FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > George Armstrong Custer
George Armstrong Custer
December 5, 1839 - June 25, 1876 (aged 36)

Place of birth New Rumley, Ohio
Place of death Little Bighorn, Montana
Allegiance United States of America
Years of service 1861-1876
Rank Brevet Major General
Commands Michigan Brigade
7th Cavalry
Battles/wars American Civil War
*First Battle of Bull Run
*Peninsula Campaign
*Battle of Antietam
*Battle of Chancellorsville
*Gettysburg Campaign
*Battle of Gettysburg
*Overland Campaign
**Battle of the Wilderness
**Battle of Yellow Tavern
*Valley Campaigns of 1864
*Siege of Petersburg
Indian Wars
*Battle of the Washita
*Battle of the Little Bighorn

George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839June 25, 1876) was a United States Army cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. Promoted at an early age to a temporary war-time rank of Major General, and later made a permanent Lieutenant Colonel, he was a flamboyant and aggressive commander during numerous Civil War battles, known for his personal bravery in leading charges against opposing cavalry. He led the Michigan Brigade whom he called the "Wolverines" during the Civil War. He was defeated and killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, against a coalition of Native American tribes composed almost exclusively of Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho warriors, and led by the Sioux chiefs Crazy Horse and Gall and by the Hunkpapa seer and medicine man, Sitting Bull. This confrontation has come to be popularly known and enshrined in American and European history as Custer's Last Stand. is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Download high resolution version (755x930, 129 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... New Rumley, Ohio is famous for being the birthplace of George Armstrong Custer. ... Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument preserves the site of the June 26, 1876 Battle of the Little Bighorn, near Crow Agency, Montana. ... The Michigan Brigade, sometimes called the Wolverines, the Michigan Cavalry Brigade or Custers Brigade, fought in the American Civil War. ... The United States 7th Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage traces back to the mid-19th century. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[1] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[1] The Battle of... Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign The Overland Campaign, also known as Grants Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 101,895 61,025 Casualties 18,400 11,400 For the French and Indian War battle, see Battle of the Wilderness 1755. ... On May 11th, 1864, Confederate General Jeb Stuart was shot at Yellow Tavern by a Union sharpshooter at a distance of 30 feet (10 m). ... Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Strength 67,000 – 125,000 average of 52,000 Casualties 53,386 ~32,000 The Richmond-Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 15, 1864, to March... Combatants Native Americans Colonial America/United States of America Indian Wars is the name generally used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the colonial and federal government and the indigenous peoples. ... Combatants United States Cheyenne Commanders George A. Custer Black Kettle†, Little Rock † Strength 7th Cavalry Regiment ~250 warriors and civilians (150 warriors, 100 civilians) [2]. The children were moved by Black Kettle in an other village downstream prior to the battle. ... Combatants Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho United States Commanders Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse George A. Custer â€ , Marcus Reno, Frederick Benteen, James Calhoun â€  Strength 949 lodges (probably 950-1,200 warriors) 31 officers, 566 troopers, 15 armed civilians, ~35-40 scouts Casualties At least 54 killed, ~168 wounded (according to Sitting Bull... Custer may refer to: George Armstrong Custer (1839-1876) Custer LaRue Custer, Michigan Custer, Montana Custer, South Dakota Custer, Washington Custer City, Oklahoma Custers Revenge, a 1982 video game Custer National Cemetery Custer National Forest Custer State Park Custer County, the name of several U.S. counties Custer Township... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants Native Americans Colonial America/United States of America Indian Wars is the name generally used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the colonial and federal government and the indigenous peoples. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... The Michigan Brigade, sometimes called the Wolverines, the Michigan Cavalry Brigade or Custers Brigade, fought in the American Civil War. ... Combatants Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho United States Commanders Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse George A. Custer â€ , Marcus Reno, Frederick Benteen, James Calhoun â€  Strength 949 lodges (probably 950-1,200 warriors) 31 officers, 566 troopers, 15 armed civilians, ~35-40 scouts Casualties At least 54 killed, ~168 wounded (according to Sitting Bull... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... For other uses, see Crazy Horse (disambiguation). ... Gall (c. ... Sitting Bull (Sioux: Tatanka Iyotake or Tatanka Iyotanka or Ta-Tanka I-Yotank, first named Slon-he, (Slow), (c. ... Battle of the Little Bighorn Conflict Black Hills War, Indian Wars Date June 25, 1876 Place Near the Little Bighorn River, Big Horn County, Montana Result Substantial Native American victory The Battle of the Little Bighorn, also called Custers Last Stand, was an engagement between a Lakota-Northern Cheyenne...

Contents

Birth and family

Custer was born in New Rumley, Ohio, to Emanuel Henry Custer (1806-1892), a farmer and blacksmith, and Marie Ward Kirkpatrick (1807-1882). [1] Throughout his life Custer was known by a variety of nicknames. He was called alternately Autie (his early attempt to pronounce his middle name), Armstrong, Fanny, or Curley. When he went west, the Plains Indians called him Yellow Hair and Son of the Morning Star. His brothers Thomas Custer and Boston Custer died with him at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, as did his brother-in-law and nephew. His other full siblings were Nevin Custer and Margaret Custer; he also had several older half-siblings. New Rumley, Ohio is famous for being the birthplace of George Armstrong Custer. ... Original range of the Plains Indians The Plains Indians are the Indians who lived on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. ... Capt. ... Boston Custer (October 31, 1848–June 26, 1876) was the younger brother of U.S. Army General George Armstrong Custer and two-time Medal of Honor winner Captain Thomas Custer. ...


