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Encyclopedia > Geography of Russia
Map of Russia.
Map of Russia.

Russia is a country located in Europe and in North Asia. The European part of the country includes the territories to the west of the Ural Mountains. Russia is the largest country in the world in terms of area, but is unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world. Despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture. Russia's topology includes the world's deepest lake and Europe's highest mountain and the longest river. The topography and climate, however, resemble those of the northernmost portion of the North American continent. The northern forests and the plains bordering them to the south find their closest counterparts in the Yukon Territory and in the wide swath of land extending across most of Canada. The terrain, climate, and settlement patterns of Siberia are similar to those of Alaska and Canada. map of Russia, converted directly from CIA World Factbook GIF File links The following pages link to this file: Russia Geography of Russia Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... map of Russia, converted directly from CIA World Factbook GIF File links The following pages link to this file: Russia Geography of Russia Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... North Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Village of Kolchedan in Ural Mountains in 1912 The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... A Möbius strip, a surface with only one side and one edge; such shapes are an object of study in topology. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Motto: none Official languages English, French Flower Fireweed Tree Subalpine Fir Bird Common Raven Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Geraldine Van Bibber Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 1 1 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 9th 482,443 km² 474,391 km... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ...


Geographic coordinates: 60°00′N 100°00′E

Contents

Global position and boundaries

Located in the northern and middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, most of Russia is much closer to the North Pole than to the equator. Individual country comparisons are of little value in gauging Russia's enormous size (slightly less than twice that of the United States) and diversity. The country's 17.1 million square kilometers include one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Its European portion, which occupies a substantial part of continental Europe, is home to most of Russia's industrial and agricultural activity. It was here, roughly between the Dnieper River and the Ural Mountains, that the Russian Empire took shape after the principality of Muscovy gradually expanded eastward to reach the Pacific Ocean in the 17th century. The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planets surface (or celestial sphere) that is north of the equator (the word hemisphere literally means half ball). On the Earth, the Northern Hemisphere contains most of the land and about 88-90% of the human population. ... North Pole Scenery When not otherwise qualified, the term North Pole usually refers to the Geographic North Pole – the northernmost point on the surface of the Earth, where the Earths axis of rotation intersects the Earths surface. ... World map showing the equator in red The Equator is an imaginary circle drawn around a planet (or other astronomical object) at a distance halfway between the poles. ... Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, the World or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... The Dnieper River (also: Dnepr, Dniapro, or Dnipro) is a river (2,290 km length) which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Village of Kolchedan in Ural Mountains in 1912 The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Russia extends about 9,000 kilometers from westernmost Kaliningrad Oblast, the now-isolated region cut off from the rest of Russia by the independence of Belarus, Latvia, and Lithuania, to the Ratmanov Island (one of the Diomede Islands) in the Bering Strait. This distance is roughly equivalent to the distance from Edinburgh, Scotland, east to Nome, Alaska. Between the northern tip of the Arctic island of Novaya Zemlya to the southern tip of the Republic of Dagestan on the Caspian Sea is about 3,800 kilometers of extremely varied, often inhospitable terrain. Location of the Kaliningrad Oblast Map of the Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast Flag Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: ; German: or Nordostpreussen, Northeast Prussia), informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning Amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast, with no land connection to the rest of Russia; it... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait, with the Diomede Islands at center. ... For other uses, see Bering Strait (disambiguation). ... Edinburgh (pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... Nome is a city located on the southern Seward Peninsula coast of Norton Sound in the Nome Census Area, Alaska. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Novaya Zemlya (Russian: , lit. ... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by both area and volume,[1] with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometres (143,244 mi²) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometres (18,761 mi³).[2] It is a landlocked endorheic body of water and lies between...


Extending for 57,792 kilometers, the Russian border is the world's longest—and, in the post-Soviet era, a source of substantial concern for national security. Along the 20,139-kilometer land frontier, Russia has boundaries with fourteen countries. New neighbors are eight countries of the near abroad—Kazakhstan in Asia, and, in Europe, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, and Azerbaijan. Other neighbors include North Korea, China, Mongolia, Poland, Norway, and Finland. And, at the far northeastern extremity, eighty-six kilometers of the Bering Strait separate Russia from a fifteenth neighbor—the United States. Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) Translation: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Socialist Republic/Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October...


Approximately two-thirds of the frontier is bounded by water. Virtually all of the lengthy northern coast is well above the Arctic Circle; except for the port of Murmansk, which receives the warm currents of the Gulf Stream, that coast is locked in ice much of the year. Thirteen seas and parts of three oceans—the Arctic, Atlantic, and Pacific—wash Russian shores. World map showing the Arctic Circle in red A sign along the Dalton Highway marking the location of the Arctic Circle The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ... Murmansk, Archangelsk, Dikson, Tiksi, on the Arctic Ocean Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ) is a city in the extreme northwest of Russia (north of the Arctic circle) with a seaport on the Kola Gulf, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... The Arctic Ocean is used by both marine mammals and nuclear submarines. ... Look up Atlantic Ocean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pacific redirects here. ...


