FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Georg Lukács

Georg Lukács (April 13, 1885 - June 4, 1971) was a Hegelian and Marxist philosopher and literary critic. April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... 1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... A philosopher is a person devoted to studying and producing results in philosophy. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ...

Contents

Image of Gyorgy Lukacs (1885-1970) Source: http://www. ...

Life and politics

Lukács's full name, in German, was Georg Bernhard von Lukács von Szegedin, and in Hungarian was szegedi Lukács György Bernát; he published under the names Georg or György Lukács. (Lukács is pronounced roughly like "lou-kotch," or IPA [lukɑtʃ], by most English speakers.) The International Phonetic Alphabet is a phonetic alphabet used by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) the human vocal apparatus can produce. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


He was born Löwinger György Bernát in Budapest to József Löwinger (szegedi Lukács József, b. Szeged) (18551928) and Adele Wertheimer (Wertheimer Adél, b. Budapest) (18601917). Budapest (pronounced BOO-dah-pesht, IPA ), the capital city of Hungary and the countrys principal political, industrial, commercial and transportation centre, has more than 1. ... Location: 46° 15′ 0″ N 20° 10′ 0″ E Szeged  listen (in Serbian Segedin, in Polish Segedyn, in Romanian Seghedin, in Slovak Segedín) is the fourth largest city of Hungary, the regional centre of South-Eastern Hungary and the capital of Csongrád county. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Budapest (pronounced BOO-dah-pesht, IPA ), the capital city of Hungary and the countrys principal political, industrial, commercial and transportation centre, has more than 1. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


While he was not politically active prior to the first World War, Lukács rethought his ideas in the light of the war and the Russian revolutions of 1917. He became a communist in this period and joined the fledgling Communist Party of Hungary and was a member of the government of the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic. The phrase Russian Revolution can refer to three specific events in the history of Imperial Russia. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... ... The Hungarian Soviet Republic was the political regime in Hungary from March 21, 1919 until the beginning of August of the same year, and it is the second Communist (or soviet) government in world history, after the one in Russia (1917). ...


After the Soviet Republic was defeated, he remained active in the Communist Party but also turned his atentions to developing Leninist ideas in the field of philosophy, which task he commenced with his short study Lenin: A Study in the Unity of His Thought. His major works in this period, however, were the essays collected in History and Class Consciousness. Although these essays display signs of what Lenin referred to as "ultra-leftism," they arguably carry through his effort of providing Leninism with a philosophical basis. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism (a form of Communism); it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ...


History and Class Consciousness was a major contribution to the Marxist theory of ideology and false consciousness. This book develops the concept of class consciousness and insists that "ideology" is really a projection of the class consciousness of the bourgeoisie, which functions to prevent the proletariat from attaining a real consciousness of its revolutionary position. Lukács presents the category of reification whereby, due to the commodity nature of capitalist society, social relations become objectified, precluding the ability for a spontaneous emergence of class-consciousness. It is in this context that the need for a party in the Leninist sense emerges, the subjective aspect of the re-invigorated Marxian dialectic. An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... False consciousness is the Engelsist hypothesis that material and institutional processes in capitalist society mislead the proletariat — and perhaps the other classes — over the nature of capitalism. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is called a proletarian. ... Reification, also called hypostatisation, is treating an abstract concept as if it were a real, concrete thing. ... The word commodity is a term with distinct meanings in business and in Marxist political economy. ... Class consciousness is a category of Marxist theory, referring to the self-awareness of a social class, its capacity to act in its own rational interests, or measuring the extent to which an individual is conscious of the historical tasks their class (or class allegiance) sets for them. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism as defined by later Communists and their Parties (sometimes called orthodox Marxism). ...


In his later career, Lukács repudiated the ideas of History and Class Consciousness, but he wrote a defence of them as late as 1925 or 1926. This book he called A Defense of History and Class Consciousness and was only published in Magyar in 1996 and English in 2000. It is perhaps the most important "unknown" Marxist text of the twentieth century. 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Hungarian language is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and in adjacent areas of Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Austria, Slovenia (all territories lost after World War I). ...