The Custer family had emigrated to America in the late 17th century from Westphalia, Germany. Their surname originally was "Küster". George Armstrong Custer was a great great grandson of Arnold Küster from Kaldenkirchen, Duchy of Jülich (today North Rhine-Westphalia state), who settled in Hanover, Pennsylvania. For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ... The Duchy of Jülich was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (part of Limburg). ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... Nickname: Motto: Fiat Justitia (Let Justice be Done) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country State County York Founded Incorporated 1730 1815 Government  - Mayor Maggie Hormel Area  - Borough  3. ...


Custer's mother's maiden name was Marie Ward. At the age of 16, she married Israel Kirkpatrick, who died in 1835. She married Emanuel Henry Custer in 1836. Marie's grandparents, George Ward (1724-1811) and Mary Ward (nee Grier) (1733-1811), were from County Durham, England. Their son James Grier Ward (1765-1824) was born in Dauphin, Pennsylvania and married Catherine Rogers (1776-1829), and their daughter, Marie Ward, was Custer's mother. Catherine Rogers was a daughter of Thomas Rogers and Sarah Armstrong, which is the source of Custer's middle name. County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Early life

USMA Cadet George Armstrong "Autie" Custer, ca. 1859
USMA Cadet George Armstrong "Autie" Custer, ca. 1859

Custer spent much of his boyhood living with his half-sister and his brother-in-law in Monroe, Michigan, where he attended school and is now honored by a statue in the center of town. [2] Before entering the United States Military Academy, Custer attended the McNeely Normal School, later known as Hopedale Normal College, in Hopedale, Ohio and known as the first coeducational college for teachers in eastern Ohio. While attending Hopedale, Custer, together with classmate William Enos Emery, was known to have carried coal to help pay for their room and board. Custer graduated from McNeely Normal School in 1856 and taught school in Ohio. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Monroe is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... USMA redirects here. ... Hopedale is a village located in Harrison County, Ohio. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Custer graduated last in the Class of June 1861 from West Point, just after the start of the Civil War. [3] Ordinarily, such a showing would be a ticket to an obscure posting and career, but he had the fortune to graduate just as the war caused the army to experience a sudden need for new officers. His tenure at the academy was a rocky one and he came close to expulsion each of his four years due to excessive demerits, many from pulling pranks on fellow cadets. But he began a path to a distinguished war record, one that has been overshadowed in history by his role and fate in the Indian Wars. Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ...


Civil War

McClellan and Pleasonton

Second Lieutenant George Custer (right) with captured Confederate Lieutenant Washington, at Fair Oaks, 1862 (Library of Congress)
Second Lieutenant George Custer (right) with captured Confederate Lieutenant Washington, at Fair Oaks, 1862 (Library of Congress)

Custer was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 2nd U.S. Cavalry and immediately joined his regiment at the First Battle of Bull Run, where Army commander Winfield Scott detailed him to carry messages to Major General Irvin McDowell. After the battle he was reassigned to the 5th U.S. Cavalry, with which he served through the early days of the Peninsula Campaign in 1862. During the pursuit of Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston up the Peninsula, on May 24, 1862, Custer persuaded a colonel to allow him to lead an attack with four companies of Michigan infantry across the Chickahominy River above New Bridge. The attack was successful, capturing 50 Confederates. Major General George B. McClellan, commander of the Army of the Potomac, termed it a "very gallant affair", congratulated Custer personally, and brought him onto his staff as an aide-de-camp with the temporary rank of captain. In this role, Custer began his lifelong pursuit of publicity. On one occasion when McClellan and his staff were reconnoitering a potential crossing point on the Chickahominy River, they stopped and Custer overheard his commander mutter to himself, "I wish I knew how deep it is." Custer dashed forward on his horse out to the middle of the river and turned to the astonished officers of the staff and shouted triumphantly, "That's how deep it is, General!" Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Chickahominy also known as the Chick is a river in the southeastern portion of the U.S. state of Virginia, near which several battles of the United States Civil War were fought in 1862 and 1864. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... Chickahominy also known as the Chick is a river in the southeastern portion of the U.S. state of Virginia, near which several battles of the United States Civil War were fought in 1862 and 1864. ...

Custer (extreme right) with President Lincoln, George B. McClellan and other officers at the Battle of Antietam, 1862
Custer (extreme right) with President Lincoln, George B. McClellan and other officers at the Battle of Antietam, 1862

When McClellan was relieved of command in November 1862, Custer reverted to the rank of first lieutenant. Custer fell into the orbit of Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton, who was commanding a cavalry division. The general was Custer's introduction to the world of extravagant uniforms and political maneuvering and the young lieutenant became his protégé, serving on Pleasonton's staff while continuing his assignment with his regiment. Custer was quoted as saying that "no father could love his son more than General Pleasonton loves me." After the Battle of Chancellorsville, Pleasonton became the commander of the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac and his first assignment was to locate the army of Robert E. Lee, moving north through the Shenandoah Valley in the beginning of the Gettysburg Campaign. In his first command, Custer affected a showy, personalized uniform style that alienated his men, but he won them over with his readiness to lead attacks (a contrast to the many officers who would hang back, hoping to avoid being hit); his men began to adopt elements of his uniform customization. Custer distinguished himself by fearless, aggressive actions in some of the numerous cavalry engagements that started off the campaign, including Brandy Station and Aldie. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1226x909, 394 KB)Photographed, cropped, and image-enhanced by Hal Jespersen. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1226x909, 394 KB)Photographed, cropped, and image-enhanced by Hal Jespersen. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... First Lieutenant is a military rank. ... Alfred Pleasonton Alfred Pleasonton was a U.S. Army officer and general of Union cavalry during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[1] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[1] The Battle of... // For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Alfred Pleasonton J.E.B. Stuart Strength 11,000 9,500 Casualties 907 (69 killed, 352 wounded, 486 missing/captured)[1] 523[1] The Battle of Brandy Station was the largest predominantly cavalry engagement of the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Aldie took place on June 17, 1863, in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ...


