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Encyclopedia > Georg August University of Göttingen
Georg-August University of Göttingen
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
Latin name Universitas Regiae Georgiae Augustae
Motto --
Established 1734
School type Public Law foundation (Stiftung öffentlichen Rechts, since 2003)
President Prof. Dr. Kurt von Figura
Location Göttingen, Germany
Enrollment 24,000 students (2004)
Staff -- (2004)
Member Coimbra Group, EUA
Homepage www.uni-goettingen.de

The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. It rapidly attained a leading position, and in 1823 its students numbered 1547. It started with four faculties and soon became one of the best-attended universities in Europe with its 800 students. Seal of the University of Göttingen. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... Map of Germany showing Göttingen 1 External links Coat of Arms University of Göttingen Top: The old Auditorium Maximum (1862-65) Bottom: New library building Göttingen is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Founded in 1985 and formally constituted by Charter in 1987, the Coimbra Group is a network of European universities which gathers 39 of the older universities, including Oxford, Cambridge, Bristol, Louvain/Leuven, Montpellier, Uppsala, Göttingen, Heidelberg, Dublin, Bologna, Siena, Leiden, Coimbra, Barcelona and Granada. ... The European University Association (EUA) is the main voice of the higher education community in Europe. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... George II King of Great Britain and Ireland George II (George Augustus) (10 November 1683–25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

Contents

History

Political disturbances, in which both professors and students were implicated, lowered the attendance to 860 in 1834. The expulsion in 1837 of the famous seven professors - Die Göttinger Sieben - viz, the Germanist, Wilhelm Eduard Albrecht (1800-1876); the historian, Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann (1785-1860); the orientalist, Georg Heinrich August Ewald (1803-1875); the historian, Georg Gottfried Gervinus (1805—1875); the physicist, Wilhelm Eduard Weber (1804-1891); and the philologists, the brothers Jakob Grimm (1785-1863), and Wilhelm Grimm (1786-1859),--for protesting against the revocation by King Ernest I of Hanover of the liberal constitution of 1833, further reduced the prosperity of the university. 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann (May 13, 1785 - December 5, 1860) was a German historian and politician. ... Georg Heinrich August von Ewald (November 16, 1803 - May 4, 1875) was a German orientalist and theologian. ... Georg Gottfried Gervinus (May 20, 1805 - March 18, 1871), German literary and political historian, was born at Darmstadt. ... Wilhelm Eduard Weber (October 24, 1804 - June 23, 1891) was a noted physicist. ... Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (January 4, 1785 – September 20, 1863), German philologist and mythologist, was born at Hanau, in Hesse-Kassel. ... Wilhelm Carl Grimm (February 24, 1786 - December 16, 1859) was one of the Brothers Grimm. ... Ernest Augustus I of Hanover Ernest Augustus I, King of Hanover (5 June 1771 - 18 November 1851), also known (1799-1837) as the Duke of Cumberland was the fifth son and eighth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ...

Top: The old Auditorium Maximum (1862-65)Bottom: New library building
Top: The old Auditorium Maximum (1862-65)
Bottom: New library building

The events of 1848, on the other hand, told somewhat in its favour; and, since the annexation of Hanover in 1866, it was carefully fostered by the Prussian government. In 1903 its teaching staff numbered 121 and its students 1529. University buildings in Göttingen. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Alternate meanings: Hanover (district), Hanover (region), Hanover (state), other uses Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (in German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the Leine river, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen) in Germany. ... 1866 is a common year starting on Monday. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and... 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ...


Ludwig Prandtl joined the university in 1904, and developed it into a world leader in fluid mechanics and aerodynamics over the next two decades. By the 1920s it was unparalleled, and eventually turned into the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Mechanics. Many of Prandtl's students went on to make some of the fundamental contributions to aerodynamics, and read like a "who's who" guide to the field. Ludwig Prandtl Ludwig Prandtl (4 February 1875 - 15 August 1953) was a German physicist. ... 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Fluid mechanics or fluid dynamics is the study of the macroscopic physical behaviour of fluids . ... Aerodynamics is a branch of fluid dynamics concerned with the study of gas flows, first analysed by George Cayley in the 1800s. ...