As a Hungarian exile Lukács lived in the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War. After the war Lukács was involved in the establishment of the new Hungarian government as a member of the Hungarian Communist Party. Lukács was severely criticised in 1948, and was only rehabilitated in the 1950s. In 1956 Lukács became a minister of the brief communist revolutionary government led by Imre Nagy which opposed the Soviet Union. At this time Lukács' daughter led a brief-lived party of communist revolutionary youth. Lukács' position on the 1956 revolution was that the Hungarian Communist Party would need to retreat into a coalition government of socialists, and slowly rebuild its credibility with the Hungarian people. As such, while a minister in Imre Nagy's revolutionary government, Lukács also participated in the refoundation of the Hungarian Communist Party on a new basis. This party was rapidly coopted by János Kádár after 4 November 1956.(Woroszylski, 1957) The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... The Hungarian Communist Party (in Hungarian: Magyar Kommunista Párt or Kommunisták Magyarországi Pártja) was founded on November 24, 1918, and was in power in Hungary briefly from 1918 to 1919 under Bela Kun and the Hungarian Soviet Republic. ... Hungarians investigate a disabled Soviet tank in Budapest The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, also known as the Hungarian Uprising, was a popular revolt against Soviet influence and control in Hungary. ... Imre Nagy (born in Kaposvár, Hungary June 7, 1896, executed June 16, 1958) was Prime Minister of Hungary on two occasions. ... János Kádár János Kádár, né János Csermanek (May 26, 1912–July 6, 1989), was the leader of Hungary from 1956 to 1988, and twice served as Prime Minister of Hungary, from 1956 to 1958 and from 1961 to 1965. ...


Unlike Nagy, Lukács survived the purges of 1956. Lukács publicly abandoned his positions of 1956 and engaged in self-criticism. Having abandoned his earlier positions, Lukács was to remain loyal to the Communist Party until his death in 1971. Lukács became more publicly critical of the Soviet Union and Hungarian Communist Party in his last years following the uprisings in France and Czechoslovakia in 1968. Lukács' complex and reasoned adherence to the general Soviet line in politics has led some leftists to accuse him of being "an apologist for Stalinism." However, Lukács' own historical line was continuously critical of Stalinism, and Lukács was repeatedly forced to undertake public self-criticism during his political career in order to avoid being expelled from the official Communist movement. 1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ...


Literary and aesthetic work

In addition to his standing as a Marxist political thinker, Lukács was an influential literary critic of the twentieth century. His important work in literary criticism began early in his career, with The Theory of the Novel, a seminal work in literary theory and the theory of genre. The book is a history of the novel as a form, and an investigation into its distinct characteristics. Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... A genre is any of the traditional divisions of art forms from a single field of activity into various kinds according to criteria particular to that form. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ...


Lukács later repudiated The Theory of the Novel, writing a lengthy introduction that described it as erroneous, but nonetheless containing a "romantic anti-capitalism" which would later develop into Marxism. (This introduction also contains his famous dismissal of Theodor Adorno and others in Western Marxism as having taken up residence in the "Grand Hotel Abyss.") Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund Adorno (September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German sociologist, philosopher, musicologist and composer. ...


Lukács's later literary criticism includes the well-known essay "Kafka or Thomas Mann?", in which Lukács argues for the work of Thomas Mann as a superior attempt to deal with the condition of modernity, while he criticizes Franz Kafka's brand of modernism. Lukács was steadfastly opposed to the formal innovations of modernist writers like Kafka, James Joyce, and Samuel Beckett, preferring the traditional aesthetic of realism. He famously argued for the revolutionary character of the novels of Sir Walter Scott and Honoré de Balzac. Lukács felt that both authors' nostalgic, pro-aristocratic politics allowed them accurate and critical stances because of their opposition to the rising bourgeoisie (albeit reactionary opposition). This view was expressed in his later book The Historical Novel. Thomas Mann Paul Thomas Mann (June 6, 1875 – August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, philanthropist and essayist, lauded principally for a series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual and an underlying... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being Modern. Since the term Modern is used to describe a wide range of periods, modernity must be taken in context. ... Franz Kafka approximately 1917 Franz Kafka (July 3, 1883 in Prague, Bohemia - June 3, 1924 in Vienna, Austria) was one of the major German language writers of the 20th century most of whose work was published posthumously. ... Le Corbusiers Villa Savoye, 1929-30: The modern style is noted for its rigorous geometrical forms, and became adopted internationally, though not without continuing controversy Modernism in the cultural historical sense is generally defined as the new artistic and literary styles that emerged in the decades before 1914 as... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (February 2, 1882 – January 13, 1941) was an expatriate Irish writer and poet, and is widely considered one of the most significant writers of the 20th century. ... Quantum Leap Samuel Beckett Samuel Barclay Beckett (April 13, 1906 – December 22, 1989) was an Irish playwright, novelist and poet. ... Realism is commonly defined as a concern for fact or reality and rejection of the impractical and visionary. ... For the first Premier of Saskatchewan see Thomas Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott (August 14, 1771 - September 21, 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe. ... Honoré de Balzac Honoré de Balzac (May 20, 1799 – August 18, 1850), was a French novelist. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ...