Brigade command and Gettysburg

Three days prior to the Battle of Gettysburg, General Pleasonton promoted Custer from captain to brevet brigadier general (temporary rank) of volunteers. Despite having no direct command experience, he became one of the youngest generals in the Union Army at age 23. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ...


Two captains—Wesley Merritt and Elon J. Farnsworth—received the same promotion along with Custer, although they did have command experience. Custer lost no time in implanting his aggressive character on his brigade, part of the division of Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick. He fought against the Confederate cavalry of J.E.B. Stuart at Hanover and Hunterstown, on the way to the main event at Gettysburg. Wesley Merritt (June 16, 1834 – December 3, 1910) was a general in the U.S. Army during the American Civil War and the Spanish-American War. ... Elon John Farnsworth (July 30, 1837 – July 3, 1863) was a Union Army cavalry general in the American Civil War, killed at the Battle of Gettysburg. ... Hugh Judson Kilpatrick (1836-1881) Hugh Judson Kilpatrick (14 January 1836 near Deckertown, New Jersey – 4 December 1881 in Santiago, Chile) was a officer in the Union army during the American Civil War achieving the rank of Brevet Major General, the United States Minister to Chile, and a failed... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Hanover took place on June 30, 1863, in York County, Pennsylvania as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Hunterstown was a minor cavalry engagement in Adams County, Pennsylvania, on July 2, 1863, during the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ...


Custer's style of battle sometimes bordered on reckless or foolhardy. He often impulsively gathered up whatever cavalrymen he could find in his vicinity and led them personally in bold assaults directly into enemy positions. One of his greatest attributes during the Civil War was luck and he needed it to survive some of these charges. At Hunterstown, in an ill-considered charge ordered by Kilpatrick (but one that Custer did not protest) against the brigade of Wade Hampton, Custer fell from his wounded horse directly before the enemy and became the target of numerous enemy rifles. He was rescued by the bugler of the 1st Michigan Cavalry, Norville Churchill, who galloped up, shot Custer's nearest assailant, and allowed Custer to mount behind him for a dash to safety. Wade Hampton during the Civil War Wade Hampton III (March 28, 1818 – April 11, 1902) was a Confederate cavalry leader during the American Civil War and afterwards a politician from South Carolina, representing it as governor and U.S. Senator. ...


Possibly Custer's finest hour in the Civil War was just east of Gettysburg on July 3, 1863. In conjunction with Pickett's Charge to the west, Robert E. Lee dispatched Stuart's cavalry on a mission into the rear of the Union Army. Custer encountered the Union cavalry division of David McM. Gregg, directly in the path of Stuart's horsemen. He convinced Gregg to allow him to stay and fight, while his own division was stationed to the south out of the action. At East Cavalry Field, hours of charges and hand-to-hand combat ensued. Custer led a mounted charge of the 1st Michigan Cavalry, breaking the back of the Confederate assault. Custer's brigade lost 257 men at Gettysburg, the highest loss of any Union cavalry brigade.[4] is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... David McM. Gregg David McMurtrie Gregg (April 10, 1833 – August 7, 1916) was a farmer, diplomat, and a Union cavalry general in the American Civil War. ... On the Third Day of the Battle of Gettysburg (July 3, 1863) in the American Civil War, the attention of history has focused on the disastrous infantry assault nicknamed Picketts Charge. ...


Marriage

George and Libbie Custer, 1864
George and Libbie Custer, 1864

He married Elizabeth Clift Bacon (1842–1933) on February 9, 1864. She was born in Monroe, Michigan, to Daniel Stanton Bacon and Eleanor Sophia Page. They had no children together.[citation needed] Following the Battle of Washita River in November 1868, Custer was alleged (by Captain Frederick Benteen, chief of scouts Ben Clark, and Cheyenne oral tradition) to have had a sexual relationship during the winter and early spring of 1868-1869 with Monaseetah, daughter of the Cheyenne chief Little Rock (killed in the Washita battle).[5] Monahsetah gave birth to a child in January 1869, two months after the Washita battle; Cheyenne oral history also alleges that she bore a second child, fathered by Custer, in late 1869.[5] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2808x3712, 833 KB) Permission PD Note: some large areas of damage touched up by Dave Pape. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2808x3712, 833 KB) Permission PD Note: some large areas of damage touched up by Dave Pape. ... George and Libbie Custer Elizabeth Bacon Custer (April 8, 1842 - April 6, 1933) was the wife of General George Armstrong Custer. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Monroe is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Combatants United States Cheyenne Commanders George A. Custer Black Kettle†, Little Rock † Strength 7th Cavalry Regiment ~250 warriors and civilians (150 warriors, 100 civilians) [2]. The children were moved by Black Kettle in an other village downstream prior to the battle. ... Mo-nah-se-tah or Mo-nah-see-tah[1] (c. ...


The Valley and Appomattox

When the cavalry corps of the Army of the Potomac was reorganized under Philip Sheridan in 1864, Custer retained his command, and took part in the various actions of the cavalry in the Overland Campaign, including the Battle of the Wilderness (after which he ascended to division command), the Battle of Yellow Tavern, where Jeb Stuart was mortally wounded, and the Battle of Trevilian Station, where Custer was humiliated by having his division trains overrun and his personal baggage captured by the Confederates. When Confederate General Jubal A. Early moved down the Shenandoah Valley and threatened Washington, D.C., Custer's division was dispatched along with Sheridan to the Valley Campaigns of 1864. They pursued the Confederates at Winchester and effectively destroyed Early's army during Sheridan's counterattack at Cedar Creek. Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign The Overland Campaign, also known as Grants Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 101,895 61,025 Casualties 18,400 11,400 For the French and Indian War battle, see Battle of the Wilderness 1755. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... On May 11th, 1864, Confederate General Jeb Stuart was shot at Yellow Tavern by a Union sharpshooter at a distance of 30 feet (10 m). ... The Battle of Trevilian Station (also called Trevilians) was fought June 11–12, 1864, in Union General Ulysses Grants Overland Campaign against Confederate Gen. ... Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... The Battle of Opequon, also known as the Third Battle of Winchester, was a decisive victory for the Union army during the Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Horatio G. Wright Philip H. Sheridan Jubal A. Early Strength 31,945 21,000 Casualties 5,665 2,910 The Battle of Cedar Creek, or The Battle of Belle Grove, October 19, 1864, was one of the final, and most...

