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Encyclopedia > Georg von Békésy
Békésy won a Nobel Prize in 1961 for his research on the workings of the inner ear.

Georg von Békésy (June 3, 1899 - June 13, 1972) was a biophysicist. In 1961, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for elucidating the cochlea of the ear. George von Bekesy, Nobel Prize winner From the NIH website, Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine. ... George von Bekesy, Nobel Prize winner From the NIH website, Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1899 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies theories and methods of the physical sciences to questions of biology. ... 1961 (As MAD Magazine pointed out on its first cover for the year) was the first upside-down year - i. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Cross section of the cochlea. ... For an alternative meaning, see ear (botany). ...

Contents

Research

Békésy developed a method for dissecting the inner ear of human cadavers while leaving the cochlea intact. By using strobe photography and silver flakes as a marker, he was able to observe that the basilar membrane moves in waves when stimulated by sound. Because of the structure of the cochlea and basilar membrane, different frequencies of sound would cause the maximum amplitude of the waves to occur at different places along the basilar membrane. Thus, his observations showed how sound wave frequencies are transduced into electrical signals (or action potentials) produced by hair cells along the basilar membrane. He theorized that the placement of each hair cell along the basilar membrane corresponds to a different frequency of sound, and therefore stimulation of that hair cell by the movement of the basilar membrane produces an action potential that causes the perception of the corresponding sound. Békésy later developed a mechanical model of the cochlea to test these theories and found them to be correct. Cadaver is a euphemism for a corpse or body. ... U-shaped Xenon Flash Lamp A xenon flash lamp is a gas discharge lamp designed to produce extremely intense, incoherent, full-spectrum white light for very short durations. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series Transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Density, Hardness 10490 kg/m3, 2. ... Cross section of the cochlea. ... This article is about waves in the most general sense; a separate article focuses on ocean waves. ... A schematic representation of auditory signaling Sound is an alternation in pressure, particle displacement, or particle velocity propagated in an elastic material (Olson 1957) or series of mechanical compressions and rarefactions or longitudinal waves that successively propagate through medium that are at least a little compressible (solid, liquid or gas... Sine waves of various frequencies; the lower waves have higher frequencies than those above. ... Amplitude is a nonnegative scalar measure of a waves magnitude of oscillation. ... In physiology, transduction is the conversion of a stimulus from one form to another. ... Schematic of an electrophysiological recording of an action potential showing the various phases which occur as the wave passes a point on a cell membrane. ... Hair cells are the sensory cells of the auditory system that are found within the cochleas organ of Corti. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ...


Biography

Békésy was born in Budapest, Hungary, the son of diplomat Alexander von Békésy and his wife Paula. He went to school in Budapest, Constantinople, Munich, and Zürich. He studied chemistry in Berne and received his PhD from the University of Budapest in 1926. Budapest (pronounced BOO-dah-pesht, IPA ), the capital city of Hungary and the countrys principal political, industrial, commercial and transportation centre, has more than 1. ... The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München pronunciation) is the state capital of the German Bundesland of Bavaria. ... Zürich IPA (in English often Zurich, which is also the standard French form of the name) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 364,558 in 2002; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... -1... For other uses, see Bern (disambiguation). ... This article is about Eötvös Loránd University, which is often referred to as University of Budapest. ...


During World War II, Békésy worked for the Hungarian Post Office, where he did research on telecommunications. This research led him to become interested in the workings of the ear. In 1946, he left Hungary to follow this line of research at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Karolinska Institute or Karolinska institutet is a medical university in Stockholm, Sweden. ...


In 1947, he moved to the United States, working at Harvard until 1966. He became a professor at the University of Hawaii in 1966 and died in Honolulu. 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America, the States, or (archaically) Columbia—is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... -1... Jean Charlots mural called Commencement is featured at Bachman Hall, the administrative center of the University of Hawai`i System. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ...


References

Goldstein, B. 2001. Sensation and Perception, 6th ed. London: Wadsworth.


External links

Nobel Prize Biography (http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/1961/bekesy-bio.html)


 
 

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