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Encyclopedia > Geology of Wales
Geological map of Great Britain showing Wales in the South West. The Ordovician and Silurian rocks are pale buff and pink, the Old Red Sandstone dark orange, the Coal Measures grey and igneous rocks red patches.

Wales is a peninsula in the south-west of the island of Great Britain. The entire area of Wales is about 20,779 km² (8,023 square miles). It is about 274 km (170 miles) north-south and 97 km (60 miles) east-west. Wales is bordered by England to the east and by sea in the other three directions: the Welsh Channel to the south, St George's Channel to the west, and the Irish Sea to the north. Together, Wales has over 1,200km (750 miles) of coastline. There are several islands off the Welsh mainland, the largest being Ynys Môn (Anglesey) in the north west. Download high resolution version (1036x1614, 368 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Geography of the United Kingdom Geology of the United Kingdom Talk:Geography of the United Kingdom Southern England Chalk Formation Categories: Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images | NowCommons ... Download high resolution version (1036x1614, 368 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Geography of the United Kingdom Geology of the United Kingdom Talk:Geography of the United Kingdom Southern England Chalk Formation Categories: Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images | NowCommons ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... This article is about the unit of measure. ... KM, Km, or km may stand for: Khmer language (ISO 639 alpha-2, km) Kilometre Kinemantra Meditation Knowledge management KM programming language KM Culture, Korean Movie Maker. ... Look up Mile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... {{Otheruses4|north the direction}} [[Image:CompassRose16_N.png|thumb|250px|right|[[Compass rose]] with north highlighted and at top]] {{wiktionary}} <nowiki>North is o<nowiki>ne of the [[4 (numbe</nowiki> Block quote r)|four]] cardinal directions, specifically the direction that, in Western culture, is treated as the primary direction: north... A compass rose with South highlighted South is most commonly a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. ... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate 50... Satellite view of the Bristol Channel Map of the Bristol Channel The Bristol Channel (Welsh: ) is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from the West Country and extending from the lower estuary of the River Severn (Afon Hafren) to that part of the North... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ...


Wales is mountainous, particularly in the north and central regions. The mountains were shaped during the last ice age, the Devensian glaciation. The highest mountains in Wales are in Snowdonia (Eryri), and include Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), which, at 1085 m (3,560 ft) is the highest peak in Wales. The Brecon Beacons (Bannau Brycheiniog) are in the south and are joined by the Cambrian Mountains in mid-Wales, the latter name being given to the earliest geological period of the Paleozoic era, the Cambrian. Lyskamm, 4 527 m, Pennine Alps A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Devensian glaciation is a name for an ice age period which occurred between 120,000 and 10,000 years ago. ... Tryfans north ridge (seen on the left in this picture) in Snowdonia. ... Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales and the highest British mountain south of the Scottish Highlands, is probably the busiest mountain in Britain [1]. It is located in Snowdonia National Park (Welsh: Parc Cenedlaethol Eryri). ... Part of the Brecon Beacons, looking from the highest point Pen y Fan, 886 m (2907 feet), to Cribyn, 795 m (2608 feet) The Brecon Beacons (Welsh: Bannau Brycheiniog) are a mountain range located in the south-east of Wales. ... The Cambrian Mountains are a mountain range in Mid Wales, reaching from the Brecon Beacons in South Wales to Snowdonia in North Wales. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 ± 1. ...


In the mid-nineteenth century, two prominent geologists, Roderick Murchison and Adam Sedgwick used their studies of the geology of Wales to establish certain principles of stratigraphy and palaeontology. After much dispute, the next two periods of the Paleozoic era, the Ordovician and Silurian, were named after ancient Celtic tribes from this area. Sir Roderick Murchison Sir Roderick Impey Murchison (February 19, 1792 – October 22, 1871), was an influential Scottish geologist who first described and investigated the Silurian era. ... Adam Sedgwick (March 22nd, 1785–January 27, 1873) was one of the founders of modern geology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... The Ordovician period is the second of the six (seven in North America) periods of the Paleozoic era. ... The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ...