Questions of moral culpability under Rákosism / Stalinism

During the period of the Hungarian Soviet Republic Lukács was a major party worker and a political comissar of the Fifth Division of the Hungarian Red Army. In this capacity he was responsible for executions in Poroszlo in May 1919 (see "About the Decimator" in External Links). Mátyás Rákosi (March 14, 1892–February 5, 1971) was a Hungarian politician and the leader of Hungary from 1945 to 1956. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... The Hungarian Soviet Republic was the political regime in Hungary from March 21, 1919 until the beginning of August of the same year, and it is the second Communist (or soviet) government in world history, after the one in Russia (1917). ...


As Lukács lived in the Soviet Union during the 1940s, he can be considered to have been an agent of the Soviet Security apparatus during this period, much as Imre Nagy was. (See Granville, Joanna. "Imre Nagy, aka "Volodya" - a dent in the martyr's halo?" Cold War International History Project Bulletin 5 (1995): 28, 34-36; KGB Chief Kryuchkov to CC CPSU, 16 June 1989 (trans. Joanna Granville). Cold War International History Project Bulletin 5 (1995): 36 [from: TsKhSD, F. 89, Per. 45, Dok. 82.]). Imre Nagy (born in Kaposvár, Hungary June 7, 1896, executed June 16, 1958) was Prime Minister of Hungary on two occasions. ...


From 1945 Lukács was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Between 1945 and 1946 he explosively criticised non-communist philosophers and writers. This critical work would have been part of Lukács' obligation to the party, though he certainly also believed in the need to thoroughly criticise non-communist thought as intellectually deficient. Lukács has been accused of playing an "administrative" (legal-bureaucratic) role in the removal of independent and non-communist intellectuals like Béla Hamvas, István Bibó and Lajos Prohászka from Hungarian academic life. Non-communist intellectuals like Bibó were often imprisoned, forced into menial and low waged mental labour (like translation work) or forced into manual labour during the 1946–1953 period. Claudio Mutti says that Lukács was the member of the party comission responsible for making lists of "anti-democratic" and socially "aberrant" books and works. In the jargon of the day "anti-democratic" was used for anti-party or anti-communist and socially "aberrant" was used to refer to moral or ethical statements outside of the very narrow (even socially reactionary) official ethics of the communist party. The lists of banned works (in three parts totalling 160 pages) were distributed by the Information and Press Department of the Prime Ministers office. The authors of these works were silenced by law, or unemployment. Either solely by intellectual criticism, or also by "administrative" means, Lukács has culpability for the censorship of Hungarian civil society during the "Salami Tactics" era of 1945–1950 which established the Mátyás Rákosi government. 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Hungarian Academy of Sciences (in short: HAS, in Hungarian: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia) was founded in 1825, when Count István Széchenyi offered one years income of his estate for the purposes of a Learned Society at a district session of the Diet in Bratislava (seat... Béla Hamvas (23 March 1897–7 November 1968) was a Hungarian writer, philosopher, and social critic. ... Mátyás Rákosi (March 14, 1892–February 5, 1971) was a Hungarian politician and the leader of Hungary from 1945 to 1956. ...


