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Encyclopedia > Geology of Scotland

Scotland has an incomparable variety of geology for an area of its size. It is also the origin of many significant discoveries and important figures in the development of the science. Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history and the processes that shape it. ...

The oldest rocks of Scotland are the Lewisian gneisses, which were laid down in the Precambrian period, up to 3,000 Ma (Mega-annum) ago. They are among the oldest rocks in the world. During the Precambrian, the Torridonian sandstones and the Moine were also laid down. Further sedimentary deposits were formed through the Cambrian period, some of which metamorphosed into the Dalradian series. The area which would become Scotland was at this time close to the south pole. The Precambrian is an informal name for the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... Mega-annum, usually abbreviated as Ma, is a unit of time equal to one million years. ... In geology, Torridonian describes a series of proterozoic arenaceous sedimentary rocks, extensively developed in the Northwest Highlands of Scotland, and particularly in the district of upper Loch Torridon, a circumstance which suggested the name Torridon Sandstone, first applied to these rocks by James Nicol. ... Moine is the French word for Monk. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 Ma (million years ago) at the end of the Proterozoic eon and ended about 488. ... Metamorphic rock is the result of the transformation of a pre-existing rock type, the protolith, in a process called metamorphism, which means change in form (from the Greek prefix meta, after, and the noun morphe, form). The protolith is subjected to heat (greater than 150 degrees Celsius) and extreme... Dalradian, in geology, a series of metamorphic rocks, typically developed in the high ground which lies southeast of the Great Glen of Scotland. ...

During the Silurian period (439-409 Ma), the area which became Scotland was part of the continent of Laurentia. Across the Iapetus ocean to the south, was the continent of Baltica. The two continents gradually collided, joining Scotland to the area which would become England and Europe. This event is known as the Caledonian Orogeny, and the Highland Boundary Fault marks this stitching together of continents. Silurian rocks form the Southern Uplands of Scotland, which was pushed up from the sea bed during the collision. The highlands were also pushed up as a result of this collision, and may have been as high as the modern day Alps at this time. The Old Red Sandstones were laid down in low lying areas during this period. Volcanic activity occurred across Scotland as a result of the collision of the tectonic plates, with volcanoes in southern Scotland, and magma chambers in the north, which today form the granite mountains such as the Cairngorms. The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ... North American craton. ... The Iapetus Ocean was an Ocean that existed in the Southern Hemisphere between Scotland, England and Scandinavia between 400 and 600 million years ago. ... Baltica is the craton beneath northwestern Eurasia. ... The Caledonian orogeny is a hypothetical series of events in geologic history explaining a group of highland formations that are very similar in composition, stratigraphy and fossils: the mountains and hills of northern England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and west Norway. ... The Highland Boundary Fault traverses Scotland from Arran to Stonehaven. ... The Southern Uplands is the southernmost of Scotlands three major geographic areas (the others being the Central Belt and the Highlands). ... The West face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... The Old Red Sandstone is a rock formation of considerable importance to early paleontology. ... A volcano is a geological landform usually generated by the eruption through a planets surface of magma, molten rock welling up from the planets interior. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... A volcano is a geological landform usually generated by the eruption through a planets surface of magma, molten rock welling up from the planets interior. ... A magma chamber is a chamber typically between 1 km and 10 km beneath the surface of the Earth formed as rising magma forms a reservoir if it is unable to rise any further. ... Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... The Cairngorms: Ben Macdhui seen from Carn aMhaim This article is about the Scottish mountain range. ...