Contents

Tectonics of Avalonia

The remaining rocks of Avalonia within Europe. It indicates the part which collided with Baltica in the upper Ordovician and that which collided with Laurentia in the Silurian.

Avalonia was an ancient microcontinent or terrane whose history formed much of the older rocks of Western Europe. The name is derived from the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland. Wales was entirely contained within the Avalonian block, and shares its tectonic chronology. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1124x1156, 229 KB) Translated from the German wikipedia, selfmade picture by German wiki user Gunthram. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1124x1156, 229 KB) Translated from the German wikipedia, selfmade picture by German wiki user Gunthram. ... Avalonia was a paleomicrocontinent also known as a Terrane. ... Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous land mass. ... A terrane in paleogeography is an accretion that has collided with a continental nucleus, or craton but can be recognized by the foreign origin of its rock strata. ... The Avalon Peninsula is a large peninsula (9,270 km²) that makes up the southeast portion of the island of Newfoundland. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ...


In the early Cambrian, the supercontinent Pannotia broke up and Avalonia drifted off northwards from Gondwana. This independent movement of Avalonia started from a latitude of about 60° South. The eastern end of Avalonia collided with Baltica, a continental plate occupying the latitudes from about 30°S to 55°S, as the latter slowly rotated anticlockwise towards it. This happened at the end of the Ordovician and during the early Silurian. The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 ± 1. ... In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ... Pannotia is the name given to a hypothetical supercontinent that existed from about 600 to about 540 mya. ... Gondwanaland redirects here. ... Baltica (green) Baltica is a Late Proterozoic-Early Palaeozoic continent that now includes the East European craton of northwestern Eurasia. ... The Ordovician period is the second of the six (seven in North America) periods of the Paleozoic era. ... The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ...


In the late Silurian and lower Devonian, the combined Baltica and Avalonia collided progressively, with Laurentia, beginning with the long extremity of Avalonia which is now attached to America. The result of this was the formation of Euramerica. At the completion of this stage, the site of Britain was at 30°S and Nova Scotia at about 45°S. This collision is represented by the Caledonian folding or in North America as an early phase in the Acadian orogeny. The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ... Artists illustration of a Devonian scene. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Euramerica (also known as Laurussia) was a minor supercontinent created in the Devonian by the collision of Laurentia and Baltica (Scandian Orogeny). ... The Caledonian orogeny is a hypothetical series of events in geologic history explaining a group of highland formations that are very similar in composition, stratigraphy and fossils: the mountains and hills of northern England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and west Norway. ... The Acadian orogeny is a middle Paleozoic deformation, especially in the northern Appalachians, between Alabama and Newfoundland. ...


In the Permian, the new continent and another terrane, Armorica which included Iberia, drifted in from Gondwana, trapping Avalonia between it and the continent so adding Iberia/Armorica to Euramerica. This was followed up by the arrival of Gondwana. The effects of these collisions are seen in Europe as the Variscan folding. In North America it shows as later phases of the Acadian orogeny. This was happening at around the Equator during the later Carboniferous, forming Pangaea in such a way that Avalonia was near its centre but partially flooded by shallow sea. The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event recorded in the European mountains and hills called the Variscan Belt. ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... For other uses, see Pangaea (disambiguation). ...


In the Jurassic, Pangaea split into Laurasia and Gondwana, with Avalonia as part of Laurasia. In the Cretaceous, Laurasia broke up into North America and Eurasia with Avalonia split between them. The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ... The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the Earths largest landmass covering about 21215121321km² compared with the Americas (approximately 42,000,000 km²), Africa (approximately 30,000,000 km²), and Antarctica (approximately 13,000,000 km²). Eurasia comprises the traditional continents of Europe and Asia. ...


