his experience with railroad assessment, became chief engineer and vice president of the Illinois Central Railroad and then president of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad in 1860. He performed well in both jobs, expanding the Illinois Central toward New Orleans and helping the Ohio and Mississippi recover from the Panic of 1857. But despite his successes and lucrative salary ($10,000 per year), he was frustrated with civilian employment and continued to study classical military strategy assiduously. During the Utah War against the Mormons, he considered rejoining the Army. He also considered service as a filibuster in support of Benito Juárez in Mexico.[11] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (611x926, 116 KB) [Portrait of Maj. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (611x926, 116 KB) [Portrait of Maj. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Illinois Central (AAR reporting mark IC), sometimes called the Main Line of Mid-America, was a railroad carrier in the central United States, with its primary routes connecting Chicago, Illinois with New Orleans, Louisiana and Birmingham, Alabama. ... The Mississippi and Ohio Railroad was a railroad operating between Cincinnati, Ohio and East St. ... NOLA redirects here. ... The Panic of 1857 was a sudden downturn in the economy of the United States. ... Combatants United States Mormon settlers Commanders Albert Sidney Johnston Brigham Young John D. Lee Lot Smith Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Utah War was a dispute between Mormon settlers in Utah Territory and the United States federal government. ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ... A filibuster is a private individual who engages in unauthorized warfare against a foreign country, often with the intent of overthrowing the existing government. ... For other uses, see Benito Juárez (disambiguation). ...


Before the outbreak of Civil War, McClellan became active in politics, supporting the presidential campaign of Democrat Stephen A. Douglas in the 1860 election. He claimed to have defeated an attempt at vote fraud by Republicans by ordering the delay of a train that was carrying men to vote illegally in another county, enabling Douglas to win the county.[12] The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Stephen Arnold Douglas (nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short but was considered by many a giant in politics) was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. ... The United States presidential election of 1860 set the stage for the American Civil War. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ...


In October 1859 McClellan was able to resume his courtship of Ellen Marcy, and they were married in Calvary Church, New York City, on May 22, 1860.[13] New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...


Civil War

Ohio and strategy

At the start of the Civil War, McClellan's knowledge of what was called "big war science" and his railroad experience that implied he would excel at military logistics placed him in great demand as the Union mobilized. He was actively pursued by the governors of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York, the three largest states of the Union. William Dennison, Governor of Ohio, was the most persistent, so McClellan was commissioned a major general of volunteers and given command of the Ohio militia on April 23, 1861. Unlike some of his fellow Union officers who came from abolitionist families, he was opposed to federal interference with slavery; so some of his Southern colleagues approached him informally about siding with the Confederacy, but he could not accept the concept of secession.[14] In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... William Dennison, Jr. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Abolition is the act of formally destroying something through legal means, either by making it illegal, or simply no longer allowing it to exist in any form. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ...


On May 3 McClellan re-entered federal service by being named commander of the Department of the Ohio, responsible for the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and, later, western Pennsylvania, western Virginia, and Missouri. On May 14, he was commissioned a major general in the regular army, and at age 34 outranked everyone in the Army other than Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott, the general in chief. McClellan's rapid promotion was partly because of his acquaintance with Salmon P. Chase, Treasury Secretary and former Ohio governor and senator.[15] is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Department of the Ohio was an administrative military district created by the United States War Department early in the American Civil War to administer the troops in the Northern states near the Ohio River. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ...


As McClellan scrambled to process the thousands of men who were volunteering for service and to set up training camps, he also set his mind toward grand strategy. He wrote a letter to Gen. Scott on April 27, four days after assuming command in Ohio, that was the first proposal for a unified strategy for the war. It contained two alternatives, both with a prominent role for himself as commander. The first called for 80,000 men to invade Virginia through the Kanawha Valley toward Richmond. The second called for those same men to drive south instead across the Ohio River into Kentucky and Tennessee. Scott dismissed both plans as being logistically infeasible. Although he complimented McClellan and expressed his "great confidence in your intelligence, zeal, science, and energy", he replied by letter that the 80,000 men would be better used on a river-based expedition to control the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy, accompanied by a strong Union blockade of Southern ports. This plan, which would have demanded considerable patience on the part of the Northern public, was derided in newspapers as the Anaconda Plan, but eventually proved to be the successful outline used to prosecute the war. Relations between the two generals became increasingly strained over the summer and fall.[16] is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the Kanawha River watershed, showing its main tributary, the New River. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... 1861 Cartoon map of the blockade // The Union Blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the Union Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of... 1861 Cartoon map of Scotts plan The Anaconda Plan was proposed in 1861 by Union General Winfield Scott to win the American Civil War with minimal loss of life, enveloping the Confederacy by blockade at sea and control of the Mississippi River. ...


Western Virginia

McClellan's first military operations were to occupy the area of western Virginia that wanted to remain in the Union and later became the state of West Virginia. He had received intelligence reports on May 26 that the critical Baltimore and Ohio Railroad bridges in that portion of the state were being burned. As he quickly implemented plans to invade the region, he triggered his first serious political controversy by proclaiming to the citizens there that his forces had no intentions of interfering with personal property—including slaves. "Notwithstanding all that has been said by the traitors to induce you to believe that our advent among you will be signalized by interference with your slaves, understand one thing clearly—not only will we abstain from all such interference but we will on the contrary with an iron hand, crush any attempted insurrection on their part." He quickly realized that he had overstepped his bounds and apologized by letter to President Lincoln. The controversy was not that his proclamation was diametrically opposed to the administration's policy at the time, but that he was so bold in stepping beyond his strictly military role.[17] This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) was one of the oldest railroads in the United States, with an original line from the port of Baltimore, Maryland, west to the Ohio River at Wheeling and Parkersburg, West Virginia. ...


His forces moved rapidly into the area through Grafton and were victorious at the tiny skirmish called the Battle of Philippi Races, arguably the first land conflict of the war. His first personal command in battle was at Rich Mountain, which he also won, but only after displaying a strong sense of caution and a reluctance to commit reserve forces that would be his hallmark for the rest of his career. His subordinate commander, William S. Rosecrans, bitterly complained that his attack was not reinforced as McClellan had agreed.[18] Nevertheless, these two minor victories propelled McClellan to the status of national hero.[19] The New York Herald entitled an article about him, "Gen. McClellan, the Napoleon of the Present War."[20] Grafton is a city located in Taylor County, West Virginia. ... For the Roman Civil War battle, see Battle of Philippi. ... Battle of Rich Mountain Conflict American Civil War Date July 11, 1861 Place Randolph County, West Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Rich Mountain took place on July 11, 1861 in Randolph County, West Virginia as part of the operations in West Virginia during the American Civil War. ... William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 - March 11, 1898), nicknamed Old Rosy, served as an American military officer. ... The New York Herald was a large distribution newspaper based in New York City that existed between May 6, 1835 and 1924. ...


Building an army

After the defeat of the Union forces at Bull Run on July 21, 1861, Lincoln summoned McClellan from West Virginia. He traveled by special train on the main Pennsylvania line from Wheeling through Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and on to Washington, D.C., and was overwhelmed by enthusiastic crowds that met his train along the way.[21] Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: The Friendly City Location in Ohio County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: Settled 1769 Established 1806 Incorporated 1836  - Mayor Nick Sparachane  - City Manager Robert Herron  - Chief of Police Kevin Gessler, Sr. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


On July 26, the day he reached the capital, McClellan was appointed commander of the Military Division of the Potomac, the main Union force responsible for the defense of Washington. On August 20, several military units in Virginia were consolidated into his department and he immediately formed the Army of the Potomac, with himself as its first commander.[22] He reveled in his newly acquired power and fame:[21] is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ...