Brevet Major General George Armstrong Custer, US Army, 1865
Brevet Major General George Armstrong Custer, US Army, 1865

Custer and Sheridan, having defeated Early, returned to the main Union Army lines at the Siege of Petersburg, where they spent the winter. In April 1865 the Confederate lines were finally broken and Robert E. Lee began his retreat to Appomattox Court House, pursued by the Union cavalry. Custer distinguished himself by his actions at Waynesboro, Dinwiddie Court House, and Five Forks. His division blocked Lee's retreat on its final day and received the first flag of truce from the Confederate force. Custer was present at the surrender at Appomattox Court House and the table upon which the surrender was signed was presented to him as a gift for his gallantry. Before the close of the war Custer received brevet promotions to brigadier and major general in the Regular Army and major general in the volunteers. As with most wartime promotions, these senior ranks were only temporary. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 550 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (673 × 733 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 550 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (673 × 733 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Strength 67,000 – 125,000 average of 52,000 Casualties 53,386 ~32,000 The Richmond-Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 15, 1864, to March... Eastern Theater operations in 1865 The Appomattox Campaign (March 29 – April 9, 1865) was a series of battles fought in Virginia that culminated in the surrender of Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia and the effective end of the American Civil War. ... McLean house, April 1865. ... The Battle of Waynesboro, was fought on March 2, 1865, in Augusta County, Virginia, in the American Civil War. ... Battle of Dinwiddie Court House Conflict American Civil War Date March 31, 1865 Place Dinwiddie County Result Confederate victory On March 29, with the Cavalry Corps and the II and V Corps, Sheridan undertook a flank march to turn Gen. ... Battle of Five Forks Conflict American Civil War Date April 1, 1865 Place Dinwiddie County Result Union victory The Battle of Five Forks, April 1, 1865, was the final Union offensive in the American Civil War. ... The Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army or any Countrys army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ...


Indian Wars

Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer, 7th U.S. Cavalry, ca. 1875
Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer, 7th U.S. Cavalry, ca. 1875

On February 1, 1866, Custer was mustered out of the volunteer service and was reduced to the rank of captain in the regular army, assigned to the Fifth U.S. Cavalry. Custer took an extended leave, exploring options in New York City,[6] where he considered careers in railroads and mining.[7] Offered a position as adjutant general of the army of Benito Juárez of Mexico, who was then in a struggle with Maximilian, Custer applied for a one-year leave of absence from the U.S. Army, but his appointment was blocked by U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward, who feared offending France.[7] Following the death of his father-in-law in May 1866, Custer returned to Monroe, Michigan, where he considered running for Congress and took part in public discussion over the treatment of the American South in the aftermath of the Civil War, advocating a policy of moderation.[7] In September 1866 he accompanied President Andrew Johnson on a train journey to build up public support for Johnson's policies towards the South. Custer denied a charge by the newspapers that Johnson had promised him a colonel's commission in return for his support, though Custer had written to Johnson some weeks before seeking such a commission.[8] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Benito Juárez (disambiguation). ... Maximilian or Maximillian (sometimes Maximilia) is a name of Latin origin meaning greatest. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ...


Custer was offered command of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment (otherwise known as the Buffalo Soldiers) with the rank of full colonel,[citation needed] but turned the command down in favor of a lieutenant colonelcy of the newly created U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment,[9] headquartered at Fort Riley, Kansas.[10] As a result of a plea by his patron General Philip Sheridan, Custer was also recipient of a brevet rank of major general.[9] He then took part in General Winfield Scott Hancock's expedition against the Cheyenne in 1867. The 10th Cavalry Regiment was a unit in the United States Army. ... Buffalo Soldiers was the name given by the Plains Indians to the United States Army regiments composed of African-American soldiers that served on the American frontier after the Civil War. ... 7th Cavalry Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia The 7th United States Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage traces back to the mid-19th century. ... Fort Riley is a census-designated place and United States Army post, in Northeast Kansas, on the Kansas River. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 – February 9, 1886) was a career U.S. Army officer and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1880. ... For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ...


His career took a brief detour following the Hancock campaign when he was court-martialed at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas for being AWOL, after abandoning his post to see his wife, and was suspended for duty for one year. He returned to duty in 1868, before his term of suspension had expired, at the request of General Philip Sheridan, who wanted Custer for his planned winter campaign against the Cheyenne. A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... In 1827, Colonel Henry Leavenworth established a post on the bluffs overlooking the western bank of the Missouri River to protect the fur trade, safeguard commerce on the Santa Fe Trail and maintain the peace among the inhabitants. ... AWOL (pronounced a-wall) is an acronym for the United States and other armed forces expression Absent WithOut Leave or Absence Without Official Leave. The United States Marine Corps and the United States Navy use the term Unauthorized Absence (UA) instead. ... Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ...