Regions of Wales

North Wales - Snowdonia may be divided into four areas. The northernmost area includes (west to east): Moel Hebog, Mynydd Mawr and the Nantlle Ridge; the Snowdon massif; the Glyderau, and the Carneddau. These last three groups are the highest mountains in Wales, and include all Wales' 3000-foot mountains. Tryfans north ridge (seen on the left in this picture) in Snowdonia. ... Moel Hebog is a mountain in Snowdonia, north Wales which dominates the view west from the village of Beddgelert. ... Mynydd Mawr is a mountain in Snowdonia, North Wales thats situated approximately 4-5 miles west of Snowdon itself. ... The Nantlle Ridge is the name given to a small range of hills in Snowdonia, north Wales which runs south-west from the village of Rhyd Ddu for a distance of about 9 kilometres, ending above Talysarn and Nebo in the Nantlle Valley. ... Snowdon massif as seen from Glyder Fawr - (Left to right:) Y Lliwedd, Crib Goch, Snowdon, Garnedd Ugain The Snowdon Massif is one of the three mountain groups in Snowdonia, north Wales to include mountains over 3000 feet (914 m) high. ... The Glyderau (a Welsh plural form, equivalent to the English Glyders) are a mountain group in Snowdonia, North Wales. ... The Carneddau (a Welsh plural form, can also be written as Carnedds), are a group of mountains in Snowdonia, Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... The Welsh 3,000s are the mountains of Wales over 3,000 feet high (914. ...


The second area includes peaks such as Moel Siabod, Cnicht, the Moelwynion, and the mountains around Blaenau Ffestiniog. Moel Siabod is a mountain in Snowdonia, north Wales, which sits isolated above the villages of Betws-y-Coed and Capel Curig. ... Cnicht is a hill in Snowdonia, known as the Matterhorn of Wales because of its appearance when viewed from the south-west. ... The Moelwynion (a Welsh plural, sometimes anglicised to Moelwyns), are a group of mountains in central Snowdonia. ... Blaenau Ffestiniog is a small town in north Wales. ...


The third area includes the Rhinogydd in the west as well as the Arenig and the Migneint (this last being an area of bog). The Rhinogydd (a Welsh plural form, often anglicised as Rhinogs) are a range of mountains located east of Harlech in North Wales. ... In geology, the Arenig group is the name applied to the lowest stage of the Ordovician System. ... Part of the Migneints great expanse of moorland The Migneint (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈmɪgnaint]) is a large expanse of moorland in central Snowdonia, North Wales. ...


The southernmost area includes Cadair Idris, the Tarren range, and the Aran group, including Aran Fawddwy, the highest mountain in the United Kingdom south of Snowdon. Cadair Idris (or Cader Idris as it is generally known locally) is a prominent mountain in Snowdonia, north Wales. ... Aran Fawddwy is a mountain is southern Snowdonia, north Wales. ...


Snowdon and its vicinity form a syncline of Ordovician rocks which are partly volcanic. Cadair Idris is also largely comprised of Ordovician igneous rocks. The Harlech Dome, which includes the Rhinogydd, is formed of Cambrian gritstones and mudstones. Road Cut near Ft. ... The Ordovician period is the second of the six (seven in North America) periods of the Paleozoic era. ... In geology, a dome is a deformational feature consisting of symmetrically-dipping anticlines; their general outline on a geologic map is circular or oval. ... The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 ± 1. ...


Elsewhere in North Wales, the Carboniferous Limestone occurs north of Llangollen and the Coal Measures near Wrexham. Carboniferous Limestone is a type of limestone rock. ... Llangollen is a small town in Denbighshire, north Wales, famous for the Llangollen International Eisteddfod, the Llangollen Canal (whose Pontcysyllte Aqueduct is nearby), and the Llangollen Railway. ... A coal measure (stratigraphic unit) is the name given to any rock sequence that occurs in the upper part of the Carboniferous System in Europe. ... Wrexham (Welsh: Wrecsam) is an industrial town and sizeable urban area in north-east Wales, close to the English border with Cheshire. ...