Administrative and territorial divisions

With a few changes of status, most of the Soviet-era administrative and territorial divisions of the Russian Republic were retained in constituting the Russian Federation. In 2006, there were eighty-eight administrative territorial divisions (called federal subjects): twenty-one republics, seven krais (territories), forty-eight oblasts (provinces), one autonomous oblast, and nine autonomous okrugs. The cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg also have federal status. Federal subjects of the Russian Federation Being the largest country in the world, and one of the most populated, Russia incorporates several types and levels of subdivisions. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 88 subjects (Russian: ; English transliteration: subyekty, sing. ... A republic in its basic sense, is constitutional government. ... Krai (Russian: край; British English transliteration: kray), is a term used to refer to several of Russias 89 administrative regions (federal subjects). ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... Okrug is a term to denote administrative subdivision in some Slavic states. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... This article is being considered for deletion, in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


The republics include a wide variety of peoples, including northern Europeans, Tatars, Caucasus peoples, and indigenous Siberians. The largest federal subjects are in Siberia. Located in east-central Siberia, the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) is the largest federal subject in the country (and the largest country subdivision in the world), twice the size of Alaska. Second in size is Krasnoyarsk Krai, located southwest of Sakha in Siberia. Kaliningrad Oblast is the smallest oblast, and it is the only noncontiguous part of Russia. The two most populous federal subjects, Moscow Oblast (with Moscow) and Krasnodar Krai, are in European Russia. Kültigin Monument where first mention of Tatar people is inscribed Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Russia Georgia Azerbaijan (Azer. ... Here is a list of the 88 federal subjects of Russia in order of size. ... Capital Yakutsk Area - total - % water Ranked 1st - 3,103,200 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 58th - est. ... This is a list of the largest country subdivisions by area (including surface water) in square kilometres. ... Krasnoyarsk Krai (Russian: ) (2002 pop. ... Location of the Kaliningrad Oblast Map of the Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast Flag Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: ; German: or Nordostpreussen, Northeast Prussia), informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning Amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast, with no land connection to the rest of Russia; it... Here is a list of the 89 federal subjects of Russia in order of population according to the 2002 census. ... Moscow Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) officially established on January 14, 1929. ... Krasnodar Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the Southern Federal District. ...


Topography and drainage

Geographers traditionally divide the vast territory of Russia into five natural zones: the tundra zone; the taiga, or forest, zone; the steppe, or plains, zone; the arid zone; and the mountain zone. Most of Russia consists of two plains (the East European Plain and the West Siberian Plain), two lowlands (the North Siberian and the Kolyma, in far northeastern Siberia), two plateaus (the Central Siberian Plateau and the Lena Plateau to its east), and a series of mountainous areas mainly concentrated in the extreme northeast or extending intermittently along the southern border. In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ... The taiga is found throughout the high northern latitudes, just below the tundra, and just above the steppes. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - step, Ukrainian: - step, Kazakh: - dala), pronounced in English as step, is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being... Erg Chebbi, Morocco In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives very little precipitation. ... A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... In geography, a plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. ... The East European Plain (also Eastern-European Lowland, Eastern European Lowlands, Eastern European Plain, and Russian Plain) is a plain and series of broad river basins in Eastern Europe. ... The West Siberian Plain (Russian: За́падно-Сиби́рская равни́на) is a large plain that occupies the western portion of Siberia in Russia, between the Ural Mountains in the west and the Yenisei River in the east. ... In physical geography, a lowland is any broad expanse of land with a general low level. ... Monte Roraima In geology and earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat open country. ... The Central Siberian Plateau (ru: Среднесиби́рское плоского́рье) is a part of Siberia. ...


Topography

East European plain

The East European Plain encompasses most of European Russia. The West Siberian Plain, which is the world's largest, extends east from the Urals to the Yenisei River. Because the terrain and vegetation are relatively uniform in each of the natural zones, Russia presents an illusion of uniformity. Nevertheless, Russian territory contains all the major vegetation zones of the world except a tropical rain forest. The East European Plain (also Eastern-European Lowland, Eastern European Lowlands, Eastern European Plain, and Russian Plain) is a plain and series of broad river basins in Eastern Europe. ... European Russia can be considered the western areas of Russia, where most of the population is centred. ... The West Siberian Plain (Russian: За́падно-Сиби́рская равни́на) is a large plain that occupies the western portion of Siberia in Russia, between the Ural Mountains in the west and the Yenisei River in the east. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Village of Kolchedan in Ural Mountains in 1912 The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... The Yenisei (Енисе́й) is the greatest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean, and the fifth longest river in the world. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests and tropical rainforests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ...