I find myself in a new and strange position here—Presdt, Cabinet, Genl Scott & all deferring to me—by some strange operation of magic I seem to have become the power of the land. ... I almost think that were I to win some small success now I could become Dictator or anything else that might please me—but nothing of that kind would please me—therefore I won't be Dictator. Admirable self-denial!

George B. McClellan, letter to Ellen, July 26, 1861 is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

During the summer and fall, McClellan brought a high degree of organization to his new army, and greatly improved its morale by his frequent trips to review and encourage his units. It was a remarkable achievement, in which he came to personify the Army of the Potomac and reaped the adulation of his men.[23] He created defenses for Washington that were almost impregnable, consisting of 48 forts and strong points, with 480 guns manned by 7,200 artillerists.[24] But this was also a time of tension in the high command, as he continued to quarrel frequently with the government and the general-in-chief, Lt. Gen. Scott, on matters of strategy. McClellan rejected the tenets of Scott's Anaconda Plan, favoring instead an overwhelming grand battle, in the Napoleonic style. He proposed that his army should be expanded to 273,000 men and 600 guns and "crush the rebels in one campaign." He favored a war that would impose little impact on civilian populations and require no emancipation of slaves. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack...


McClellan's antipathy to emancipation added to the pressure on him, as he received bitter criticism from Radical Republicans in the government.[25] He viewed slavery as an institution recognized in the Constitution, and entitled to federal protection wherever it existed. His writings after the war were typical of many Northerners: "I confess to a prejudice in favor of my own race, & can't learn to like the odor of either Billy goats or niggers." But in November 1861, he wrote to his wife, "I will, if successful, throw my sword onto the scale to force an improvement in the condition of those poor blacks." He later wrote that had it been his place to arrange the terms of peace, he would have insisted on gradual emancipation, guarding the rights of both slaves and masters, as part of any settlement. But he made no secret of his opposition to the radical Republicans. He told Ellen, "I will not fight for the abolitionists." This placed him at an obvious handicap because many politicians running the government believed that he was attempting to implement the policies of the opposition party.[26] Frémont (left), 1856 Republican parade banner The Radical Republicans were the remaining faction of American politicians within the Republican party during the American Civil War and Reconstruction following an 1864 exodus of pro-Lincoln Republicans into the creation of the National Union Party. ...


The immediate problem with McClellan's war strategy was that he was convinced the Confederates were ready to attack him with overwhelming numbers. On August 8, believing that the Confederates had over 100,000 troops facing him (in contrast to the 35,000 they actually deployed at Bull Run a few weeks earlier), he declared a state of emergency in the capital. By August 19, he estimated 150,000 enemy to his front. McClellan's future campaigns would be strongly influenced by the overblown enemy strength estimates of his secret service chief, detective Allan Pinkerton, but in August 1861, these estimates were entirely McClellan's own. The result was a level of extreme caution that sapped the initiative of McClellan's army and caused great condemnation by his government. Historian and biographer Stephen W. Sears has called McClellan's actions "essentially sound" if he had been as outnumbered as he believed, but McClellan in fact rarely had less than a two-to-one advantage over his opponents in 1861 and 1862. That fall, for example, Confederate forces ranged from 35,000 to 60,000, whereas the Army of the Potomac in September numbered 122,000 men; in early December 170,000; by year end, 192,000.[27] is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait of Allan Pinkerton from Harpers Weekly, 1884 Allan Pinkerton (August 25, 1819 – July 1, 1884) was a U.S. detective and spy, best known for creating the Pinkerton Agency, the first detective agency of the United States. ...


The dispute with Scott would become very personal. Scott (along with many in the War Department) was outraged that McClellan refused to divulge any details about his strategic planning, or even mundane details such as troop strengths and dispositions. (For his part, McClellan claimed not to trust anyone in the administration to keep his plans secret from the press, and thus the enemy.) During disagreements about defensive forces on the Potomac River, McClellan wrote to his wife on August 10 in a manner that would characterize some of his more private correspondence: "Genl Scott is the great obstacle—he will not comprehend the danger & is either a traitor, or an incompetent. I have to fight my way against him."[28] Scott became so disillusioned over his relationship with the young general that he offered his resignation to President Lincoln, who initially refused to accept it. Rumors traveled through the capital that McClellan might resign, or instigate a military coup, if Scott were not removed. Lincoln's Cabinet met on October 18 and agreed to accept Scott's resignation for "reasons of health."[29] is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


General in chief

On November 1, 1861, Winfield Scott retired and McClellan became general in chief of all the Union armies. The president expressed his concern about the "vast labor" involved in the dual role of army commander and general in chief, but McClellan responded, "I can do it all."[29] is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ...


Lincoln, as well as many other leaders and citizens of the northern states, became increasingly impatient with McClellan's slowness to attack the Confederate forces still massed near Washington. The Union defeat at the minor Battle of Ball's Bluff near Leesburg in October added to the frustration and indirectly damaged McClellan. In December, the Congress formed a Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, which became a thorn in the side of many generals throughout the war, accusing them of incompetence and, in some cases, treason. McClellan was called as the first witness on December 23, but he contracted typhoid fever and could not attend. Instead, his subordinate officers testified, and their candid admissions that they had no knowledge of specific strategies for advancing against the Confederates raised many calls for McClellan's dismissal.[30] The Battle of Balls Bluff, also known as the Battle of Harrison’s Landing or the Battle of Leesburg, took place on October 21, 1861, in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of Major General George B. McClellans operations in northern Virginia during the American Civil War. ... Leesburg is a historic town and is the county seat of Loudoun County, Virginia, United States of America. ... The Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War was a United States Congressional investigating committee created to handle issues surrounding the American Civil War. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ...


McClellan further damaged his reputation by his insulting insubordination to his commander-in-chief. He privately referred to Lincoln, whom he had known before the war as a lawyer for the Illinois Central, as "nothing more than a well-meaning baboon", a "gorilla", and "ever unworthy of ... his high position."[31] On November 13, he snubbed the president, visiting at McClellan's house, by making him wait for 30 minutes, only to be told that the general had gone to bed and could not see him.[32] is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On January 12, 1862, McClellan was summoned to the White House, where the Cabinet demanded to hear his war plans. For the first time, he revealed his intentions to transport the Army of the Potomac by ship to Urbanna, Virginia, on the Rappahannock River, outflanking the Confederate forces near Washington, and proceeding 50 miles (80 km) overland to capture Richmond. He refused to give any specific details of the proposed campaign, even to his friend, newly appointed War Secretary Edwin M. Stanton. On January 27, Lincoln issued an order that required all of his armies to begin offensive operations by February 22, Washington's birthday. On January 31, he issued a supplementary order for the Army of the Potomac to move overland to attack the Confederates at Manassas Junction and Centreville. McClellan immediately replied with a 22-page letter objecting in detail to the president's plan and advocating instead his Urbanna plan, which was the first written instance of the plan's details being presented to the president. Although Lincoln believed his plan was superior, he was relieved that McClellan finally agreed to begin moving, and reluctantly approved. On March 8, doubting McClellan's resolve, Lincoln again interfered with the army commander's prerogatives. He called a council of war at the White House in which McClellan's subordinates were asked about their confidence in the Urbanna plan. They expressed their confidence to varying degrees. After the meeting, Lincoln issued another order, naming specific officers as corps commanders to report to McClellan (who had been reluctant to do so prior to assessing his division commanders' effectiveness in combat, even though this would have meant his direct supervision of twelve divisions in the field).[33] is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Urbanna is a town in Middlesex County, Virginia, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Rappahannock at sunset The Rappahannock River is a river in eastern Virginia in the United States, approximately 184 mi (294 km). ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... The Running Machine An 1864 cartoon featuring Stanton, William Fessenden, Abraham Lincoln, William Seward and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Presidents Day is the common name for the United States federal holiday officially designated as Washingtons Birthday. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Manassas redirects here. ... Centreville is an unincorporated community in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A council of war is a term in military science that describes a meeting held to decide on a course of action, usually in the midst of a battle. ...