South Wales has a written record of geological interest going back to the 1100s when Giraldus Cambrensis noted pyritous shales near Newport. George Owen in 1603 correctly identified the stratigraphic relationship between the Carboniferous Limestone and the Coal Measures. Some of the first published representations of fossils were those of fossil plants taken from coal measures near Neath (Gibson late 1600s). Adam Sedgwick and Roderick Murchison did fundamental work on Old Red Sandstone and the underlying rocks. Geological map of Great Britain. ... Events William II of England dies in a hunting accident - Henry I becomes King of England King Henry I proclaims the Charter of Liberties, one of the first examples of a constitution. ... Giraldus Cambrensis (c. ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Newport (Welsh: ) is the third-largest city within Wales (after Cardiff and Swansea), in the United Kingdom. ... George Owen of Henllys (1552-August 26, 1613) was an English antiquarian, author, and naturalist. ... FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under DOS. FOSSIL is an acronym for Fido Opus Seadog Standard Interface Layer. ... A coal measure (stratigraphic unit) is the name given to any rock sequence that occurs in the upper part of the Carboniferous System in Europe. ... Image:Neatharms. ... Adam Sedgwick (March 22nd, 1785–January 27, 1873) was one of the founders of modern geology. ... Sir Roderick Murchison Sir Roderick Impey Murchison (February 19, 1792 – October 22, 1871), was an influential Scottish geologist who first described and investigated the Silurian era. ... The Old Red Sandstone is a rock formation of considerable importance to early paleontology. ...


Several successive periods are represented. Pembrokeshire has outcrops of both Pre-Cambrian and Cambrian rocks. A notable feature of the Ordovician system is a major downwarp known as the Welsh geosyncline. Silurian rocks, largely mudstones and siltstones, are widely distributed in south Wales and are well displayed on the Cardiganshire coast. Carboniferous Limestone outcrops occur in south Pembrokeshire, Gower, the Vale of Glamorgan and the north and east sides of the coalfield. Look up period in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Period, and periodic, is part of many concepts: In astronomy Orbital period. ... Pembrokeshire (Welsh: ) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... The Precambrian or Cryptozoic is the period of the geologic timescale from the formation of Earth around 4500 million years before the present (BP) to the evolution of abundant macroscopic hard-shelled fossils, which marked the beginning of the Cambrian, some 542 million years BP. Remarkably little is known about... The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 ± 1. ... The Ordovician period is the second of the six (seven in North America) periods of the Paleozoic era. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ... Cardiganshire (Sir Aberteifi in Welsh) was a traditional county in Wales that existed between 1282 and 1974. ... South Pembrokeshire was a local government district of Dyfed, Wales from 1974 to 1996. ... The electoral ward of Gower, City and County of Swansea, South Wales, consists of some or all of the following areas, Ilston, Upper Killay, Bishopston, Cheriton, Fairyhill, Horton, Knelston, Landimore, Llanddewi, Llangennith, Llanmadoc, Llanrhidian, Middleton, Nicholaston, Oldwalls, Overton, Oxwich Green, Oxwich, Parkmill, Penmaen, Pennard, Penrice, Port Eynon, Reynoldston, Rhossili, Fforest... For other uses, see Vale of Glamorgan (disambiguation). ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ...