Under Sheridan's orders, Custer took part in establishing Camp Supply in Indian Territory in early November 1868 as a supply base for the winter campaign. Custer then led the 7th U.S. Cavalry in an attack on the Cheyenne encampment of Black Kettle - the Battle of Washita River on November 27, 1868. Custer reported killing 103 warriors, though estimates by the Cheyenne themselves of the number of Indian casualties were substantially lower; some women and children were also killed, and 53 women and children were taken prisoner. Custer had his men shoot most of the 875 Indian ponies the troops had captured. This was regarded as the first substantial U.S. victory in the Indian Wars, helping to force a significant portion of the Southern Cheyennes onto a U.S. appointed reservation. Fort Supply is a town in Woodward County, Oklahoma, United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants United States Cheyenne Commanders George A. Custer Black Kettle†, Little Rock † Strength 7th Cavalry Regiment ~250 warriors and civilians (150 warriors, 100 civilians) [2]. The children were moved by Black Kettle in an other village downstream prior to the battle. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Native Americans Colonial America/United States of America Indian Wars is the name generally used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the colonial and federal government and the indigenous peoples. ...


In 1873, he was sent to the Dakota Territory to protect a railroad survey party against the Sioux. On August 4, 1873, near the Tongue River, Custer and the 7th U.S. Cavalry clashed for the first time with the Sioux. Only one man on each side was killed. In 1874, Custer led an expedition into the Black Hills and announced the discovery of gold on French Creek near present-day Custer, South Dakota. Custer's announcement triggered the Black Hills Gold Rush and gave rise to the lawless town of Deadwood, South Dakota. Dakota Territory was the name of the northernmost part of the Louisiana Purchase of the United States. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... The Sioux (pronounced ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Tongue River The Tongue River is a tributary of the Yellowstone, approximately 265 mi (426 km) long, in the U.S. states of Wyoming and Montana. ... This article is about the place in South Dakota. ... French Creek is an intermittent stream located in the Black Hills region of western South Dakota. ... Custer is a city located in Custer County, South Dakota. ... The Black Hills Gold Rush took place in the Dakotas and parts of Montana and is general considered to have started 1860-70. ... A photograph of Deadwood in 1876. ...


Battle of the Little Bighorn

An 1899 chromolithograph entitled Custer Massacre at Big Horn, Montana — June 25, 1876, artist unknown.
An 1899 chromolithograph entitled Custer Massacre at Big Horn, Montana — June 25, 1876, artist unknown.

By the time of Custer's expedition to the Black Hills in 1874, the level of conflict and tension between the U.S. and many plains Indians tribes (including the Lakota Sioux and the Cheyenne) had become exceedingly high. Indians killed settlers and railroad workers, white Americans continually broke treaty agreements and advanced further westward. To take possession of the Black Hills (and thus the gold deposits), and to stop Indian attacks, the U.S. decided to corral all remaining free plains Indians. The Grant government set a deadline of January 31, 1876 for all Lakota and Northern Cheyenne to report to their designated agencies (reservations) or be considered a "hostile". Combatants Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho United States Commanders Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse George A. Custer â€ , Marcus Reno, Frederick Benteen, James Calhoun â€  Strength 949 lodges (probably 950-1,200 warriors) 31 officers, 566 troopers, 15 armed civilians, ~35-40 scouts Casualties At least 54 killed, ~168 wounded (according to Sitting Bull... Image File history File links Custer_Massacre_At_Big_Horn,_Montana_June_25_1876. ... Image File history File links Custer_Massacre_At_Big_Horn,_Montana_June_25_1876. ... Chromolithography was the first method for making true multi color prints. ... The Lakota (IPA: ) (also Lakhota, Teton, Titonwon) are a Native American tribe. ... For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The 7th Cavalry departed from Fort Lincoln on May 17, 1876, part of a larger army force planning to round up remaining free Indians. Meanwhile, in the spring and summer of 1876, the Hunkpapa Lakota chief Sitting Bull had called together the largest ever gathering of plains Indians at Ash Creek, Montana (later moved to the Little Bighorn River) to discuss what to do about whites.[11] It was this encampment of Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians that the 7th met at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sitting Bull (Sioux: Tatanka Iyotake or Tatanka Iyotanka or Ta-Tanka I-Yotank, first named Slon-he, (Slow), (c. ...


On June 25, some of Custer's Crow Indian scouts identified what they claimed was a large Indian encampment along the Little Bighorn River. Custer divided his forces into three battalions: one led by Major Marcus Reno, one by Captain Frederick Benteen, and one by himself. Captain Thomas M. McDougall and Company B were with the pack train. Benteen was sent south and west, to cut off any attempted escape by the Indians, Reno was sent north to charge the southern end of the encampment, and Custer rode north, hidden to the east of the encampment by bluffs, and planning to circle around and attack from the north.[12][13] is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Crow, also called the Absaroka or Apsáalooke, are a tribe of Native Americans who historically lived in the Yellowstone river valley and now live on a reservation south of Billings, Montana, and the current chairman of the tribal council is Carl Venne. ... The Little Bighorn River The Little Bighorn River is a tributary of the Bighorn River in the United States in the states of Wyoming and Montana. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Marcus Reno Marcus Albert Reno was a career military officer in the American Civil War and in the Black Hills War against the Lakota (Sioux) and Northern Cheyenne. ... Frederick Benteen circa 1865 Frederick Benteen in his later years Frederick William Benteen (August 24, 1834-June 22, 1898) was a military officer during the American Civil War and then during the Black Hills War against the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne. ...


Reno began a charge on the southern end of the village, but halted midway and had his men dismount and form a skirmish line.[14][13] They were soon overcome by the Lakota and Cheyenne warriors, and first attempted to take cover in the trees along the river, but were eventually forced into a bloody retreat up onto the bluffs above the river, where they made their own stand.[15][16] This, the opening action of the battle, cost Reno a quarter of his command.