Tundra

About 10% of Russia is tundra, or treeless, marshy plain. The tundra is Russia's northernmost zone, stretching from the Finnish border in the west to the Bering Strait in the east, then running south along the Pacific coast to the northern Kamchatka Peninsula. The zone is known for its herds of wild reindeer, for so-called white nights (dusk at midnight, dawn shortly thereafter) in summer, and for days of total darkness in winter. The long, harsh winters and lack of sunshine allow only mosses, lichens, and dwarf willows and shrubs to sprout low above the barren permafrost. Although several powerful Siberian rivers traverse this zone as they flow northward to the Arctic Ocean, partial and intermittent thawing hamper drainage of the numerous lakes, ponds, and swamps of the tundra. Frost weathering is the most important physical process here, gradually shaping a landscape that was severely modified by glaciation in the last ice age. Less than 1% of Russia's population lives in this zone. The fishing and port industries of the northwestern Kola Peninsula and the huge oil and gas fields of northwestern Siberia are the largest employers in the tundra. With a population of 180,000, the industrial frontier city of Norilsk is second in population to Murmansk among Russia's settlements above the Arctic Circle. In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ... For other uses, see Bering Strait (disambiguation). ... Pacific redirects here. ... Kamchatka is the home of many volcanoes. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... The White Nights are a short late Spring and early Summer period in high latitude areas in the few weeks around the Summer solstice in June. ... Subclasses Sphagnidae Andreaeidae Tetraphidae Polytrichidae Archidiidae Buxbaumiidae Bryidae Mosses are small, soft plants that are typically 1-10 cm tall, occasionally more. ... Lichenes from Ernst Haeckels Artforms of Nature, 1904 Crustose and foliose lichens on a wall A foliose lichen on basalt. ... Binomial name Salix herbacea The Dwarf Willow (Salix herbacea - also known as the Least Willow) is the commonest of a group of tiny creeping willows in the willow family (Salicaceae). ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is a thermal condition where ground material stays at or below 0°C for two or more years. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Location of Kola south of the Barents Sea. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ... Norilsk downtown was designed in a typical Stalinist style. ... Murmansk, Archangelsk, Dikson, Tiksi, on the Arctic Ocean Murmansk coin Murmansk (Russian: ) is a city in the extreme northwest of Russia (north of the Arctic circle) with a seaport on the Kola Gulf, 12 km from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from...


Taiga

The taiga, which is the world's largest forest region, contains mostly coniferous spruce, fir, pine, and larch. This is the largest natural zone of Russia, an area about the size of the United States. In the northeastern portion of this belt, long and severe winters frequently bring the world's coldest temperatures for inhabited areas. The taiga zone extends in a broad band across the middle latitudes, stretching from the Finnish border in the west to the Verkhoyansk Range in northeastern Siberia and as far south as the southern shores of Lake Baikal. Isolated sections of taiga also exist along mountain ranges such as the southern part of the Urals and in the Amur River valley bordering China in the Far East. About 33% of Russia's population lives in this zone, which, together with a band of mixed forest to its south, includes most of the European part of Russia and the ancestral lands of the earliest Slavic settlers. The taiga is found throughout the high northern latitudes, just below the tundra, and just above the steppes. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferae, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the... Species About 35; see text. ... FIR may stand for: finite impulse response (a property of some digital filters) far infrared, i. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... Species About 12; see text Siberian larch Male (above) and female (below right) cones of Japanese Larch emerging in spring Larches are conifers in the genus Larix, in the family Pinaceae. ... The Verkhoyansk Range (also Cherskiy Range) is a mountain chain of eastern Siberia, spanning ca. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... The Amur (Russian: Амур) (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江; Hēilóng Jiāng, literally meaning Black Dragon River) (Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River) (Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests are a temperate and humid biome. ...


Mixed and Deciduous forest

The mixed and deciduous forest belt is triagular, widest along the western border and narrower towards the Ural Mountains. The main trees are Oak and Spruce, but many other growths of vegitation such as ash, aspen, birch, hornbeam, maple, and pine reside there. Separating the taiga from the wooded steppe is a narrow belt of birch and aspen woodland located east of the Urals as far as the Altay mountains. Much of the forested zone has been cleared for agriculture, especially in European Russia. Wildlife is more scarce as a result of this, but the roe deer, wolf, fox, and squirrel are very common. Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off). ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Village of Kolchedan in Ural Mountains in 1912 The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Species About 35; see text. ... Look up ash in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species Populus adenopoda Populus alba Populus grandidentata Populus sieboldii Populus tremula Populus tremuloides Aspens are trees of the willow family and comprise a section of the poplar genus, Populus sect. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... Species Carpinus betulus - European Hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana - American Hornbeam Carpinus cordata - Sawa Hornbeam Carpinus fargesii - Farges Hornbeam Carpinus laxiflora - Aka-shide Hornbeam Carpinus japonica - Japanese Hornbeam Carpinus orientalis - Oriental Hornbeam Carpinus tschonoskii - Chonowskis Hornbeam Carpinus turczaninowii - Turkzaninovs Hornbeam The hornbeams (Carpinus) are a genus of relatively small hardwood... Range of Maples Species See List of Acer species Maples are trees or shrubs of the genus Acer. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... Altay or Altai may refer to: Altay, Xinjiang, also spelled Aletai, a city in Xinjiang, China Altay, Govi-Altay, a city in Govi-Altay Province, Mongolia Altay Mountains Altay language Altay (sheep), a sheep breed Altai Republic, a federal subject of Russia Altai Krai, a federal subject of Russia This... European Russia can be considered the western areas of Russia, where most of the population is centred. ... Binomial name Capreolus capreolus, Capreolus pygargus (Linnaeus, 1758) There are two species of Roe Deer. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... A fox is a member of any of 27 species of small omnivorous canids. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Steppe