One of the geological rarities of south Wales is the coastline of Ogmore-by-Sea and Southerndown. Its cliffs are composed of Sutton stone; a very rare freestone that is a banded mixture of lias limestone which contains large elements of Carboniferous limestone. Sutton stone has always been highly regarded: as well as being used in construction throughout the Vale of Glamorgan, it was also shipped over the Bristol Channel to North Devon and North Cornwall which are both deficient in limestone. Ogmore-by-Sea is a seaside village on the Heritiage Coastline of South Wales in the UK. Approximately 10km from Bridgend and lies in the Vale of Glamorgan. ... Southerndown is a village close to St Brides Major, Llantwit Major and Ogmore-by-Sea, mostly known for its beach, which is a popular tourist destination during the summer months. ... “Precipice” redirects here. ... A freestone is a stone used in architecture for molding, tracery and other work required to be worked with the chisel. ... Lias may refer to: Lias, the lower Jurassic period which saw much deposition of clay followed by limestone. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... The location of the Bristol Channel The Severn Bridge and Bristol Channel, looking northwestward from England towards Wales The Bristol Channel coast at Ilfracombe, North Devon, looking west towards Lee Bay The Bristol Channel is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from South West... Categories: Stub | Devon ... North Cornwall is the largest of the six local government districts of Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ...


A major geological feature of the Upper Carboniferous sub-period in south Wales is the south Wales coalfield syncline. The rocks comprising this important area were laid down during the Westphalian Geological Series (or epoch) approximately 314-308 million years ago (Ma), when climatic conditions were equatorial. This Westphalian succession includes a sequence with a thickness of more than 1800m in the west. The Coal Measures were laid down on a low-lying waterlogged plain with peat mires immediately south of an ancient geological feature known as the Wales-London-Brabant High. This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Road Cut near Ft. ... Look up epoch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Brecon Beacons are a mountain range located in the south-east of Wales, forming the nucleus of the Brecon Beacons National Park (Parc Cenedlaethol Bannau Brycheiniog). The range consists of the mountains to the south of Brecon. The highest of these is Pen y Fan (886 m); other notable summits include Corn Du (873 m), Cribyn (795 m), and Fan y Bîg (719 m). These summits form a long ridge which forms a horseshoe around the head of the Taf Fechan river to the south-east, with long parallel spurs extending to the north-east. The Brecon Beacons are comprised of Devonian Old Red Sandstone. Part of the Brecon Beacons, looking from the highest point Pen y Fan, 886 m (2907 feet), to Cribyn, 795 m (2608 feet) The Brecon Beacons (Welsh: Bannau Brycheiniog) are a mountain range located in the south-east of Wales. ... Part of the Brecon Beacons National Park, looking from the highest point Pen Y Fan, 886 m (2907 feet), to Corn Du, 873 m (2864 feet) The Brecon Beacons National Park is one of three national parks in Wales. ... Artists illustration of a Devonian scene. ... The Old Red Sandstone is a rock formation of considerable importance to early paleontology. ...


Cefn Bryn (English: Ridge Hill) is a 5 mile long Old Red Sandstone ridge in the heart of the Gower Peninsula. The highest point on the ridge (186m) is the second highest point in Gower. The grassland on the ridge is known as Cefn Bryn Common. Cefn Bryn is a 5 mile long Old Red Sandstone ridge in the heart of the Gower Peninsula. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A ridge is a geological feature that features a continuous elevational crest for some distance. ... Rhossili Beach, Gower, Wales The Gower peninsula (Welsh: ) is a peninsula on the south coast of Glamorgan, Wales. ...


Cefn-cerig Road near Cefn-cerig Farm, Llandovery, Wales, is the location of the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) which marks the boundary between the Aeronian and Telychian stages of the Silurian period on the geologic time scale. The GSSP was ratified in 1984. Cefn-cerig Road, a road near Cefn-cerig Farm, Llandovery, Wales, is the location of the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) which marks the boundary between the Aeronian and Telychian stages of the Silurian period on the geologic time scale. ... Llandovery (Welsh: Llanymddyfri) is a market town in Carmarthenshire, Wales, lying on the River Tywi and the A40 road. ... This article is about the country. ... A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, abbreviated GSSP, is an internationally agreed upon stratigraphic section which serves as the reference section for a particular boundary on the geologic timescale. ... In the geologic timescale, the Aeronian is the age of the Llandovery epoch of the Silurian period of the Paleozoic era of the Fanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 439 million and 436 million years ago, approximatedly. ... In the geologic timescale, the Telychian is the age of the Llandovery epoch of the Silurian period of the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 436. ... The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ... // For other uses, see time scale. ...