Meanwhile, unaware of Reno's failure, Custer had led his command to the northern end the main encampment, where he apparently planned to sandwich the Indians between his attacking troopers and Reno's command. He was driven from the ford at that end of the camp and was pursued by hundreds of warriors onto a ridge north of the encampment, where he was prevented from digging in by Crazy Horse, whose warriors had outflanked Custer and were now to his north, at the crest of the ridge.[17] Traditional white accounts attribute to Gall the attack that drove Custer up onto the ridge, but Indian witnesses have disputed that account.[18] For a time, Custer's men were deployed by company, in standard cavalry fighting formation--the skirmish line, with every fourth man holding the horses. This arrangement, however, robbed Custer of a quarter of his firepower, and as the fight intensified, many soldiers took to holding their own horses or hobbling them, further reducing their effective fire. When Crazy Horse and White Bull mounted the charge that broke through the center of Custer's lines, pandemonium broke out among the men of Calhoun's and Keogh's command.[19] Many of the panicking soldiers threw down their weapons[20] and either rode or ran towards the knoll where Custer, the other officers, and about 40 men were making a stand. Along the way, the Indians rode them down, counting coup by whacking the fleeing troopers with their quirts or lances.[21]


Initially, Custer had 208 officers and men under his command, with an additional 142 under Reno and just over a hundred under Benteen. The Indians fielded over 1800 warriors,[22] although historically, the numbers do seem to have been exaggerated to explain Custer's defeat, and again, to exculpate him from his numerous errors before and during the battle. As the troopers were cut down, moreover, the Indians stripped the dead of their firearms and ammunition, with the result that the return fire from the cavalry steadily decreased, while the fire from the Indians steadily increased. With Custer and the survivors shooting the remaining horses to use them as breastworks and making a final stand on the knoll at the north end of the ridge, the Indians closed in for the final attack and killed all in Custer's command. As a result, the Battle of the Little Bighorn has come to be popularly known as "Custer's Last Stand".


When the cavalry's main column did arrive three days later, they found most of the soldiers' corpses stripped, scalped, and mutilated.[23] Custer’s body had two bullet holes, one in the left temple and one just above the heart.[24] Following the recovery of Custer's body, he was given a funeral with full military honors, and was buried on the battlefield, and later reinterred in the West Point Cemetery on October 10, 1877. The site of the battle was designated a National Cemetery in 1876. West Point Cemetery is an historic cemetery on the grounds of the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A National Cemetery is a designation for nationally important cemeteries in the United States. ...


Controversial legacy

George A. Custer in civilian clothes, ca. 1876

After his death, Custer achieved the lasting fame that eluded him in life. The public saw him as a tragic military hero and gentleman who sacrificed his life for his country. Custer's wife, Elizabeth, who accompanied him in many of his frontier expeditions, did much to advance this view with the publication of several books about her late husband: Boots and Saddles, Life with General Custer in Dakota (1885), Tenting on the Plains (1887), and Following the Guidon (1891). General Custer himself wrote about the Indian wars in My Life on the Plains (1874) and was the posthumous co-author of The Custer Story (1950). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... George and Libbie Custer Elizabeth Bacon Custer (April 8, 1842 - April 6, 1933) was the wife of General George Armstrong Custer. ...


Today Custer would be called a "media personality" who understood the value of good public relations and exploited media for his own ends; he frequently invited correspondents to accompany him on his campaigns, and their favorable reportage contributed to his high reputation that lasted well into the 20th century. It is believed that Custer was photographed more than any other Civil War officer,[citation needed] and perhaps more than any other person in the 19th century with the exception of "Buffalo Bill" Cody. After being promoted to brigadier general, Custer sported a uniform that included shiny jackboots, tight olive corduroy trousers, a wide-brimmed slouch hat, tight hussar jacket of black velveteen with silver piping on the sleeves, a sailor shirt with silver stars on his collar, and a red cravat. He wore his hair in long glistening ringlets liberally sprinkled with cinnamon-scented hair oil. Later in his campaigns against the Indians, Custer wore a buckskin outfit along with his familiar red tie.


The assessment of Custer's actions during the Indian Wars has undergone substantial reconsideration in modern times[citation needed]. For many critics, Custer was the personification of the U.S. Government's ill-treatment of the Native American tribes, while others see him as a scapegoat for the Grant Indian policy, which he personally opposed.[citation needed] His testimony on behalf of the abuses sustained by the reservation Indians nearly cost him his command by the Grant administration. Custer once wrote that if he were an Indian, he would rather fight for his freedom alongside the hostile warriors "than be confined to the limits of a reservation".[citation needed]


Many criticized Custer's actions during the battle of the Little Bighorn, claiming his actions were impulsive and foolish,[citation needed] while others praised him as a fallen hero who was betrayed by the incompetence of his subordinate officers.[citation needed] The controversy over who is to blame for the disaster at Little Bighorn continues to this day.


Monuments and memorials

Custer Memorial at his birthplace in New Rumley, Ohio

* Counties are named in Custer's honor in five states: Colorado, Montana, Nebraska, Oklahoma and South Dakota. Custer County, Idaho, is named for the General Custer mine, which, in turn, was named after Custer. There are several townships named for Custer in Minnesota and Michigan. There are also the towns of Custer, Michigan, Custer, South Dakota, Custar, Ohio, and the unincorporated town of Custer, Wisconsin. A portion of Monroe County, Michigan, is informally referred to as "Custerville." [1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1150 KB)Statue of George Armstrong Custer at his birthplace in New Rumley, Ohio. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1150 KB)Statue of George Armstrong Custer at his birthplace in New Rumley, Ohio. ... New Rumley, Ohio is famous for being the birthplace of George Armstrong Custer. ... Custer County is a county located in the U.S. state of Colorado. ... Custer County is a county located in the state of Montana. ... Custer County is a county located in the state of Nebraska. ... Custer County is a county located in the state of Oklahoma. ... Custer County is a county located in the state of South Dakota. ... Custer County is a county located in the state of Idaho. ... Custer Township may refer to: Custer Township, Antrim County, Michigan Custer Township, Mason County, Michigan Custer Township, Sanilac County, Michigan Custer Township, Minnesota This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Monroe County is a county located in the state of Michigan. ...