The steppe has long been depicted as the typical Russian landscape. It is a broad band of treeless, grassy plains, interrupted by mountain ranges, extending from Hungary across Ukraine, southern Russia, and Kazakhstan before ending in Manchuria. Most of the Soviet Union's steppe zone was located in the Ukrainian and Kazakh republics; the much smaller Russian steppe is located mainly between those nations, extending southward between the Black and Caspian Seas before blending into the increasingly desiccated territory of the Republic of Kalmykia. In a country of extremes, the steppe zone provides the most favorable conditions for human settlement and agriculture because of its moderate temperatures and normally adequate levels of sunshine and moisture. Even here, however, agricultural yields are sometimes adversely affected by unpredictable levels of precipitation and occasional catastrophic droughts. Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: MÇŽnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by both area and volume,[1] with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometres (143,244 mi²) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometres (18,761 mi³).[2] It is a landlocked endorheic body of water and lies between... The Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч; Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... A drought is a period of time when there is not enough water to support agricultural, urban or environmental water needs. ...


Mountain ranges

Russia's mountain ranges are located principally along its continental divide (the Ural Mountains), along the southwestern border (the Caucasus), along the border with Mongolia (the eastern and western Sayan Mountains and the western extremity of the Altay Mountains), and in eastern Siberia (a complex system of ranges in the northeastern corner of the country and forming the spine of the Kamchatka Peninsula, and lesser mountains extending along the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan). Russia has nine major mountain ranges. In general, the eastern half of the country is much more mountainous than the western half, the interior of which is dominated by low plains. The traditional dividing line between the east and the west is the Yenisei River valley. In delineating the western edge of the Central Siberian Plateau from the West Siberian Plain, the Yenisey runs from near the Mongolian border northward into the Arctic Ocean west of the Taymyr Peninsula. The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Russia Georgia Azerbaijan (Azer. ... The Sayan Mountains (Russian, Sayanskiy Khrebet) is a mountain range in southern Siberia, Asia, forming the eastern continuation of the Sailughem or Altay range, stretching from 89° E to 106° E. Orographically they are the N border-ridge of the plateau of NW Mongolia, and separate that region from Siberia. ... The Altai is a mountain range in central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and where the great rivers Irtysh, Ob and Yenisei have their sources. ... Kamchatka is the home of many volcanoes. ... Map of the Sea of Okhotsk. ... The Sea of Japan (East Sea) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean. ... The Yenisei (Енисе́й) is the greatest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean, and the fifth longest river in the world. ... The Central Siberian Plateau (ru: Среднесиби́рское плоского́рье) is a part of Siberia. ... Taymyr Peninsula is a peninsula in Siberia that forms the most northern part of mainland Asia. ...


Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains are the most famous of the country's mountain ranges because they form the natural boundary between Europe and Asia and contain valuable mineral deposits. The range extends about 2,100 kilometers from the Arctic Ocean to the northern border of Kazakhstan. In terms of elevation and vegetation, however, the Urals are far from impressive, and they do not serve as a formidable natural barrier. Several low passes provide major transportation routes through the Urals eastward from Europe. The highest peak, Mount Narodnaya, is 1,894 meters. Map of the Ural Mountains The Village of Kolchedan in Ural Mountains in 1912 The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Mount Narodnaya (Russian: Народная) is the highest peak of the Urals, located Tyumen Oblast in Russia, 0,5 km to east from the border of Komi Republic. ...


West Siberian plain

To the east of the Urals is the West Siberian Plain, which covers more than 2.5 million square kilometers, stretching about 1,900 kilometers from west to east and about 2,400 kilometers from north to south. With more than half its territory below 500 meters in elevation, the plain contains some of the world's largest swamps and floodplains. Most of the plain's population lives in the drier section south of 55° north latitude. The West Siberian Plain (Russian: За́падно-Сиби́рская равни́на) is a large plain that occupies the western portion of Siberia in Russia, between the Ural Mountains in the west and the Yenisei River in the east. ... A freshwater swamp This article is about the wetland type (a landform). ... Gravel floodplain of a glacial river near the Snow Mountains in Alaska, 1902. ... Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ...