Two more crises would hit McClellan before he could implement his plans. The Confederate forces under General Joseph E. Johnston withdrew from their positions before Washington, assuming new positions south of the Rappahannock, which completely nullified the Urbanna strategy. McClellan retooled his plan so that his troops would disembark at Fort Monroe, Virginia, and advance up the Virginia Peninsula to Richmond, an operation that would be known as the Peninsula Campaign. However, McClellan came under extreme criticism from the press and the Congress when it was found that Johnston's forces had not only slipped away unnoticed, but had for months fooled the Union Army through the use of Quaker Guns. The Congress's joint committee visited the abandoned Confederate lines and radical Republicans introduced a resolution demanding the dismissal of McClellan, but it was narrowly defeated by a parliamentary maneuver.[34] The second crisis was the emergence of the Confederate ironclad CSS Virginia, which threw Washington into a panic and made naval support operations on the James River seem problematic. Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Fort Monroe, Virginia (also known as Fortress Monroe) is a military installation located at Old Point Comfort on the tip of the Virginia Peninsula at the mouth of Hampton Roads on the Chesapeake Bay in eastern Virginia in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Quaker Guns used at Centreville, Virginia in March, 1862 A Quaker Gun is a simulated cannon made from a wooden log, sometimes painted black, used to deceive an enemy into believing a foe possesses excess guns. ... Ironclad warships, frequently shortened to just ironclads, were ships sheathed with thick iron plates for protection. ... CSS Virginia was an ironclad warship of the Confederate States Navy during the American Civil War (built using the remains of the scuttled USS Merrimack). ... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 660 km (410 miles) long including its Jackson River source and drains a watershed comprising 27,019 km² (10,432 square miles). ...


On March 11, 1862, Lincoln removed McClellan as general-in-chief, leaving him in command of only the Army of the Potomac, ostensibly so that McClellan would be free to devote all his attention to the move on Richmond. Lincoln's order was ambiguous as to whether McClellan might be restored following a successful campaign. In fact, his position was not filled by another officer. Lincoln, Stanton, and a group of officers called the "War Board" directed the strategic actions of the Union armies that spring. Although McClellan was assuaged by supportive comments Lincoln made to him, in time he saw the change of command very differently, describing it as a part of an intrigue "to secure the failure of the approaching campaign."[35] is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ...


Peninsula Campaign

Statue in front of Philadelphia City Hall
Statue in front of Philadelphia City Hall

McClellan's army began to sail from Alexandria on March 17. It was an armada that dwarfed all previous American expeditions, transporting 121,500 men, 44 artillery batteries, 1,150 wagons, over 15,000 horses, and tons of equipment and supplies. An English observer remarked that it was the "stride of a giant."[36] The army's advance from Fort Monroe up the Virginia Peninsula proved to be slow. McClellan's plan for a rapid seizure of Yorktown was foiled when he discovered that the Confederates had fortified a line across the Peninsula, causing him to decide on a siege of the city, which required considerable preparation. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2448 × 3264 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2448 × 3264 pixel, file size: 2. ... Philadelphia City Hall is the seat of government for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Founded 1718 Government  - Mayor William D. Euille Area  - City  15. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Satellite Photo of Fort Monroe Fort Monroe, Virginia (also known as Fortress Monroe) is a military installation located at Old Point Comfort on the tip of the Virginia Peninsula at the mouth of Hampton Roads on the Chesapeake Bay in eastern Virginia in the United States. ... The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. ... York Hall is a government building on Yorktowns historic Main Street. ...


McClellan continued to believe intelligence reports that credited the Confederates with two or three times the men they actually had. Early in the campaign, Confederate General John B. "Prince John" Magruder defended the Peninsula against McClellan's advance with a vastly smaller force. He created a false impression of many troops behind the lines and of even more troops arriving. He accomplished this by marching small groups of men repeatedly past places where they could be observed at a distance or were just out of sight, accompanied by great noise and fanfare.[37] During this time, General Johnston was able to provide Magruder with reinforcements, but even then there were far fewer troops than McClellan believed were opposite him. John B. Magruder John Bankhead Magruder (May 1, 1807 – February 19, 1871) was a U.S. Army officer in the Mexican War, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...


After a month of preparation, just before he was to assault the Confederate works at Yorktown, McClellan learned that Johnston had withdrawn up the Peninsula towards Williamsburg. McClellan was thus required to give chase without any benefit of the heavy artillery so carefully amassed in front of Yorktown. The Battle of Williamsburg on May 5 is considered a Union victory—McClellan's first—but the Confederate army was not destroyed and a bulk of their troops were successfully moved past Williamsburg to Richmond's outer defenses while it was waged, and over the next several days.[38] Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... The Battle of Williamsburg, also known as the Battle of Fort Magruder, took place on May 5, 1862 in York County and Williamsburg, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


McClellan had also placed hopes on a simultaneous naval approach to Richmond via the James River. That approach failed following the Union Navy's defeat at the Battle of Drewry's Bluff, about 7 miles (11 km) downstream from the Confederate capital, on May 15. Basing artillery on a strategic bluff high above a bend in the river, and sinking boats to create an impassable series of obstacles in the river itself, the Confederates had effectively blocked this potential approach to Richmond.[39] The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 660 km (410 miles) long including its Jackson River source and drains a watershed comprising 27,019 km² (10,432 square miles). ... The Battle of Drewry’s Bluff, also known as the Battle of Fort Darling or Fort Drewry, took place on May 15, 1862 in Chesterfield County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


McClellan's army cautiously inched towards Richmond over the next three weeks. He established a supply base on the Pamunkey River (a navigable tributary of the York River) at White House Landing where the Richmond and York River Railroad extending to Richmond crossed, and commandeered the railroad, transporting steam locomotives and rolling stock to the site by barge.[40] The Pamunkey River is a tributary of the York River, about 90 mi (145 km) long, in eastern Virginia in the United States. ... The York River is a navigable estuary, approximately 40 mi (64 km) long, in eastern Virginia in the United States. ... White House is an unincorporated community located located in New Kent County, Virginia on the south shore of the Pamunkey River. ... Richmond and York River Railroad was completed between Richmond, Virginia and West Point, Virginia in 1861. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ...


On May 31, as McClellan planned an assault, his army was surprised by a Confederate attack. Johnston saw that the Union army was split in half by the rain-swollen Chickahominy River and hoped to defeat it in detail at Seven Pines and Fair Oaks. McClellan was unable to command the army personally because of a recurrence of malarial fever, but his subordinates were able to repel the attacks. Nevertheless, McClellan received criticism from Washington for not counterattacking, which some believed could have opened the city of Richmond to capture. Johnston was wounded in the battle, and General Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia. McClellan spent the next three weeks repositioning his troops and waiting for promised reinforcements, losing valuable time as Lee continued to strengthen Richmond's defenses.[41] is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chickahominy also known as the Chick is a river in the southeastern portion of the U.S. state of Virginia, near which several battles of the United States Civil War were fought in 1862 and 1864. ... Defeat in detail is a military phrase referring to the tactic of bringing a large portion of ones own force to bear on a small enemy unit, rather than engaging the bulk of the enemy force. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Joseph E. Johnston G. W. Smith Strength 41,797 41,816 Casualties 5,031 (790 killed, 3,594 wounded, 647 captured/missing) 6,134 (980 killed, 4,749 wounded, 405 captured/missing) The Battle of Seven Pines... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ...