The boundary is defined as a point immediately above the highest record of the brachiopod Eocoelia intermedia and below the first appearance of the succeeding species Eocoelia curtisi. The boundary also corresponds to the incoming of the acritarchs Deunffia monospinosa, Domasia bispinosa and Pterospermella. The section, part of the Wormwood Formation, is sandstone and siltstone. Subphyla and classes See Classification Brachiopods (from Latin brachium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) are a phylum of animals. ... First appearance datum is a term used by geologists and paleontologists to designate the first (oldest) appearance of a species in the geologic record. ... Acritarchs are small organic structures found as fossils. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Siltstone Siltstone is a geological term for a sedimentary rock whose composition is intermediate in grain size between the coarser sandstone and the finer mudstone. ...


Trefawr Track, a forestry road north of Cwm-coed-Aeron Farm, Llandovery, Wales, is the location of the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) which marks the boundary between the Rhuddanian and Aeronian stages of the Silurian period on the geologic time scale. The GSSP was ratified in 1984. Trefawr Track, a forestry road north of Cwm-coed-Aeron Farm, Llandovery, Wales, is the location of the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) which marks the boundary between the Rhuddanian and Aeronian stages of the Silurian period on the geologic time scale. ... Llandovery (Welsh: Llanymddyfri) is a market town in Carmarthenshire, Wales, lying on the River Tywi and the A40 road. ... This article is about the country. ... A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, abbreviated GSSP, is an internationally agreed upon stratigraphic section which serves as the reference section for a particular boundary on the geologic timescale. ... In the geologic timescale, the Rhuddanian is the age of the Llandovery epoch of the Silurian period of the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 443. ... In the geologic timescale, the Aeronian is the age of the Llandovery epoch of the Silurian period of the Paleozoic era of the Fanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 439 million and 436 million years ago, approximatedly. ... The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ... // For other uses, see time scale. ...


The boundary is defined as the first appearance of the graptolite Monograptus austerus sequens (the base of the Monograptus triangulatus biozone). The section is primarily mudstone, which yields an abundance of shelly faunas. The graptolite Diplograptus elongatus occurs immediately below the boundary. First appearance datum is a term used by geologists and paleontologists to designate the first (oldest) appearance of a species in the geologic record. ... Graptolites (Graptolithina) are fossil colonial animals known chiefly from the Upper Cambrian through the Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous). ... Mudstone is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ...


References

  • Snowdonia National Park Authority
  • Official site of the Brecon Beacons National Park Authority
  • The Gower Information Center: Broad Pool
  • Ogg, James. GSSP for the Base of Telychian. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
  • Ogg, James. GSSP for the Base of Aeronian. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
  • John L. Morton, King of Siluria — How Roderick Murchison Changed the Face of Geology (Brocken Spectre Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-9546829-0-4)
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Martin J. S. Rudwick, The Great Devonian Controversy: The Shaping of Scientific Knowledge among Gentlemanly Specialists (University of Chicago Press, 1985) — the rise of Murchison to power
  • James A. Secord, Controversy in Victorian Geology: The Cambrian-Silurian Dispute (Princeton University Press, 1986) — documents the battle between Murchison and Adam Sedgwick

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Martin J. S. Rudwick is an emeritus professor of History at the University of California, San Diego and an affiliated research scholar at Cambridge Universitys Department of History and Philosophy of Scince. ... Adam Sedgwick (March 22nd, 1785–January 27, 1873) was one of the founders of modern geology. ...

See also

Geological map of Great Britain. ... Geological map of Great Britain, showing the differing geology of England, Scotland and Wales. ...

External links


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