The "great purge" of 1933

In the 1930s, the university became a focal point for the Nazi crackdown on "Jewish physics", as represented by the work of Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr (both Jewish). In what was later called the "great purge" of 1933, academics including Max Born, Victor Goldschmidt, James Franck, Eugene Wigner, Leo Szilard, Edward Teller, and John von Neumann were expelled or fled. The legacy of greatness in mathematics, a lineage which had included Carl Friedrich Gauss and Bernhard Riemann, was broken. Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented First atom was split with a particle accelerator Golden Age of radio begins in U.S. Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Portrait of Albert Einstein taken by Yousuf Karsh on February 11, 1948 Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a theoretical physicist who is widely regarded as the greatest scientist of the 20th century. ... Niels Bohr Niels Henrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made essential contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Max Born (December 11, 1882 – January 5, 1970) was a Jewish German mathematician and physicist and was the only child of Gustav Born and Margarete Kauffmann. ... Victor Moritz Goldschmidt (Zürich, January 27, 1888 – March 20, 1947 in Oslo) was a chemist considered to be the founder of modern geochemistry and crystal chemistry, developer of the Goldschmidt Classification of elements. ... James Franck (August 26, 1882 - May 21, 1964) was a German-born physicist and Nobel laureate. ... Eugene Wigner (left) and Alvin Weinberg Eugene Paul Wigner (Hungarian Wigner Pál Jenő) (November 17, 1902 – January 1, 1995) was a Hungarian physicist and mathematician. ... Leó Szilárd (right) working with Albert Einstein. ... Edward Teller in 1958 as Director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ... John von Neumann in the 1940s. ... Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß) (April 30, 1777 - February 23, 1855) was a legendary German mathematician, astronomer and physicist with a very wide range of contributions; he is considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. ... Bernhard Riemann. ...


Though David Hilbert remained, by the time he died in 1943, the Nazis had essentially gutted the university, as many of the top faculty were either Jewish or had married Jews. When Bernhard Rust asked him if the institute had "suffered so much" from the purge, he replied, "Suffered? No, Herr Minister, it didn't suffer. It simply no longer exists." Today, Göttingen is a regular regional university in Germany, with a respectable, but no longer world-famous, mathematics department. David Hilbert David Hilbert ( January 23, 1862 – February 14, 1943) was a German mathematician born in Wehlau, near Königsberg, Prussia (now Znamensk, near Kaliningrad, Russia) who is recognized as one of the most influential mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Bernhard Rust (1883--May 1945) was Minister of Education in Nazi Germany. ...


Current status

Enlarge
Alte Aula (Great Hall) at Wilhelmsplatz

Today the university consists of 13 faculties. About 24,000 students are currently enrolled. More than 2,500 professors and other academics presently work at the University, assisted by a technical and administrative staff of about 8,000. The post-war expansion of the University led to the establishment of a new, modern 'university quarter' in the north of the town. The architecture of the old university can still be seen in the Auditorium Maximum (1826/1865) and the Great Hall (1835/1837) on the Wilhelmsplatz. Download high resolution version (906x743, 272 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (906x743, 272 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Closely linked with the university are the State and University Library of Lower Saxony with its 3.5 million volumes and precious manuscripts, the Academy of Sciences, originally founded as the 'Royal Society for Sciences', and the four research institutes of the Max Planck Society for the Promotion of Science. ...


The international reputation of the university was founded by many eminent professors who are commemorated by statues and memorial plaques throughout the town. For example, in the 19th century, Carl Friedrich Gauss and the brothers Grimm taught there. More recently, forty-two Nobel Prize laureates studied or taught in Göttingen and many students attained a place in history – for example Otto von Bismarck, who studied in Göttingen in 1833 and lived in the old fortress tower on the "Wall", now known as "Bismarck Cottage," and the American J.P. Morgan. Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß) (April 30, 1777 - February 23, 1855) was a legendary German mathematician, astronomer and physicist with a very wide range of contributions; he is considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. ... Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm The Brothers Grimm (Brüder Grimm) are Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck-Schönhausen, Duke of Lauenburg (April 1, 1815 – July 30, 1898) was one of the most prominent European aristocrats and statesmen of the nineteenth century. ... John Pierpont Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913), American financier and banker, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, a son of Junius Spencer Morgan (1813–1890), who was a partner of George Peabody and the founder of the house of J. S. Morgan & Co. ...


The University Campus is divided between several locations around the city: The central University complex with the main library and 'Mensa' is located right next to the city and comprises the faculties for Law, Economy, Theology and Linguistics. Closely associated with it are the faculties for Psychology, Ethnology and Educational Sciences as well as the Medical Faculty with its associated hospitals. Just north of the city a new scientific center has been built in which most of the natural sciences (Chemistry, Microbiology, Plant Pathology, Agronomy, Forestry, Geology and Physics) are now located, including the GZMB. Other institutes are set around the inner city. The University offers eight cafeterias and six 'Mensae' (canteens) serving lunch at low prices for the students, one 'Mensa' also providing dinner.


External links

  • University home page (http://www.uni-goettingen.de/?lang=en)
  • Shame at Göttingen (http://www.childrenofthemanhattanproject.org/HISTORY/H-02b.htm), detailing the 1933 purge


Coimbra Group
(of European research universities)
Aarhus | Barcelona | Bergen | Bologna | Bristol | Budapest | Cambridge | Coimbra | Dublin | Edinburgh | Galway | Geneva | Göttingen | Granada | Graz | Groningen | Heidelberg | Jena | Kraków | Leiden | Leuven | Louvain | Lyon | Montpellier | Oxford | Padua | Pavia | Poitiers | Prague | Salamanca | Siena | Tartu | Thessaloniki | Turku I | Turku II | Uppsala | Würzburg

 
 

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