At the end of June, Lee began a series of attacks that became known as the Seven Days Battles. The first major battle, at Mechanicsville, was poorly coordinated by Lee and his subordinates and caused heavy casualties for little tactical gain. But the battle had significant impact on McClellan's nerve. The surprise appearance of Maj. Gen. Stonewall Jackson's troops in the battle (when they had last been reported to be many miles away in the Shenandoah Valley) convinced McClellan that he was even more significantly outnumbered that he had assumed. (He reported to Washington that he faced 200,000 Confederates, but there were actually 85,000.)[42] Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac; 105,445 Army of Northern Virginia; 90,500 Casualties 1,734 killed 8,062 wounded 6,053 missing/captured 3,286 killed 15,009 wounded 946 missing/captured Peninsula... Battle of Beaver Dam Creek Conflict American Civil War Date June 26, 1862 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Beaver Dam Creek, also known as the Battle of Mechanicsville or Ellerson’s Mill, took place on June 26, 1862 in Hanover County, Virginia as part of... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ...


As Lee continued his offensive at Gaines' Mill to the east, McClellan played a passive role, taking no initiative and waiting for events to unfold. He kept two thirds of his army out of action, fooled again by Magruder's theatrical diversionary tactics.[43] That night, he decided to withdraw his army to a safer base, well below Richmond, on a portion of the James River that was under control of the Union Navy. In doing so, he may have unwittingly saved his army. Lee had assumed that the Union army would withdraw to the east toward its existing supply base and McClellan's move to the south delayed Lee's response for at least 24 hours.[44] But McClellan was also tacitly acknowledging that he would no longer be able to invest Richmond, the object of his campaign; the heavy siege artillery required would be almost impossible to transport without the railroad connections available from his original supply base on the York River. In a telegram to Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, reporting on these events, McClellan blamed the Lincoln administration for his reversals. "If I save this army now, I tell you plainly I owe no thanks to you or to any other persons in Washington. You have done your best to sacrifice this army."[45] Fortunately for McClellan's immediate career, Lincoln never saw that inflammatory statement (at least at that time) because it was censored by the War Department telegrapher. Battle of Gaines Mill Conflict American Civil War Date June 27, 1862 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Gaines Mill, also known as the First Battle of Cold Harbor or the Battle of Chickahominy River, took place on June 27, 1862, in Hanover County, Virginia, as... Investment is the military tactic of surrounding an enemy fortification or town with armed forces to prevent entry or escape. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Edwin McMasters Stanton (December 19, 1814 - December 24, 1869), born in Steubenville, Ohio, was an American political figure, prominent in the American Civil War and in the Reconstruction era. ...

Cartoon of McClellan used in 1864 presidential campaign.
Cartoon of McClellan used in 1864 presidential campaign.

McClellan was also fortunate that the failure of the campaign left his army mostly intact, because he was generally absent from the fighting and neglected to name a second-in-command to control his retreat.[46] Military historian Stephen W. Sears wrote, "When he deserted his army on the Glendale and Malvern Hill battlefields during the Seven Days, he was guilty of dereliction of duty. Had the Army of the Potomac been wrecked on either of these fields (at Glendale the possibility had been real), that charge under the Articles of War would likely have been brought against him."[47] (During Glendale, McClellan was five miles (8 km) away behind Malvern Hill, without telegraph communications and too distant to command the army. During the battle of Malvern Hill, he was on a gunboat, the U.S.S. Galena, which at one point was ten miles (16 km) away down the James River.[48] When the public heard about the Galena, it was yet another enormous embarrassment, comparable to the Quaker Guns at Manassas. Editorial cartoons during the 1864 presidential campaign would lampoon McClellan for preferring the safety of a ship while a battle was fought in the distance.[49]) Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1473x1108, 373 KB) TITLE: The gunboat candidate at the Battle of Malvern Hill CALL NUMBER: Stern Collection, v. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1473x1108, 373 KB) TITLE: The gunboat candidate at the Battle of Malvern Hill CALL NUMBER: Stern Collection, v. ... Battle of Glendale Conflict American Civil War Date June 30, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive (Union withdrawal continued. ... Battle of Malvern Hill Conflict American Civil War Date July 1, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Malvern Hill, also known as the Battle of Poindexter’s Farm, took place on July 1, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of... USS Galena, an ironclad screw steamer, was one of the first three ironclads, each of a different design, built by the Union Navy during the American Civil War. ... The United States presidential election of 1864 saw Abraham Lincoln, the Republican running on a coalition ticket, win by a landslide over the Democratic candidate, George B. McClellan. ...


McClellan was reunited with his army at Harrison's Landing on the James. Debates were held as to whether the army should be evacuated or attempt to resume an offensive toward Richmond. McClellan maintained his estrangement from Abraham Lincoln by his continuous call for reinforcements and by writing a lengthy letter in which he proposed strategic and political guidance for the war, continuing his opposition to abolition or seizure of slaves as a tactic. He concluded by implying he should be restored as general in chief, but Lincoln responded by naming Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck to the post without consulting, or even informing, McClellan.[50] Lincoln and Stanton also offered command of the Army of the Potomac to Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside, who refused the appointment.[51] Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ... Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ...


Back in Washington, a reorganization of units created the Army of Virginia under Maj. Gen. John Pope, who was directed to advance towards Richmond from the northeast. McClellan resisted calls to reinforce Pope's army and delayed return of the Army of the Potomac from the Peninsula enough so that the reinforcements arrived while the Northern Virginia Campaign was already underway. He wrote to his wife before the battle, "Pope will be thrashed ... & be disposed of [by Lee]. ... Such a villain as he is ought to bring defeat upon any cause that employs him."[52] Lee had assessed McClellan's offensive nature and gambled on removing significant units from the Peninsula to attack Pope, who was beaten decisively at Second Bull Run in August. The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War. ... Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... Union soldiers at the Orange & Alexandria Railroad The Northern Virginia Campaign, also known as the Second Bull Run Campaign or Second Manassas Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September, 1862, in the American Civil War. ... Second Battle of Bull Run Conflict American Civil War Date August 28–30, 1862 Place Prince William County Result Confederate victory The Second Battle of Manassas, known as the Second Battle of Bull Run in the North, was a battle during the American Civil War. ...


Maryland Campaign and the Battle of Antietam

Lincoln with McClellan and staff after the Battle of Antietam. Notable figures (from left) are 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer.
Lincoln with McClellan and staff after the Battle of Antietam. Notable figures (from left) are 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer.

After the defeat of Pope at Second Bull Run, President Lincoln reluctantly returned to the man who had mended a broken army before. He realized that McClellan was a strong organizer and a skilled trainer of troops, able to recombine the units of Pope's army with the Army of the Potomac faster than anyone. On September 2, 1862, Lincoln named McClellan to command "the fortifications of Washington, and all the troops for the defense of the capital." The appointment was controversial in the Cabinet, a majority of whom signed a petition declaring to the president "our deliberate opinion that, at this time, it is not safe to entrust to Major General McClellan the command of any Army of the United States."[53] The president admitted that it was like "curing the bite with the hair of the dog." But Lincoln told his secretary, John Hay, "We must use what tools we have. There is no man in the Army who can man these fortifications and lick these troops of ours into shape half as well as he. If he can't fight himself, he excels in making others ready to fight."[54] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1226x909, 394 KB)Photographed, cropped, and image-enhanced by Hal Jespersen. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1226x909, 394 KB)Photographed, cropped, and image-enhanced by Hal Jespersen. ... Alexander Stuart Webb (February 13, 1835 – February 12, 1911) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War who won the Medal of Honor for gallantry at the Battle of Gettysburg. ... Jonathan Letterman Jonathan K. Letterman was an American surgeon credited as being the originator of the modern methods for medical organization in armies. ... Note: This article is about Gen. ... Fitz John Porter Fitz John Porter (August 31, 1822 – May 21, 1901) (sometimes written FitzJohn Porter) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Andrew A. Humphreys Andrew Atkinson Humphreys (November 2, 1810 – December 27, 1883), was a career U.S. Army officer, civil engineer, and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Custer redirects here. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ...