Central Siberian plateau

The region directly east of the West Siberian Plain is the Central Siberian Plateau, which extends eastward from the Yenisei River valley to the Lena River valley. The region is divided into several plateaus, with elevations ranging between 320 and 740 meters; the highest elevation is about 1,800 meters, in the northern Putoran Mountains. The plain is bounded on the south by the Baikal Mountains system and on the north by the North Siberian Lowland, an extension of the West Siberian Plain extending into the Taymyr Peninsula on the Arctic Ocean. The West Siberian Plain (Russian: За́падно-Сиби́рская равни́на) is a large plain that occupies the western portion of Siberia in Russia, between the Ural Mountains in the west and the Yenisei River in the east. ... The Central Siberian Plateau (ru: Среднесиби́рское плоского́рье) is a part of Siberia. ... The Yenisei (Енисе́й) is the greatest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean, and the fifth longest river in the world. ... The Lena River (Russian: Ле́на) in Siberia is the 10th longest river in the world and has the 9th largest watershed. ... For alternate uses of the term, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... The Putoran Mountains are a range of mountains on the nortwestern edge of the Central Siberian Plateau, in an area also known as the Putoran Plateau. ... Baikal Mountains rise steeply over the northwestern shore of Lake Baikal in southern Siberia, Russia. ...


Caucasus mountains

Truly alpine terrain appears in the southern mountain ranges. Between the Black and Caspian seas, the Caucasus Mountains rise to impressive heights, forming a boundary between Europe and Asia. One of the peaks, Mount Elbrus, is the highest point in Europe, at 5,642 meters. The geological structure of the Caucasus extends to the northwest as the Crimean and Carpathian Mountains and southeastward into Central Asia as the Tian Shan and Pamirs. The Caucasus Mountains create an imposing natural barrier between Russia and its neighbors to the southwest, Georgia and Azerbaijan. The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Mount Elbrus (Russian: Эльбрус) is a peak located in the western Caucasus mountains, in Russia, near the border of Georgia. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... A photograph of Ismail Samani Peak (then known as Peak Communism) taken in 1989. ...


Sayan and Stanovoy mountains

In the mountain system west of Lake Baikal in south-central Siberia, the highest elevations are 3,300 meters in the Western Sayan, 3,200 meters in the Eastern Sayan, and 4,500 meters at Belukha Mountain in the Altay Mountains. The Eastern Sayan reach nearly to the southern shore of Lake Baikal; at the lake, there is an elevation difference of more than 4,500 meters between the nearest mountain, 2,840 meters high, and the deepest part of the lake, which is 1,700 meters below sea level. The mountain systems east of Lake Baikal are lower, forming a complex of minor ranges and valleys that reaches from the lake to the Pacific coast. The maximum height of the Stanovoy Range, which runs west to east from northern Lake Baikal to the Sea of Okhotsk, is 2,550 meters. To the south of that range is southeastern Siberia, whose mountains reach 800 meters. Across the Strait of Tartary from that region is Sakhalin Island, where the highest elevation is about 1,700 meters. The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... The Sayan Mountains (Russian, Sayanskiy Khrebet) is a mountain range in southern Siberia, Asia, forming the eastern continuation of the Sailughem or Altay range, stretching from 89° E to 106° E. Orographically they are the N border-ridge of the plateau of NW Mongolia, and separate that region from Siberia. ... Belukha Mountain or Muztau (Russian Белуха, 4506 m), located in the Katun Range, is the highest peak of the Altai Mountains. ... The Altai is a mountain range in central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and where the great rivers Irtysh, Ob and Yenisei have their sources. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... The Stanovoi Range (Russian: Станово́й хребе́т), also spelled as Stanovoy Range (in Chinese, 外兴安岭 Outer Khingan Range), is a mountain range located in southeastern parts of the Russian Far East. ... Strait of Tartary (Gulf of Tartary, Gulf of Tatary, Tatar Strait, Tartar Strait, Strait of Tartar, also Chinese: 韃靼海峽 , Japanese: , Mamiya Strait and Strait of Nevelskoi) is a strait in the Pacific Ocean dividing the Russian island of Sakhalin from mainland Asia (South-East Russia), connecting the Sea of Okhotsk on... Location of Sakhalin in the Western Pacific Sakhalin, GOST transliteration Sahalin, (Russian: , Korean: Traditional Chinese: 庫頁島; Simplified Chinese: 库页岛; pinyin: kùyèdÇŽo Japanese: 樺太 romaji: karafuto), also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45° 50 and 54° 24 N. It is part of the Russian...


