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Encyclopedia > George, Duke of Saxony

George the Bearded, Duke of Saxony (b. Meissen, 27 August 1471 - d. Dresden, 17 April 1539), was duke of Saxony from 1500 to 1539. Image File history File links Georg,_Herzog_von_Sachsen. ... Image File history File links Georg,_Herzog_von_Sachsen. ... A self portrait Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472 – October 16, 1553) was a German painter. ... Old town of Meißen. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... For other uses, see Dresden (disambiguation). ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918 The original Duchy of Saxony was in Northern Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and Westphalia. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ...


Duke Georg was a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Ferdinand I Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, with the collar of the Order The Order of the Golden Fleece (Spanish: Orden del Toisón de Oro) is an order of chivalry founded in 1430 by Duke Philip III of Burgundy to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabelle of...

Contents

Early life

His father was Albert the Brave of Saxony, founder of the Albertine line of the Wettin family, still the ruling line of Saxony, his mother was Sidonie, daughter of George Podiebrad, King of Bohemia. Elector Frederick the Wise, a member of the Ernestine branch of the same family, known for his protection of Luther, was a cousin of Duke George. Albert Wettin (January 27, 1443 – September 12, 1500), Duke of Saxony, surnamed the Bold or the Courageous, was the younger son of Frederick II the Gentle. ... The Wettin dynasty of German counts, dukes, Prince Electors (Kurfürsten) and kings ruled the area of todays German state of Saxony for more than 800 years as well as holding for a time the kingship of Poland. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ... George of Podebrady - statue in KunÅ¡tát (Czech Republic). ... The Lands of the Bohemian Crown (Czech Země koruny české, Latin Corona regni Bohemiae) (e. ... Frederick in an engraved portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1524 Frederick III (January 17, 1463 – May 5, 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise, was Elector of Saxony (from the House of Wettin) from 1486 to his death. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


George, as the eldest son, received an excellent training in theology and other branches of learning, and was thus much better educated than most of the princes of his day.


As early as 1488, when his father was in Friesland fighting on behalf of the emperor, George was regent of the ducal possessions, which included the Margraviate of Meissen with the cities of Dresden and Leipzig. // January 8 - The present Royal Netherlands Navy was formed By decree of Maximillian of Austria. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... Meißen, with the Albrechtsburg and the Cathedral of Sts. ... For other uses, see Dresden (disambiguation). ...   [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state of Saxony in Germany with a population of over 504,000. ...


Marriage and Children

George was married at Dresden, on 21 November 1496, to Barbara of Poland, daughter of Casimir IV, King of Poland and Elisabeth, daughter of Albrecht II of Hungary. They had ten children, but all of whom, with the exception of a daughter, died before their father: November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1496 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Barbara of Poland (15 July 1478 — 15 February 1534) was a princess of Poland and a duchess of Saxony. ... Reign From 1446 until June 7, 1492 Coronation On June 25, 1447 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Władyslaw II Jagiełło Zofia Holszańska Consorts Elżbieta Rakuszanka (1438-1505) Children with Elżbieta Rakuszanka Władysław II Jagiellończyk Jadwiga Jagiellonka... Albert II Habsburg (August 10, 1397 - October 27, 1439), German ruler, king of Bohemia and Hungary, and (as Albert V) duke of Austria, was born on August 10, 1397, the son of Albert IV of Habsburg, duke of Austria. ...

  1. Christof (b. Dresden, 8 September 1497 - d. Leipzig, 5 December 1497).
  2. Johann (b. Dresden, 24 August 1498 - d. Dresden, 11 January 1537), Hereditary Duke of Saxony; married on 20 May 1516 to Elisabeth of Hesse. This union was childless.
  3. Wolfgang (b. Dresden, 1499 - d. Dresden, 12 January 1500).
  4. Anna (b. Dresden, 21 January 1500 - d. Dresden, 23 January 1500).
  5. Christof (b. and d. Dresden, 27 May 1501).
  6. Agnes (b. Dresden, 7 January 1503 - d. Dresden, 16 April 1503).
  7. Frederick (b. Dresden, 15 March 1504 - d. Dresden, 26 February 1539), Hereditary Duke of Saxony; married on 27 January 1539 to Elisabeth of Mansfeld. This union was childless.
  8. Christine (b. Dresden, 25 December 1505 - d. Kassel, 15 April 1549), married on 11 December 1523 to Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse.
  9. Magdalena (b. Dresden, 7 March 1507 - d. Berlin, 25 January 1534), married on 6 November 1524 to Joachim Hector, then Hereditary Elector of Brandenburg.
  10. Margarete (b. Dresden, 7 September 1508 - d. Dresden, 19 December 1510).