Northern fears of a continued offensive by Robert E. Lee were realized when he launched his Maryland Campaign on September 4, hoping to arouse pro-Southern sympathy in the slave state of Maryland. McClellan's pursuit began on September 5. He marched toward Maryland with six of his reorganized corps, about 84,000 men, while leaving two corps behind to defend Washington.[54] Lee divided his forces into multiple columns, spread apart widely as he moved into Maryland and also maneuvered to capture the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry. This was a risky move for a smaller army, but Lee was counting on his knowledge of McClellan's temperament. He told one of his generals, "He is an able general but a very cautious one. His army is in a very demoralized and chaotic condition, and will not be prepared for offensive operations—or he will not think it so—for three or four weeks. Before that time I hope to be on the Susquehanna."[55] This was not a completely accurate assessment, but McClellan's army was moving lethargically, averaging only 6 miles (9.7 km) a day.[56] Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, of September 1862 is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865. ...


However, Little Mac soon received a miraculous break of fortune. Union soldiers accidentally found a copy of Lee's orders that divided his army and delivered them to McClellan's headquarters in Frederick, Maryland, on September 13. Upon realizing the intelligence value of this discovery, McClellan threw up his arms and exclaimed, "Now I know what to do!" He waved the order at his old Army friend, Brig. Gen. John Gibbon, and said, "Here is a paper with which if I cannot whip Bobbie Lee, I will be willing to go home." He telegraphed President Lincoln: "I have the whole rebel force in front of me, but I am confident, and no time shall be lost. I think Lee has made a gross mistake, and that he will be severely punished for it. I have all the plans of the rebels, and will catch them in their own trap if my men are equal to the emergency. ... Will send you trophies.".[57] Location in Maryland Coordinates: , Country United States State Maryland County Frederick Founded 1745 Government  - Mayor William J. Holtzinger (R)  - Board of Alderman Marcia Hall (D) Alan E. Imhoff (R) David P. Koontz (D) Donna K. Ramsburg (D) C. Paul Smith (R) Area  - City  20. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... John Gibbon John Gibbon (April 20, 1827 – February 6, 1896) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ...


Despite this show of bravado, McClellan continued his cautious line. After telegraphing to the president at noon on September 13, he ordered his units to set out for the South Mountain passes the following morning. The 18 hours of delay allowed Lee time to react, because he received intelligence from a Confederate sympathizer that McClellan knew of his plans. (The delay also doomed the federal garrison at Harpers Ferry because the relief column McClellan sent could not reach them before they surrendered to Stonewall Jackson.)[58] In the Battle of South Mountain, McClellan's army was able to punch through the defended passes that separated them from Lee, but also gave Lee enough time to concentrate many of his men at Sharpsburg, Maryland. The Union army reached Antietam Creek, to the east of Sharpsburg, on the evening of September 15. A planned attack on September 16 was put off because of early morning fog, allowing Lee to prepare his defenses with an army less than half the size of McClellan's. is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Ambrose Burnside William B. Franklin Robert E. Lee Strength 28,000 18,000 Casualties 2,325 (443 killed, 1,807 wounded, 75 missing) 2,685 (325 killed, 1560 wounded, 800 missing) The Battle of South Mountain (known... Sharpsburg is a town located in Washington County, Maryland. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862, was the single bloodiest day in American military history. The outnumbered Confederate forces fought desperately and well. Despite significant advantages in manpower, McClellan was unable to concentrate his forces effectively, which meant that Lee was able to shift his defenders to parry each of three Union thrusts, launched separately and sequentially against the Confederate left, center, and finally the right. And McClellan was unwilling to employ his ample reserve forces to capitalize on localized successes. Historian James M. McPherson has pointed out that the two corps McClellan kept in reserve were in fact larger than Lee's entire force. The reason for McClellan's reluctance was that, as in previous battles, he was convinced he was outnumbered.[59] Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ...

Lincoln in McClellan's tent after the Battle of Antietam
Lincoln in McClellan's tent after the Battle of Antietam

The battle was tactically inconclusive, although Lee technically was defeated because he withdrew first from the battlefield and retreated back to Virginia. McClellan wired to Washington, "Our victory was complete. The enemy is driven back into Virginia." Yet there was obvious disappointment that McClellan had not crushed Lee, who was fighting with a smaller army with its back to the Potomac River. Although McClellan's subordinates can claim their share of responsibility for delays (such as Ambrose Burnside's misadventures at Burnside Bridge) and blunders (Edwin V. Sumner's attack without reconnaissance), these were localized problems from which the full army could have recovered. As with the decisive battles in the Seven Days, McClellan's headquarters were too far to the rear to allow his personal control over the battle. He made no use of his cavalry forces for reconnaissance. He did not share his overall battle plans with his corps commanders, which prevented them from using initiative outside of their sectors. And he was far too willing to accept cautious advice about saving his reserves, such as when a significant breakthrough in the center of the Confederate line could have been exploited, but Fitz John Porter is said to have told McClellan, "Remember, General, I command the last reserve of the last Army of the Republic."[60] President Abraham Lincoln and Gen. ... President Abraham Lincoln and Gen. ... Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ... Edwin Vose Bull Head Sumner (January 30, 1797 – March 21, 1863) was a U.S. Army officer who became a Major General and the oldest field commander of any Army Corps on either side during the American Civil War. ... Fitz John Porter Fitz John Porter (August 31, 1822 – May 21, 1901) (sometimes written FitzJohn Porter) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ...


Despite being a tactical draw, Antietam is considered a turning point of the war and a victory for the Union because it ended Lee's strategic campaign (his first invasion of the North) and it allowed President Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, taking effect on January 1, 1863. Although Lincoln had intended to issue the proclamation earlier, he was advised by his Cabinet to wait until a Union victory to avoid the perception that it was issued out of desperation. The Union victory and Lincoln's proclamation played a considerable role in dissuading the governments of France and Britain from recognizing the Confederacy; some suspected they were planning to do so in the aftermath of another Union defeat.[61] McClellan had no prior knowledge that the plans for emancipation rested on his battle performance. There is widespread disagreement over the turning point of the American Civil War. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two documents issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


When McClellan failed to pursue Lee aggressively after Antietam, Lincoln ordered that he be removed from command on November 5. Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside assumed command of the Army of the Potomac on November 7.[62] McClellan wrote to his wife, "Those in whose judgment I rely tell me that I fought the battle splendidly and that it was a masterpiece of art. ... I feel I have done all that can be asked in twice saving the country. ... I feel some little pride in having, with a beaten & demoralized army, defeated Lee so utterly. ... Well, one of these days history will I trust do me justice."[63] is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Politics

Secretary Stanton ordered McClellan to report to Trenton, New Jersey, for further orders, although none were issued. As the war progressed, there were various calls to return Little Mac to an important command, following the Union defeats at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, as Robert E. Lee moved north at the start of the Gettysburg Campaign, and as Jubal Early threatened Washington in 1864. When Ulysses S. Grant became general in chief, he discussed returning McClellan to an unspecified position. But all of these opportunities were impossible, given the opposition within the administration and the knowledge that McClellan posed a potential political threat. McClellan worked for months on a lengthy report describing his two major campaigns and his successes in organizing the Army, replying to his critics and justifying his actions by accusing the administration of undercutting him and denying him necessary reinforcements. The War Department was reluctant to publish his report because, just after completing it in October 1863, McClellan openly declared his entrance to the political stage as a Democrat.[64] Nickname: Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County Coordinates: , Country State County Mercer Incorporated November 13, 1792 Government  - Mayor Douglas H. Palmer Area  - City  8. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[1] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[1] The Battle of... Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ... For other uses, see Jubal Early (disambiguation). ...