During the Carboniferous period (363-290 Ma), Scotland lay close to the equator. Several changes in sea level occurred during this time. The coal deposits of Lanarkshire, and further sedimentary deposits, date from this time. More volcanic activity formed Arthur's Seat in Edinburgh, among other hills. By the Triassic, Scotland was a desert, the origin of large sandstone outcrops of the south west. Although large deposits of Cretaceous rocks would have been laid down over Scotland, these have not survived erosion, as have the chalks of England. The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... // Overview of Coal Sector in India 2005 This comprehensive review of the Indian coal sector analyses the prevailing scenario in the Indian coal sector alongwith existing policy & regulatory framework. ... Lanarkshire (Siorrachd Lannraig in Gaelic) is a traditional county of Scotland. ... Arthurs Seat in a cloudless summer evening Arthurs Seat is the main peak of the group of hills which form most of Holyrood Park, a remarkably wild piece of highland landscape in the centre of the city of Edinburgh, about a mile to the east of the castle. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ), Dùn Èideann () in Scottish Gaelic, is the second-largest city in Scotland and its capital city. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 245 to 202 Ma (million years ago). ... Sandstone near Stadtroda, Germany Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period, about 146 million years ago (Ma), to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65. ... The Needles, part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation For other uses, see Chalk (disambiguation). ...

By the Tertiary period, the tectonic plates were again moving, separating into modern day North America and Europe with the creation of the Atlantic Ocean. The split occurred to the west of Scotland, leaving a chain of former volcanic sites through the Hebrides, including Skye and St. Kilda. This was the last period of rock formation in Scotland. Since then, several ice ages have shaped the land through glacial erosion, creating u-shaped valleys and depositing boulder clays. In the present day, Scotland continues to move slowly north. The Tertiary period was previously one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, from the end of the Cretaceous period about 65 million years ago to the start of the Quaternary period about 1. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The Hebrides The Hebrides comprise a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of Scotland, and in geological terms are composed of the oldest rocks in the British Isles. ... looking towards Quiraing, Skye. ... Mercator projection map of the St Kilda Island group with inset of the British Isles. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... A glaciated valley is one formed by the process of glaciation. ... Boulder clay in geology, is a deposit of clay, often full of boulders, which is formed in and beneath glaciers and ice-sheets wherever they are found, but is in a special sense the typical deposit of the Glacial Period in northern Europe and America. ...


Further reading



See also

Topics on Scotland
History Timeline | Prehistoric Scotland | Scotland in the High Middle Ages | Wars of Scottish Independence | Scottish Enlightenment | Colonisation | Acts of Union 1707 | Jacobitism | Highland Clearances | Lowland Clearances
Politics Political parties | Elections | Scottish Parliament | Scottish Executive | First Minister of Scotland | Secretary of State for Scotland | Scotland Office
Religion Church of Scotland | General Assembly | Roman Catholicism | Scottish Episcopal Church
Law Courts of Scotland | Lord President | Crown Office | Lord Advocate | Solicitor General | Procurator Fiscal
Geography Geology | Climate | Mountains and hills | Islands | Lochs
Economy Companies | Bank of Scotland | Royal Bank of Scotland | North Sea oil | Scotch whisky | Tourism | Harris Tweed
Demographics Scottish Gaelic language | Scots language | Scottish English | Highland English | Burghs
Culture Education | Hogmanay | Innovations & discoveries | Music | Sport
Symbols Flags (National Flag | Royal Standard) | Royal Arms) | Tartan | Bagpipes

  Results from FactBites:
Scotland Geology (1173 words)
Scotland's geology is world-famous, both for the rich variety of our rocks and the place they hold in the development of new ideas.
This geological diversity is reflected in Scotland's scenery, in the way that the rocks have been sculpted over millions of years to give the Highlands and Lowlands, the firths and the islands, the glens, lochs and serrated mountain ridges.
Stand anywhere in Scotland's central belt, and the hills that pepper the landscape - Dunbarton Rock, the Campsies, Arthur's Seat, North Berwick Law - are all the result of volcanic activity during the Carboniferous Period.
Geology - Continental Drift - Crystalinks (2119 words)
Geology is the scientific study of the Earth, including its composition, structure, physical properties, and history.
The term geology is broadly inclusive and is often regarded as embracing all of the geologic sciences.
Geology is the science and study of the solid matter of a celestial body, its composition, structure, physical properties, history and the processes that shape it.
  More results at FactBites »



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