Northeast Siberia and Kamchatka

Northeastern Siberia, north of the Stanovoy Range, is an extremely mountainous region. The long Kamchatka Peninsula, which juts southward into the Sea of Okhotsk, includes many volcanic peaks, some of which still are active. The highest is the 4,750-meter Klyuchevskaya Sopka, the highest point in the Russian Far East. The volcanic chain continues from the southern tip of Kamchatka southward through the Kuril Islands chain and into Japan. Kamchatka also is one of Russia's two centers of seismic activity (the other is the Caucasus). In 1995, a major earthquake largely destroyed the oil-processing town of Neftegorsk. Kamchatka is the home of many volcanoes. ... Volcano 1. ... Klyuchevskaya Sopka is the highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Location of Kuril Islands in the Western Pacific. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Neftegorsk (Нефтего́рск) was an oil-producing town in eastern Russia devastated on May 28, 1995, by an earthquake measuring 7. ...


Drainage

SeaWiFS recently captured this clear view of Lake Baikal.
Crossing of the rivers Chusovaya (tributary) and Kama (main river) near the city of Perm. Ural mountains on the right

Russia is a water-rich country. The earliest settlements in the country sprang up along the rivers, where most of the urban population continues to live. The Volga, Europe's longest river, is by far Russia's most important commercial waterway. Four of the country's thirteen largest cities are located on its banks: Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Kazan, and Volgograd. The Kama River, which flows west from the southern Urals to join the Volga in the Republic of Tatarstan, is a second key European water system whose banks are densely populated. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1220x858, 1942 KB) Lake Baikal Source: http://visibleearth. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1220x858, 1942 KB) Lake Baikal Source: http://visibleearth. ... SeaWiFS stands for Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor. ... Image File history File links W_W_Chusovaya_Kama_crossing. ... Image File history File links W_W_Chusovaya_Kama_crossing. ... The Volga, widely viewed as the national river of Russia, flows through the western part of the country. ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny and also transliterated into English as Nizhniy Novgorod or Nizhni Novgorod or Nizhnii Novgorod, is the fourth largest city of Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... Samara (Russian: ), from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev (), is a major city situated on the Volga River in the southeastern part of European Russia, Volga Federal District, the administrative center of Samara Oblast. ... Kazan (Russian: ; Tatar: Qazan, Казан) is the capital city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and one of Russias largest cities. ... Volgograd (Russian: ), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: ) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: ) (1925–1961) is a city in and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ... The Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ...


Russia has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water, providing it with one of the world's largest surface-water resources. However, most of Russia's rivers and streams belong to the Arctic drainage basin, which lies mainly in Siberia but also includes part of European Russia. Altogether, 84% of Russia's surface water is located east of the Urals in rivers flowing through sparsely populated territory and into the Arctic and Pacific oceans. In contrast, areas with the highest concentrations of population, and therefore the highest demand for water supplies, tend to have the warmest climates and highest rates of evaporation. As a result, densely populated areas such as the Don and Kuban River basins north of the Caucasus have barely adequate (or in some cases inadequate) water resources. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... The Kuban (Куба́нь) is a river in Russia, in the Northern Caucasus region. ...


Forty of Russia's rivers longer than 1,000 kilometers are east of the Urals, including the three major rivers that drain Siberia as they flow northward to the Arctic Ocean: the Irtysh-Ob system (totaling 5,380 kilometers), the Yenisei (4,000 kilometers), and the Lena (3,630 kilometers). The basins of those river systems cover about eight million square kilometers, discharging nearly 50,000 cubic meters of water per second into the Arctic Ocean. The northward flow of these rivers means that source areas thaw before the areas downstream, creating vast swamps such as the 48,000-square-kilometer Vasyugan Swamp in the center of the West Siberian Plain. The same is true of other river systems, including the Pechora and the Northern Dvina in Europe and the Kolyma and the Indigirka in Siberia. Approximately 10% of Russian territory is classified as swampland. Irtysh (Иртыш ; Kazakh: Ertis / Эртiс ; Tatar: Ä°rteÅŸ / Иртеш ; Chinese: Erqisi / 额尔齐斯河) a river in Central Asia, the chief tributary of the river Ob. ... Ob (also Obi, Russian Обь) is a river in West Siberia, Russia, the countrys fourth longest. ... The Yenisei (Енисе́й) is the greatest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean, and the fifth longest river in the world. ... The Lena River (Russian: Ле́на) in Siberia is the 10th longest river in the world and has the 9th largest watershed. ... The Vasyugan Swamp is the largest swamp in the world, occupying 53,000 sq. ... The Pechora River is a major river in European Russia. ... The Northern Dvina (Се́верная Двина́) is a river in Northern Russia flowing through the Vologda Oblast and Arkhangelsk Oblast into the Dvina Bay of the White Sea. ... The Kolyma River (Колыма́) is a river in northeastern Siberia, whose basin covers parts of the Republic of Sakha, Chukotka, and Magadan oblast. ... The Indigirka River (Индигирка in Russian), a river in Sakha in Russia. ...