Union party poster for Pennsylvania warning of disaster if McClellan wins
Union party poster for Pennsylvania warning of disaster if McClellan wins

McClellan was nominated by the Democrats to run against Abraham Lincoln in the 1864 U.S. presidential election. Following the example of Winfield Scott, he ran as a U.S. Army general still on active duty; he did not resign his commission until election day, November 8, 1864. He supported continuation of the war and restoration of the Union, but the party platform, written by Copperhead Clement Vallandigham of Ohio, was opposed to this position. The platform called for an immediate cessation of hostilities and a negotiated settlement with the Confederacy. McClellan was forced to repudiate the platform, which made his campaign inconsistent and difficult. He also was not helped by the party's choice for vice president, George H. Pendleton, a peace candidate from Ohio.[65] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 458 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (489 × 640 pixel, file size: 87 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 458 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (489 × 640 pixel, file size: 87 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... The 1864 Democratic National Convention was held in Chicago, Illinois. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Copperheads were a faction of Democrats in the North (see also Union (American Civil War)) who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ... Clement Vallandigham Clement Laird Vallandigham (velan´digham, -gam) (July 29, 1820 – June 17, 1871) was an Ohio unionist of the Copperhead faction of anti-war, pro-Confederate Democrats during the American Civil War. ... George Pendleton George Hunt Pendleton (July 19, 1825 – November 24, 1889) was a Representative and a Senator from Ohio. ...


The deep division in the party, the unity of the Republicans (running under the label "National Union Party"), and the military successes by Union forces in the fall of 1864 doomed McClellan's candidacy. Lincoln won the election handily, with 212 Electoral College votes to 21 and a popular vote of 403,000, or 55%.[66] While McClellan was highly popular among the troops when he was commander, they voted for Lincoln over him by margins of 3-1 or higher. Lincoln's share of the vote in the Army of the Potomac was 70%.[67] The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... This article is about Electoral Colleges in general. ...


Postbellum years

After the war, McClellan and his family departed for a lengthy trip to Europe (from 1865 to 1868), during which he did not participate in politics.[68] When he returned, the Democratic Party expressed some interest in nominating him for president again, but when it became clear that Ulysses S. Grant would be the Republican candidate, this interest died. McClellan worked on engineering projects in New York City and was offered the position of president of the newly formed University of California.[69] New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ...


McClellan was appointed chief engineer of the New York City Department of Docks in 1870. Evidently the position did not demand his full-time attention because, starting in 1872, he also served as the president of the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad. He and his family returned to Europe from 1873 to 1875.[70] The Atlantic and Great Western Railroad began as three separate railroads: the Erie and New York City Railroad based in Jamestown, NY, the Meadville Railroad based in Meadville, PA, and the Franklin and Warren Railroad based in Franklin Mills, OH. The owners of the three railroads had been working closely...


In 1877, McClellan was nominated by the Democrats for Governor of New Jersey, an action that took him by surprise because he had not expressed an interest in the position. He was elected and served a single term from 1878 to 1881, a tenure marked by careful, conservative executive management and minimal political rancor. The concluding chapter of his political career was his strong support in 1884 for the election of Grover Cleveland. He hoped to be named secretary of war in Cleveland's cabinet, a position for which he was well suited, but political rivals from New Jersey were able to block his nomination.[71] Jon Corzine 54th Governor of New Jersey; Incumbent Christine Christie Todd Whitman, the first female governor of New Jersey The Governor of New Jersey is the chief executive of the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908), the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States, was the only President to serve non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ...


McClellan's final years were devoted to traveling and writing. He justified his military career in McClellan’s Own Story, published posthumously in 1887. He died unexpectedly at age 58 at Orange, New Jersey, after having suffered from chest pains for a few weeks. His final words, at 3 a.m., October 29, 1885, were, "I feel easy now. Thank you." He is buried at Riverview Cemetery, Trenton, New Jersey.[72] Map of City of Orange in Essex County The City of Orange Township is a City in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Riverview Cemetery is a cemetery located in Trenton, New Jersey on 870 Centre Street. ...


McClellan's son, George B. McClellan, Jr. (1865 – 1940), was born in Dresden, Germany, during the family's first trip to Europe. Known within the family as Max, he was also a politician, serving as a United States Representative from New York State and as Mayor of New York City from 1904 to 1909. McClellan's daughter, Mary ("May") (1861 – 1945), married a French diplomat and spent much of her life abroad. His wife Ellen died in Nice, France, while visiting May at "Villa Antietam." Neither Max nor May gave the McClellans any grandchildren.[73] George Brinton McClellan, Jr. ... Brühls Terrace and the Frauenkirche Dresden [ˈdreːsdn̩] (Sorbian/Lusatian Drježdźany), the capital city of the German federal state of Saxony, is situated in a valley on the river Elbe. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... For a list of the Dutch Director-Generals who governed New Amsterdam (as New York City was called when it was a Dutch-run settlement) between 1624 and 1664, see: Director-General of New Netherland. ... Night view along the Promenade des Anglais This article is about the city. ...


Legacy

The New York Evening Post commented in McClellan's obituary, "Probably no soldier who did so little fighting has ever had his qualities as a commander so minutely, and we may add, so fiercely discussed."[74] This fierce discussion has continued for over a century. McClellan is usually ranked in the lowest tier of Civil War generals. However, the debate over McClellan's ability and talents remains the subject of much controversy among Civil War and military historians. He has been universally praised for his organizational abilities and for his very good relations with his troops. They referred to him affectionately as "Little Mac"; others sometimes called him the "Young Napoleon". It has been suggested that his reluctance to enter battle was caused in part by an intense desire to avoid spilling the blood of his men. Ironically, this led to failing to take the initiative against the enemy and therefore passing up good opportunities for decisive victories, which could have ended the war early, and thereby could have spared thousands of soldiers who died in those subsequent battles. Generals who proved successful in the war, such as Lee and Grant, tended to be more aggressive and more willing to risk a major battle even when all preparations were not perfect. McClellan himself summed up his cautious nature in a draft of his memoirs: "It has always been my opinion that the true course in conducting military operations, is to make no movement until the preparations are as complete as circumstances permit, & never to fight a battle without some definite object worth the probable loss."[75] The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ...


McClellan's reluctance to press his enemy aggressively was probably not a matter of personal courage, which he demonstrated well enough by his bravery under fire in the Mexican-American War. Stephen Sears wrote, "There is indeed ample evidence that the terrible stresses of commanding men in battle, especially the beloved men of his beloved Army of the Potomac, left his moral courage in tatters. Under the pressure of his ultimate soldier's responsibility, the will to command deserted him. Glendale and Malvern Hill found him at the peak of his anguish during the Seven Days, and he fled those fields to escape the responsibility. At Antietam, where there was nowhere for him to flee to, he fell into a paralysis of indecision. Seen from a longer perspective, General McClellan could be both comfortable and successful performing as executive officer, and also, if somewhat less successfully, as grand strategist; as battlefield commander, however, he was simply in the wrong profession."[76] Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000...