September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (141st in leap years). ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... 1499 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1503 (MDIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... Year 1503 (MDIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in leap years). ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... Philip I of Hesse and Christine of Saxony, by Jost v. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... Philip I of Hesse Philip I of HESSE, (13 November 1504 - 31 March 1567), was a leading champion of the Reformation and one of the most important German rulers of the Renaissance. ... Magdalena of Saxony was born 7 March 1507 and died 25 January 1534. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (67th in leap years). ... 1507 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... Joachim II, nicknamed Hector, was a margrave of Brandenburg and an Imperial Elector from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1510 (MDX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...

Duke of Saxony

In 1498, the emperor granted Albert the Brave the hereditary governorship of Friesland. At Maastricht, 14 February 1499, Albert settled the succession to his possessions, and endeavoured by this arrangement to prevent further partition of his domain. He died 12 September 1500, and was succeeded in his German territories by George as the head of the Albertine line, while George's brother Heinrich became hereditary governor of Friesland. 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province Limburg Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1499 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder Henry IV the Pious, Duke of Saxony (German: ) (16 March 1473 – 18 August 1541) was a Duke of Saxony from the House of Wettin. ...


The Saxon occupation of Friesland, however, was by no means secure and was the source of constant revolts in that province. Consequently Heinrich, who was of a rather inert disposition, relinquished his claims to the governorship, and in 1505 an agreement was made between the brothers by which Friesland was transferred to George, while Heinrich received an annuity and the districts of Freiberg and Wolkenstein. But this arrangement did not restore peace in Friesland, which continued to be an unceasing source of trouble to Saxony, until finally the duke was obliged, in 1515, to sell it to Burgundy for the very moderate price of 100,000 florins. These troubles outside of his Saxon possessions did not prevent George from bestowing much care on the government of the ducal territory proper. When regent, during the lifetime of his father, the difficulties arising from conflicting interests and the large demands on his powers had often brought the young prince to the verge of despair. 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Freiberg is the name of two cities in Germany (note there is also a Freiburg) Freiberg, Saxony Freiberg (Neckar) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wolkenstein is a town in the district Mittlerer Erzgebirgskreis, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ...


In a short time, however, he developed decided ability as a ruler; on entering upon his inheritance he divided the duchy into governmental districts, took measures to suppress the robber-knights, and regulated the judicial system by defining and readjusting the jurisdiction of the various law courts. In his desire to achieve good order, severity, and the amelioration of the condition of the people, he sometimes ventured to infringe even on the rights of the cities. His court was better regulated than that of any other German prince, and he bestowed a paternal care on the University of Leipzig, where a number of reforms were introduced, and Humanism, as opposed to Scholasticism, was encouraged. The University of Leipzig (German Universität Leipzig), located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony (former Kingdom of Saxony), Germany, is one of the oldest universities in Europe. ... Humanism[1] is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationalism. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ...


Years of the Reformation

From the beginning of the Reformation in 1517, Duke George directed his energies chiefly to ecclesiastical affairs. Hardly one of the secular German princes held as firmly as he to the Church, he defended its rights and vigorously condemned every innovation except those which were countenanced by the highest ecclesiastical authorities. At first he was not opposed to Luther, but as time went on and Luther's aim became clear to him, he turned more and more from the Reformer, and was finally, in consequence of this change of attitude, drawn into an acrimonious correspondence in which Luther, without any justification, shamefully reviled the duke. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


The duke was not blind to the undeniable abuses existing at that time in the Church. In 1519, despite the opposition of the theological faculty of the university, he originated the Disputation of Leipzig, with the idea of helping forward the cause of truth, and was present at all the discussions. In 1521, at the Diet of Worms, when the German princes handed in a paper containing a list of "grievances" concerning the condition of the Church, George added for himself twelve specific complaints referring mainly to the abuse of Indulgences and the annates. Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Luther Before the Diet of Worms, photogravure after the historicist painting by Anton von Werner (1843–1915) in the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart The Diet of Worms (Reichstag zu Worms) was a general assembly (a Diet) of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire that took place in Worms, a small town... In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ... The first fruits, or first years revenue of an ecclesiastical benefice paid to the Papal Curia ,a certain papal tax derived from ones income. ...