Lukács' personal aesthetic and political position on culture was always that Socialist culture would eventually triumph in terms of quality, but that this conflict would be fought as one of competing cultures, not by "administrative" measures. In 1948–49 Lukács' position for cultural tolerance within the party and intellectual life was smashed in a "Lukács purge" when Mátyás Rákosi turned his famous Salami Tactics on the Hungarian Communist Party itself. Lukács was reintegrated into party life in the mid 1950s, and was used by the party during the purges of the writers association in 1955-56 (See Aczel, Meray Revolt of the Mind). However, Aczel and Meray both believe that Lukács was only present at the purge begrudgingly, and cite Lukács leaving the presidium and the meeting at the first break as evidence of this reluctance. Mátyás Rákosi (March 14, 1892–February 5, 1971) was a Hungarian politician and the leader of Hungary from 1945 to 1956. ...


During the 1956 Hungarian Revolution Lukács was present at debates of the anti-party and revolutionary communist Petofi society, while remaining part of the party apparatus. During the revolution itself, as mentioned in "Budapest Diary," Lukács argued for a new Soviet aligned communist party. In Lukács' view the new party could only win social leadership by persuasion instead of force. Lukács envisioned an alliance between the dissident communist Party of Youth, the revolutionary Hungarian Social Democratic Party and Lukács' own Soviet aligned party as a very junior partner. After 1956 Lukács narrowly avoided execution, and was not trusted by the party apparatus due to his role in the revolutionary Nagy government. Lukács' followers were indicted for political crimes throughout the 1960s and 70s, and a number fled to the West. Lukács' books The Young Hegel and The Destruction of Reason have been used to argue that Lukács was covertly critical of Stalinism as an irrational distortion of Hegelian-Marxism Lukacs/Hungary (http://www.johnkadvany.com). Hungarians investigate a disabled Soviet tank in Budapest The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, also known as the Hungarian Uprising or simply the Hungarian Revolt, was a revolt in Hungary. ...


Lukács was out of power during 1948–1953 period, and also during the post 1956 period, when István Bibó was persecuted, he cannot be considered culpable for the administrative treatment of Bibó at these times.


References

  1. Lenin: A Study in the Unity of His Thought. ISBN 1859841740.
  2. History and Class Consciousness. ISBN 0262620200.
  3. The Theory of the Novel. ISBN 0262620278.
  4. A Defense of History and Class Consciousness. ISBN 1859847471.
  5. Woroszylski, Wiktor. Diary of a revolt : Budapest through Polish eyes. Trans. Michael Segal. [Sydney : Outlook], 1957. (Pamphlet).
  6. Aczel, Tamas and Meray, Tibor. Revolt of the Mind: a case history of intellectual resistance behind the iron curtain Greenwood Press Reprint: 1975.
  7. Granville, Joanna. "Imre Nagy, aka "Volodya" - a dent in the martyr's halo?" Cold War International History Project Bulletin 5 (1995): 28, 34-36.
  8. Kadvany, John (2001). Imre Lakatos and the Guises of Reason. Durham and London: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2659-0
  9. KGB Chief Kryuchkov to CC CPSU, 16 June 1989 (trans. Joanna Granville). Cold War International History Project Bulletin 5 (1995): 36 [from: TsKhSD, F. 89, Per. 45, Dok. 82.].

External links

  • Georg Lukács Archive on marxists.org (http://www.marxists.org/archive/lukacs/index.htm)
  • Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory (http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/hopkins_guide_to_literary_theory/georg_lukacs.html)
  • Bendl Júlia, Lukács György élete a századfordulótól 1918-ig (http://nyitottegyetem.phil-inst.hu/Tarsfil/ktar/Bendl/tartalomjegyzek.htm)
  • Lukács's sins (http://www.google.co.hu/search?hl=hu&q=luk%C3%A1cs+gy%C3%B6rgy+b%C5%B1nei&btnG=Keres%C3%A9s&meta=lr%3Dlang_hu)
  • Lukács and Imre Lakatos (http://www.johnkadvany.com)
  • Hungarian biography (http://mek.oszk.hu/02100/02185/html/1179.html)
  • About the Decimator... (some sentences, in hungarian) (http://holhome.freewebspace.com/tormay/szabod.htm)
  • Claudio Mutti:Lukács Evangéliuma (hungarian) (http://www.geocities.com/pannon_front/30/htm/07Mutti.htm)

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m