One of the reasons that McClellan's reputation has suffered is because of his own memoirs. His original draft was completed in 1881, but the only copy was destroyed by fire. He began to write another draft of what would be published posthumously, in 1887, as McClellan's Own Story. However, he died before it was half completed and his literary executor, William C. Prime, editor of the pro-McClellan New York Journal of Commerce, included excerpts from some 250 of McClellan's wartime letters to his wife, in which it had been his habit to reveal his innermost feelings and opinions in unbridled fashion.[77]


While McClellan's reputation has suffered over time, especially over the last 75 years, there is a small but intense cadre of American Civil War historians who believe that the general has been poorly served on at least four levels. First, McClellan proponents say that because the general was a conservative Democrat with great personal charisma, radical Republicans fearing his political potential deliberately undermined his field operations. Second, that as the radical Republicans were the true winners coming out of the American Civil War, they were able to write its history, placing their principal political rival of the time, McClellan, in the worst possible light. Third, that historians eager to jump on the bandwagon of Lincoln as America's greatest political icon worked to outdo one another in shifting blame for early military failures from Lincoln and Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton to McClellan. And fourth, that Lincoln and Stanton deliberately undermined McClellan because of his conciliatory stance towards the South, which would have resulted in a less destructive end to the war had Richmond fallen as a result of the Peninsula Campaign. Proponents of this school claim that McClellan is criticized more for his admittedly abrasive personality than for his actual field performance.[78]


Several geographic features and establishments have been named for George B. McClellan. These include Fort McClellan in Alabama, McClellan Butte in the Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, where he traveled while conducting the Pacific Railroad Survey in 1853, McClellan Street in North Bend, Washington, McClellan Street in South Philadelphia, McClellan Elementary School in Chicago, and a bronze equestrian statue honoring General McClellan in Washington, D.C. Fort McClellan was a United States Army installation located adjacent to the city of Anniston, Alabama. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest in Washington State extends more than 140 miles along the western slopes of the Cascade Range from the Canadian border to the northern boundary of Mount Rainier National Park. ... North Bend is a city in King County, Washington, United States. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... Apotheosis of Saint Louis by Charles H. Niehaus In sculpture, an equestrian (from the Latin equus meaning horse) is a statue consisting of a horse with mounted rider. ...


Electoral history

1864 Democratic National Convention[79]: The 1864 Democratic National Convention was held in Chicago, Illinois. ...

United States presidential election, 1864 Thomas Hart Seymour (September 29, 1807 - September 3, 1868) was a U.S. Representative from Connecticut. ... Governor Horatio Seymour Horatio Seymour (May 31, 1810 - February 12, 1886) was an American politician. ... Charles OConnor (October 26, 1878–November 15, 1940) was a USA lawyer and politician in two midwestern states. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... The United States presidential election of 1864 saw Abraham Lincoln, the Republican running on a coalition ticket, win by a landslide over the Democratic candidate, George B. McClellan. ...

New Jersey gubernatorial election, 1877[80]: For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. President-elect Abraham Lincoln 1864 National Union Party candidate and U.S. Vice President-elect Andrew Johnson U.S. Postmaster General, Montgomery Blair. ... George Pendleton George Hunt Pendleton (July 19, 1825 – November 24, 1889) was a Representative and a Senator from Ohio. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Jon Corzine 54th Governor of New Jersey; Incumbent Christine Christie Todd Whitman, the first female governor of New Jersey The Governor of New Jersey is the chief executive of the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

  • George B. McClellan (D) - 97,837 (51.65%)
  • William Augustus Newell (R) - 85,094 (44.92%)

William Augustus Newell (September 5, 1817, Franklin, Ohio – August 8, 1901, Allentown, New Jersey), was an American physician and politician, who was a three-term member of the United States House of Representatives, served as a Republican as the 18th Governor of New Jersey, and as Governor of the Washington...

Selected works

  • The Mexican War Diary of George B. McClellan (William Starr Myers, editor), published posthumously, 1917.
  • Bayonet Exercise, or School of the Infantry Soldier, in the Use of the Musket in Hand-To-Hand Conflicts (translated from the French of Gomard), 1852. Reissued as Manual of Bayonet Exercise: Prepared for the Use of the Army of United States, 1862.
  • The Report of Captain George B. McClellan, One of the Officers Sent to the Seat of War in Europe, in 1855 and 1856, 1857. Reissued as The Armies of Europe, 1861.
  • European Cavalry, Including Details of the Organization of the Cavalry Service Among the Principal Nations of Europe, 1861.
  • Regulations and Instructions for the Field Service of the United States Cavalry in Time of War, 1861. Reissued as Regulations for the Field Service of Cavalry in Time of War, 1862.
  • McClellan's Own Story (William C. Prime, editor), 1887.

References

  • Bailey, Ronald H., and the Editors of Time-Life Books, Forward to Richmond: McClellan's Peninsular Campaign, Time-Life Books, 1983, ISBN 0-8094-4720-7.
  • Bailey, Ronald H., and the Editors of Time-Life Books, The Bloodiest Day: The Battle of Antietam, Time-Life Books, 1984, ISBN 0-8094-4740-1.
  • Beagle, Jonathan M., "George Brinton McClellan", Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, Heidler, David S., and Heidler, Jeanne T., eds., W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
  • Beatie, Russel H., Army of the Potomac: Birth of Command, November 1860 – September 1861, Da Capo Press, 2002, ISBN 0-306-81141-3.
  • Eicher, John H., & Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • McPherson, James M., Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (Oxford History of the United States), Oxford University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-19-503863-0.
  • McPherson, James M., Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam, The Battle That Changed the Course of the Civil War, Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-19-513521-0.
  • Rowland, Thomas J., George B. McClellan and Civil War History: In the Shadow of Grant and Sherman, Kent State University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-87338-603-5.
  • Sears, Stephen W., Controversies and Commanders: Dispatches from the Army of the Potomac, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999, ISBN 0-395-86760-6.
  • Sears, Stephen W., George B. McClellan: The Young Napoleon, Da Capo Press, 1988, ISBN 0-306-80913-3.
  • Sears, Stephen W., Landscape Turned Red: The Battle of Antietam, Houghton Mifflin, 1983, ISBN 0-89919-172-X.
  • Sears, Stephen W., To the Gates of Richmond: The Peninsula Campaign, Ticknor and Fields, 1992, ISBN 0-89919-790-6.