A number of other rivers drain Siberia from eastern mountain ranges into the Pacific Ocean. The Amur River and its main tributary, the Ussuri, form a long stretch of the winding boundary between Russia and China. The Amur system drains most of southeastern Siberia. Three basins drain European Russia. The Dnieper, which flows mainly through Belarus and Ukraine, has its headwaters in the hills west of Moscow. The 1,860-kilometer Don originates in the Central Russian Upland south of Moscow and then flows into the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea at Rostov-on-Don. The Volga is the third and by far the largest of the European systems, rising in the Valdai Hills west of Moscow and meandering southeastward for 3,510 kilometers before emptying into the Caspian Sea. Altogether, the Volga system drains about 1.4 million square kilometers. Linked by several canals, European Russia's rivers long have been a vital transportation system; the Volga system still carries two-thirds of Russia's inland water traffic. The Amur (Russian: Амур) (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江; Hēilóng Jiāng, literally meaning Black Dragon River) (Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River) (Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black... The Ussuri River (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Russian: река Уссури; Manchu: Usuri ula) is a river in the east of Northeast China and south of the Russian Far East. ... The Dnieper River (also: Dnepr, Dniapro, or Dnipro) is a river (2,290 km length) which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Central Russian Upland is an area of approximately 200,000 miles² (500,000 km²) in Southern European Russia and Northeast of Ukraine, located inside East European Plain. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Central market and Church in Rostov. ... The Volga, widely viewed as the national river of Russia, flows through the western part of the country. ... Valdai Hills (Russian: Валда́йская возвы́шенность or Валда́й) are an upland region in north-west of central Russia running north-south, about midway between St. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by both area and volume,[1] with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometres (143,244 mi²) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometres (18,761 mi³).[2] It is a landlocked endorheic body of water and lies between...


Russia's inland bodies of water are chiefly a legacy of extensive glaciation. In European Russia, the largest lakes are Ladoga and Onega northeast of St. Petersburg, Lake Peipus on the Estonian border, and the Rybinsk Reservoir north of Moscow. Smaller man-made reservoirs, 160 to 320 kilometers long, are on the Don, the Kama, and the Volga rivers. Many large reservoirs also have been constructed on the Siberian rivers; the Bratsk Reservoir northwest of Lake Baikal is one of the world's largest. A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Onezhskoe ozero (from Russian, Онежское озеро), and Onezhskoe lake) is a lake in the Russian Federation. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Lake Peipsi - Landsat satellite photo Lake Peipus (Estonian: Peipsi järv, Russian: Чудское озеро (Chud Lake), German: Peipussee) is a large lake, on the border between Estonia and Russia in Eastern Europe. ... The Rybinsk Reservoir, informally called the Rybinsk Sea (Rybinskoye vodokhranilishche), is a vast water reservoir on Volga River and its tributaries Sheksna and Mologa. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... The Bratsk Reservoir is a reservoir of the Angara in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. ...


The most prominent of Russia's bodies of fresh water is Lake Baikal, the world's deepest and most capacious freshwater lake. Lake Baikal alone holds 85% of the freshwater resources of the lakes in Russia and 20% of the world's total. It extends 632 kilometers in length and 59 kilometers across at its widest point. Its maximum depth is 1,713 meters. Numerous smaller lakes dot the northern regions of the European and Siberian plains. The largest of these are lakes Belozero, Topozero, Vygozero, and Ilmen in the European northwest and Lake Chany in southwestern Siberia. The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Lake Topozero seen from space Lake Topozero (Russian: , Finnish: ) is a large freshwater lake in the Republic of Karelia, northwestern part of Russia. ... Lake Vygozero seen from space Lake Vygozero (Russian: , Finnish: ) is a large freshwater lake in the Republic of Karelia, northwestern part of Russia. ... Lake Ilmen (Russian: Озеро Ильмень, Finnish: Ilmajärvi), a lake in Novgorod Oblast of Russia. ... Lake Chany from space, October 1994 Although Lake Chany (Russian: ) is not well known outside of Russia, it is one of the largest lakes in Russia (located at ). Lake Chany is a shallow, freshwater lake that has a fluctuating water level, which can change from season to season and year...


Climate

Lake Baikal. Lake ice is beginning to form at the northernmost end of the lake and in a bay at the middle.
Lake Baikal. Lake ice is beginning to form at the northernmost end of the lake and in a bay at the middle.

Russia has a largely continental climate because of its sheer size and compact configuration. Most of its land is more than 400 kilometers from the sea, and the center is 3,840 kilometers from the sea. In addition, Russia's mountain ranges, predominantly to the south and the east, block moderating temperatures from the Indian and Pacific Oceans, but European Russia and northern Siberia lack such topographic protection from the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3400x4400, 4235 KB) Lake Baikal. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3400x4400, 4235 KB) Lake Baikal. ... The Arctic Ocean is used by both marine mammals and nuclear submarines. ...