  • There is an equestrian statue of Custer in Monroe, Michigan, his boyhood home. Originally located near city hall, in the center of town, it was moved years later to Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Park, a small park near the River Raisin and away from the main thoroughfares of the city. Due to lobbying by Libbie Custer and others, it was eventually moved to its current location, on the corner of Monroe and Elm Streets, on the edge of downtown Monroe.
  • Fort Custer National Military Reservation, near Augusta, Michigan, was built in 1917 on 130 parcels of land, mainly small farms leased to the government by the local chamber of commerce as part of the military mobilization for World War I. During the war, some 90,000 troops passed through Camp Custer. Following the Armistice of 1918, the camp became a demobilization base for over 100,000 men. In the years following World War I, the camp was used to train the Officer Reserve Corps and the Civilian Conservation Corps. On August 17, 1940, Camp Custer was designated Fort Custer and became a permanent military training base. During World War II, more than 300,000 troops trained there, including the famed 5th Infantry Division (also known as the "Red Diamond Division") which left for combat in Normandy, France, June 1944. Fort Custer also served as a prisoner of war camp for 5,000 German soldiers until 1945. Today Fort Custer's training facilities are used by the Michigan National Guard and other branches of the armed forces, primarily from Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana. Many Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) students from colleges in Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana also train at this facility, as well as do the FBI, the Michigan State Police, and various other law enforcement agencies. (https://www.mi.ngb.army.mil/ftcuster/default.asp)
  • The establishment of Fort Custer National Cemetery (originally Fort Custer Post Cemetery) took place on September 18, 1943, with the first interment. As early as the 1960s, local politicians and veterans organizations advocated the establishment of a national cemetery at Fort Custer. The National Cemeteries Act of 1973 directed the Veterans' Administration to develop a plan to provide burial space to all veterans who desired interment in a national cemetery. After much study, the NCS adopted what became the regional concept. Fort Custer became the Veterans' Administration's choice for its Region V national cemetery. Toward this goal, Congress created Fort Custer National Cemetery in September 1981. The cemetery received 566 acres from the Fort Custer Military Reservation and 203 acres from the VA Medical Center. The first burial took place on June 1, 1982. At the same time, approximately 2,600 gravesites were available in the post cemetery, which made it possible for veterans to be buried there while the new facility was being developed. On Memorial Day 1982, more than 33 years after the first resolution had been introduced in Congress, impressive ceremonies marked the official opening of the cemetery.(http://www.cem.va.gov/nchp/ftcuster.htm)
  • The Black Hills of South Dakota is full of evidence of Custer, with a county, town, and the Custer State Park all located in the area.
  • Custer Observatory is the oldest observatory on Long Island. Located in Southold, New York, it was founded in 1927 by Charles Elmer (co-founder of the Perkin-Elmer Optical Company ), along with a group of fellow amateur-astronomers. This name was chosen to honor the hospitality of Mrs. Elmer, formerly May Custer, the Grand Niece of General George Armstrong Custer.

The Battle of the Little Bighorn—which is also called Custers Last Stand and Custer Massacre and, in the parlance of the relevant Native Americans, the Battle of the Greasy Grass—was an armed engagement between a Lakota-Northern Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry of the United... Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument preserves the site of the June 26, 1876 Battle of the Little Bighorn, near Crow Agency, Montana. ... Monroe is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Augusta is a village in Kalamazoo County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... CCC workers on road construction, Camp Euclid, Ohio 1936 The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a work relief program for young men from unemployed families, established on March 19, 1933 by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Distinctive unit insignia of the 5th Infantry Division. ... ROTC links here. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The Michigan State Police is the state police agency for the State of Michigan. ... Fort Custer National Cemetery is a United States National Cemetery located in Augusta, in Kalamazoo County, Michigan. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Fort Riley is a United States Army installation in northeastern Kansas, near Manhattan and Junction City. ... The 85th Infantry Division was activated on 15 May 1942. ... Custer State Park is a state park in South Dakota. ... Custer Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Custer Institute. ... Charles Wesley Elmer (1872-1954) was an American amateur astronomer and court reporter who co-founded the Perkin-Elmer optical company in 1937. ...

See also

George Armstrong Custer (1839 – 1876) was a United States Army cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Custer in the 1850 US Census in North Township, Ohio
  2. ^ Boston Custer in the 1870 US Census in Monroe, Michigan
  3. ^ Custer in the 1860 US Census at West Point
  4. ^ Tagg, p. 185.
  5. ^ a b Utley 2001, p. 107.
  6. ^ Utley 2001, p. 38.
  7. ^ a b c Utley 2001, p. 39.
  8. ^ Utley 2001, pp. 39-40.
  9. ^ a b Utley 2001, p. 40.
  10. ^ Utley 2001, p. 41.
  11. ^ Marshall 2007, pg. 15
  12. ^ Welch 2007, pg. 149
  13. ^ a b Ambrose 1996, pg. 437
  14. ^ Marshall 2007, pg. 2
  15. ^ Marshall 2007, pg. 4
  16. ^ Ambrose 1996, pg. 439
  17. ^ Marshall 2007, pp. 7-8.
  18. ^ cf. Michno, 1997, p. 168.
  19. ^ Michno, 1997, pp. 205-206
  20. ^ Welch 2007, pg. 183
  21. ^ cf. Michno, 1997. pp. 205-206: testimony of White Bull; p. 215: testimony of Yellow Nose.
  22. ^ cf. Michno, 1997, pp. 10-20; Michno settles on a low number around 1000, but other sources place the number at 1800 or 2000, especially in the works by Utley and Fox. The 1800-2000 figure is substantially lower than the higher numbers of 3000 or more postulated by Ambrose, Gray, Scott and others.
  23. ^ Marshall 2007, pg. 11; Welch 2007, pp. 175-181
  24. ^ Welch 2007, pg. 175

Filled-out census-takers form from 1850 US Census, including household of Abraham Lincoln The United States Census of 1850 was the seventh census of the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... 1870 US Census The United States Census of 1870 was the ninth United States Census. ... Monroe is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... 1860 US Census The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States. ... Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ...