For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ... For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Beagle, p. 1277
  2. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 3.
  3. ^ a b c Eicher, p. 371.
  4. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 14–15.
  5. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 32–34.
  6. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 40–41.
  7. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 61.
  8. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 43–44.
  9. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 46–49.
  10. ^ McClellan Saddle. The saddle was actually more likely based on the Spanish Tree saddle, of Mexican origin, that had been in use for some time in the United States.
  11. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 56.
  12. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 59.
  13. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 63.
  14. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 66–69.
  15. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 72.
  16. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 75–76.
  17. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 79–80.
  18. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 89–91.
  19. ^ Beagle, p. 1274.
  20. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 93.
  21. ^ a b Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 95.
  22. ^ Beatie, p. 480. Eicher, pp. 372, 856.
  23. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 111.
  24. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 116.
  25. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 98–99.
  26. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 116–17.
  27. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 101–104, 110.
  28. ^ Beatie, pp. 471–72.
  29. ^ a b McPherson, p. 360.
  30. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 136–37.
  31. ^ McPherson, p. 364.
  32. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 132–33.
  33. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 140–41, 149, 160.
  34. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 168–69.
  35. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 164–65.
  36. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 167–69.
  37. ^ Bailey, Forward to Richmond, p. 99.
  38. ^ Bailey, Forward to Richmond, pp. 107–13.
  39. ^ Bailey, Forward to Richmond, pp. 128–29.
  40. ^ Sears, Gates, pp. 103–04.
  41. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 192–95.
  42. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 205.
  43. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 211–12.
  44. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 216.
  45. ^ Beagle, p. 1275.
  46. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 217.
  47. ^ Sears, Controversies, p. 16.
  48. ^ Sears, Gates, pp. 280, 309.
  49. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 221.
  50. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 227.
  51. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 235.
  52. ^ McPherson, p. 525.
  53. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 260.
  54. ^ a b Bailey, Bloodiest Day, p. 15.
  55. ^ Bailey, Bloodiest Day, p. 21.
  56. ^ Bailey, Bloodiest Day, p. 23.
  57. ^ Sears, Landscape, p. 113.
  58. ^ Sears, Landscape, pp. 120–21.
  59. ^ McPherson, Crossroads, pp. 129–30.
  60. ^ Bailey, Bloodiest Day, p. 141.
  61. ^ McPherson, Crossroads, p. 155.
  62. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 238–41.
  63. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 545.
  64. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 353–56.
  65. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 372–74.
  66. ^ McPherson, p. 805.
  67. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 385–86.
  68. ^ Sears, Controversies, p. 5.
  69. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 388–92.
  70. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 393.
  71. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 397–99.
  72. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, pp. 400–01.
  73. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 404.
  74. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 401.
  75. ^ Sears, Young Napoleon, p. 293.
  76. ^ Sears, Controversies, pp. 19–20.
  77. ^ Sears, Controversies, p. 6.
  78. ^ Rotov, Dimitri (1998). McClellan FACs, FAQs, and Facts. McClellan Society. Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
  79. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=58097
  80. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=263990

The McCellan Saddle was that saddle designed by George B. McClellan, a career Army officer in the U.S. Army, and adopted by the Army in 1859. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Rafuse, Ethan S., McClellan's War: The Failure of Moderation in the Struggle for the Union, Indiana University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-253-34532-4.
  • Ridgway, James M., Jr., Little Mac: Demise of an American Hero, Xlibris, 2000, ISBN 0-7388-0579-3.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Political offices
Preceded by
Joseph D. Bedle
Governor of New Jersey
January 15, 1878 – January 18, 1881
Succeeded by
George C. Ludlow
Party political offices
Preceded by
Stephen A. Douglas
John C. Breckinridge¹
Democratic Party presidential candidate
1864
Succeeded by
Horatio Seymour
Military offices
Preceded by
Irvin McDowell
Commander of the Army of the Potomac
August 20, 1861November 9, 1862
Succeeded by
Ambrose Burnside
Preceded by
Winfield Scott
Commanding General of the United States Army
November 1861 – March 1862
Succeeded by
Henry W. Halleck
Notes and references
1. The Democratic party split in 1860, producing two presidential candidates. Douglas was nominated by Northern Democrats; Breckinridge was nominated by Southern Democrats.
Persondata
NAME McClellan, George Brinton
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Major general during the American Civil War
DATE OF BIRTH 3 December 1826
PLACE OF BIRTH Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
DATE OF DEATH 29 October 1885
PLACE OF DEATH Orange, New Jersey

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Stephen Arnold Douglas (nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short but was considered by many a giant in politics) was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... Southern Democrats are members of the U.S. Democratic Party who reside in the U.S. South. ... Governor Horatio Seymour Horatio Seymour (May 31, 1810 - February 12, 1886) was an American politician. ... Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Republican party, reformer and politician. ... Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ... 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Leon Abbett (October 8, 1836 - December 4, 1894) was a U.S. politician. ... The Stockton Family of New Jersey and Other Stocktons, Dr. Thomas Coates Stockton, 1911 pg 75; Green, Robert Stockton; b. ... George Theodore Werts (March 24, 1846 – January 17, 1910) was the Governor of New Jersey from 1893 to 1896. ... John William Griggs (July 10, 1849–November 28, 1927) was an American politician. ... Foster MacGowan Voorhees (November 5, 1856 – June 14, 1927) was a Republican Governor of New Jersey. ... Franklin Murphy (January 3, 1846–February 24, 1920) was the founder of the Murphy Varnish Company in Newark, New Jersey and the 42nd New Jersey Governor. ... Edward Casper Stokes (December 22, 1860 - November 4, 1942) was a Governor of New Jersey. ... John Franklin Fort (Born March 20, 1852 - Died November 17, 1920) was an American Republican Party politician, who served as the 33rd Governor of New Jersey, from 1908-1911. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... James Fairman Fielder (February 26, 1867 in Jersey City, New Jersey – December 2, 1954 in Newark, New Jersey) was a Democrat who was the Governor of New Jersey from 1913 to 1917, with a break of several months when he stepped down from office. ... Walter Edge Walter Evans Edge (November 20, 1873–October 29, 1956) was an American politician. ... Edward I. Edwards was Governor of New Jersey from 1920 to 1923; he was a member of the United States Democratic Party. ... George Sebastian Silzer (April 14, 1870 – October 16, 1940) was a Governor of New Jersey. ... Moores photo from bioguide. ... Morgan Foster Larson (June 15, 1882-March 21, 1961) was a Republican Governor of New Jersey. ... Harold Giles Hoffman (February 7, 1896–June 4, 1954) was an American politician who was the Republican Governor of New Jersey from 1935 to 1938. ... Charles Edison (August 3, 1890–July 31, 1969), son of Thomas Edison, was a businessman, Assistant and then Acting Secretary of the Navy, and governor of New Jersey. ... Alfred Eastlack Driscoll (October 25, 1902–March 9, 1975) of Haddonfield, New Jersey, was an American Republican Party politician, who served in the New Jersey State Senator (1939-1941) representing Camden County, who served as the 43rd Governor of New Jersey, and as president of Warner-Lambert (now a part... Robert Baumle Meyner (July 3, 1908 - May 27, 1990) of Phillipsburg, New Jersey was the Democratic Governor of New Jersey from 1954 to 1962. ... Richard Joseph Hughes (August 10, 1909–December 7, 1992) was the Democratic Governor of the U.S. state of New Jersey from 1962 to 1970. ... William Thomas Cahill (June 25, 1912–July 1, 1996) was an American politician who was a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New Jersey from 1959 to 1970 and the Governor of New Jersey from 1970 to 1974. ... Brendan Thomas Byrne (born April 1, 1924) was the Democratic governor of the U.S. state of New Jersey from 1974 to 1982. ... Thomas Howard Kean (born April 21, 1935) is an American Republican Party politician, who served as the 48th Governor of New Jersey, from 1982 to 1990. ... James Joseph Jim Florio (born August 29, 1937) is a Democratic politician who served as the 49th Governor of New Jersey from 1990 to 1994, the first Italian American to hold the position. ... Christine Todd Christie Whitman (born September 26, 1946) is an American Republican politician and author, who served as the 50th Governor of New Jersey and was the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency in the administration of President George W. Bush. ... Donald Thomas DiFrancesco (b. ... James Edward Jim McGreevey (born August 6, 1957) is an American Democratic politician. ... Richard James Dick Codey (born November 27, 1946) is an American Democratic Party politician in the U.S. State of New Jersey. ... Jon Stevens Corzine (born January 1, 1947) is the Governor of New Jersey. ... Image File history File links New_Jersey_state_seal. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Map of City of Orange in Essex County The City of Orange Township is a City in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. ...


 
 

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