In 1525 he combined with his Lutheran son-in-law, Landgrave Philip of Hesse, and his cousin, the Elector Frederick the Wise, to suppress the revolt of the peasants, who were defeated near Frankenhausen in Thuringia. Some years later, he wrote a forcible preface to a translation of the New Testament issued at his command by his private secretary, Hieronymus Emser, as an offset to Luther's version. Lutheran books were confiscated by his order, wherever found, though he refunded the cost of the books. He proved himself in every way a vigorous opponent of the Lutherans, decreeing that Christian burial was to be refused to apostates, and recreant ecclesiastics were to be delivered to the bishop of Merseburg. Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... Philipp I of Hesse Philipp I, Landgraf von Hessen, the Magnanimous (13 November 1504 - 31 March 1567), was a leading champion of the Reformation and one of the most important German rulers of the Renaissance. ... Peasants War map. ... Bad Frankenhausen (officially: Bad Frankenhausen/Kyffhäuser) is a town in Thuringia, Germany. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Jerome (or Hieronymus) Emser (March 20, 1477 - November 8, 1527), antagonist of Luther, was born of a good family at Ulm. ... Bishopric of Merseburg was a former episcopal see in Saxony with the center in Merseburg, founded at the same time in the same manner as those of Meissen and Zeitz, as part of the plan for binding more closely to the Empire the territory of the Wends on the right...


For those, however, who merely held anti-catholic opinions, the punishment was only expulsion from the duchy. The duke deeply regretted the constant postponement of the ardently desired council, from the action of which so much was expected. While awaiting its convocation, he thought to remove the more serious defects by a reform of the monasteries, which had become exceedingly worldly in spirit and from which many of the inmates were departing. He vainly sought to obtain from the Curia the right, which was sometimes granted by Rome, to make official visitations to the conventual institutions of his realm. His reforms were confined mainly to uniting the almost vacant monasteries and to matters of economic management, the control of the property being entrusted in most cases to the secular authorities. A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban...


In 1525, Duke George formed, with some other German rulers, the League of Dessau, for the protection of Catholic interests. In the same way he was the animating spirit of the League of Halle, formed in 1533, from which sprang in 1538 the Holy League of Nuremberg for the maintenance of the religious Peace of Nuremberg. Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ...


The vigorous activity displayed by the duke in so many directions was not attended with much success. Most of his political measures, indeed, stood the test of experience, but in ecclesiastico-political matters he witnessed with sorrow the gradual decline of Catholicism and the spread of Lutheranism within his dominions, in spite of his earnest efforts and forcible prohibition of the new doctrine. Furthermore, during George's lifetime his nearest relations his son-in-law Philip of Hesse, and his brother Heinrich, joined the Reformers.


He spent the last years of his reign in endeavours to secure a Catholic successor, thinking by this step to check the dissemination of Lutheran opinions. The only one of George's sons then living was the weak-minded and unmarried Frederick. The intention of his father was that Frederick should rule with the aid of a council. Early in 1539, Frederick was married to Elizabeth of Mansfeld, but he died shortly afterwards, leaving no prospect of an heir. According to the act of settlement of 1499, George's Protestant brother Heinrich was now heir prospective; but George, disregarding his father's will, sought to disinherit his brother and to bequeath the duchy to Ferdinand, brother of Charles V. His sudden death prevented the carrying out of this intention. Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... Mansfeld can refer to: Ernst, Graf von Mansfield, a general of the Thirty Years War Mansfelder Land, a district of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ferdinand I Habsburg Ferdinand I (10 March 1503–25 July 1564), Holy Roman Emperor (1556–1564), was born in Madrid, the son of Juana the Mad, Queen of Castile (1479–1555), and Philip I the Handsome, King of Castile (1478–1506), who was heir to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I... Charles V (24 February 1500 - 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian territories (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and...


Character

George was an excellent and industrious ruler, self-sacrificing, high-minded, and unwearying in the furtherance of the highest interests of his land and people. As a man he was upright, vigorous and energetic, if somewhat irascible. A far-seeing and faithful adherent of the emperor and empire, he accomplished much for his domain by economy, love of order and wise direction of activities of his state officials. The grief of his life was Luther's Reformation and what he regarded to be apostasy from the Old Faith. Of a strictly religious, although not narrow, disposition, he sought at any cost to keep his subjects from falling away from the Church, but his methods of attaining his object were not always free from reproach.


References

This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913.

The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ...

External links

  • (German) Georg "der Bärtige", Herzog von Sachsen
Preceded by
Albert
Duke of Saxony
1500–1539
Succeeded by
Henry IV

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