References

  • Ambrose, Stephen E. (1996 [1975]). Crazy Horse and Custer: The Parallel Lives of Two American Warriors. New York: Anchor Books.
  • Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. 
  • Goodrich, Thomas. Scalp Dance: Indian Warfare on the High Plains, 1865-1879. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1997.
  • Gray, John S. (1993). Custer’s Last Campaign: Mitch Boyer and the Little Bighorn Remembered. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-7040-2. 
  • Longacre, Edward G. (2000). Lincoln's Cavalrymen: A History of the Mounted Forces of the Army of the Potomac. Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1049-1.
  • Mails, Thomas E. Mystic Warriors of the Plains. New York: Marlowe & Co., 1996.
  • Marshall, Joseph M. III. (2007). The Day the World Ended at Little Bighorn: A Lakota History. New York: Viking Press.
  • Merington, Marguerite, Ed. The Custer Story: The Life and Intimate Letters of General Custer and his Wife Elizabeth. (1950)
  • Michno, Gregory F. (1997). Lakota Noon: The Indian Narrative of Custer's Defeat. Mountain Press Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8784-2349-4.
  • Perrett, Bryan. Last Stand: Famous Battles Against the Odds. London: Arms & Armour, 1993.
  • Scott, Douglas D., Richard A. Fox, Melissa A. Connor, and Dick Harmon. (1989). Archaeological Perspectives on the Battle of the Little Bighorn. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3292-2. 
  • Punke, Michael, "Last Stand: George Bird Grinnell, the Battle to Save the Buffalo, and the Birth of the New West", Smithsonian Books, 2007, ISBN 978 0 06 089782 6
  • Tagg, Larry. (1988). The Generals of Gettysburg. Savas Publishing. ISBN 1-882810-30-9.
  • Utley, Robert M. (2001). Cavalier in Buckskin: George Armstrong Custer and the Western Military Frontier, revised edition. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3387-2.
  • Vestal, Stanley. Warpath: The True Story of the Fighting Sioux Told in a Biography of Chief White Bull. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1934.
  • Warner, Ezra J. (1964). Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-0822-7. 
  • Welch, James, with Paul Stekler. (2007 [1994]). Killing Custer: The Battle of Little Bighorn and the Fate of the Plains Indians. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
  • Wert, Jeffry D. Custer: The controversial life of George Armstrong Custer. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1964/1996. ISBN 0-684-83275-5.
  • Wittenberg, Eric J. (2001). Glory Enough for All : Sheridan's Second Raid and the Battle of Trevilian Station. Brassey's Inc. ISBN 1-57488-353-4. 

George Bird Grinnell (1849 – 1938) was an American anthropologist, historian, naturalist, and writer. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Find A Grave: George Armstrong Custer
  • The Friends of the Little Bighorn Battlefield
  • Appleton's Biography, edited by Stanley L. Klos
  • Little Big Horn Associates
  • General Custer website
  • Reincarnation? Patton was Custer was Murat?
  • Custer Died in Victory!
  • Reno, Marcus A., The official record of a court of inquiry convened at Chicago, Illinois, January 13, 1879, by the President of the United States upon the request of Major Marcus A. Reno, 7th U.S. Cavalry, to investigate his conduct at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, June 25-26, 1876.
  • Newson, T. M., Thrilling scenes among the Indians. With a graphic description of Custer's last fight with Sitting Bull
  • Victor, Frances Fuller, Eleven years in the Rocky Mountains and life on the frontier also a history of the Sioux war, and a life Gen. George A. Custer, with a full account of his last battle
  • Whittaker, Frederick, A complete life of Gen. George A. Custer: Major-General of Volunteers; Brevet Major-General, U.S. Army; and Lieutenant-Colonel, Seventh U.S. Cavalry
  • Finerty, John F., War-path and bivouac: or, The conquest of the Sioux: a narrative of stirring personal experiences and adventures in the Big Horn and Yellowstone expedition of 1876, and in the campaign on the British border, in 1879
  • Walter Mason Camp Collection includes Photographs of Custer and Indian Wars of North America
  • Interview with James S. Robbins on Custer's record at West Point and Fred Chiaventone on Little Big Horn at the Pritzker Military Library
  • http://www.kylegann.com/Custernotes.html - Kyle Gann's music, Custer and Sitting Bull
  • Custer's riding boots, Kansas Museum of History
Persondata
NAME Custer, George Armstrong
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION United States Army cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars
DATE OF BIRTH December 5, 1839
PLACE OF BIRTH New Rumley, Ohio, United States
DATE OF DEATH June 25, 1876
PLACE OF DEATH Little Big Horn, Montana, United States

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Pritzker Military Library is a research library for the study of military history in Chicago, Illinois. ... Kyle Gann (born November 21 1955) is a composer and music critic born in Dallas, Texas. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants Native Americans Colonial America/United States of America Indian Wars is the name generally used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the colonial and federal government and the indigenous peoples. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... New Rumley, Ohio is famous for being the birthplace of George Armstrong Custer. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument preserves the site of the June 26, 1876 Battle of the Little Bighorn, near Crow Agency, Montana. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
PBS - THE WEST - George Armstrong Custer (818 words)
In July of 1866 Custer was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the Seventh Cavalry.
Custer was sent to the Northern Plains in 1873, where he soon participated in a few small skirmishes with the Lakota in the Yellowstone area.
Custer, however, advanced much more quickly than he had been ordered to do, and neared what he thought was a large Indian village on the morning of June 25, 1876.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m