Because only small parts of Russia are south of 50° north latitude and more than half of the country is north of 60° north latitude, extensive regions experience six months of snow cover over subsoil that is permanently frozen to depths as far as several hundred meters. The average yearly temperature of nearly all of European Russia is below freezing, and the average for most of Siberia is freezing or below. Most of Russia has only two seasons, summer and winter, with very short intervals of moderation between them. Transportation routes, including entire railroad lines, are redirected in winter to traverse rock-solid waterways and lakes. Some areas constitute important exceptions to this description, however: the moderate maritime climate of Kaliningrad Oblast on the Baltic Sea is similar to that of the American Northwest; the Russian Far East, under the influence of the Pacific Ocean, has a monsoonal climate that reverses the direction of wind in summer and winter, sharply differentiating temperatures; and a narrow, subtropical band of territory provides Russia's most popular summer resort area on the Black Sea. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... Óģ Ķ Ä· Ä» ļ Å… ņ Å– Å— Åž ÅŸ Å¢ Å£ Ć ć Ĺ ĺ Ń Å„ Å” Å• Åš Å› Ý ý Ź ź Đ Ä‘ Å® ů ÄŒ č ÄŽ ď Ľ ľ Ň ň Ř Å™ Å  Å¡ Ť Å¥ Ž ž Ǎ ÇŽ Äš Ä› Ǐ ǐ Ç‘ Ç’ Ç“ Ç” Ä€ ā Ä’ Ä“ Ī Ä« ÅŒ ō Ū Å« Ç– ǘ Çš Çœ Ĉ ĉ Äœ ĝ Ĥ Ä¥ Ä´ ĵ Åœ ŝ Å´ ŵ Ŷ Å· Ä‚ ă Äž ÄŸ Ŭ Å­ ÄŠ Ä‹ Ä– Ä— Ä  Ä¡ Ä° ı Å» ż Ä„ Ä… Ę Ä™ Ä® į Ų ų Ł Å‚ Ő Å‘ Å° ű Ä¿ Å€ Ħ ħ Ð ð Þ þ Å’ Å“ Æ æ Ø ø Ã… Ã¥ Ə É™ – — … [] [[]] {{}} ~ | ° § → ≈ ± − × ¹ ² ³ ‘ “ ’ ” £ € Α α Î’ β Γ γ Δ δ Ε ε Ζ ζ Η η Θ θ Ι ι Κ κ Λ λ Îœ μ Ν ν Ξ ξ Ο ο Π Ï€ Ρ ρ Σ σ Ï‚ Τ Ï„ Î¥ Ï… Φ φ Χ χ Ψ ψ Ω ω ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is a thermal condition where ground material stays at or below 0°C for two or more years. ... Summer is a season that is astronomically defined as beginning around June 21, and ending around September 23 in the Northern Hemisphere. ... Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ... Location of the Kaliningrad Oblast Map of the Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast Flag Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: ; German: or Nordostpreussen, Northeast Prussia), informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning Amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast, with no land connection to the rest of Russia; it... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Pacific Northwest from space This page is about the region that includes parts of Canada and the US. For the US only region, see Northwestern United States The Pacific Northwest (abbreviated PNW, or PacNW) or Cascadia is a region in the northwest of North America. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India A monsoon is a wind pattern that reverses direction with the seasons. ... The subtropics refers to the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the two tropic zones, which are bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, at latitude 23. ... Map of the Black Sea. ...


In winter, an intense high-pressure system causes winds to blow from the south and the southwest in all but the Pacific region of the Russian landmass; in summer, a low-pressure system brings winds from the north and the northwest to most of the landmass. Russia is the coldest country of the world (average annual temperature is −5.5°C). That meteorological combination reduces the wintertime temperature difference between north and south. Thus, average January temperatures are −8°C in St. Petersburg, −27°C in the West Siberian Plain, and −43°C at Yakutsk (in east-central Siberia, at approximately the same latitude as St. Petersburg), while the winter average on the Mongolian border, whose latitude is some 10° farther south, is barely warmer. Summer temperatures are more affected by latitude, however; the Arctic islands average 4°C, and the southernmost regions average 20°C. Russia's potential for temperature extremes is typified by the national record low of −70°C, recorded at Verkhoyansk in north-central Siberia and the record high of 38°C, recorded at several southern stations. The West Siberian Plain (Russian: За́падно-Сиби́рская равни́на) is a large plain that occupies the western portion of Siberia in Russia, between the Ural Mountains in the west and the Yenisei River in the east. ... The tower of ostrog, or fort, in Yakutsk was constructed in 1683. ... Verkhoyansk (Russian: ) is a town in the Sakha Republic, Russia, situated on the Yana River, near the Arctic Circle, 675 km from Yakutsk. ...


The long, cold winter has a profound impact on almost every aspect of life in Russia. It affects where and how long people live and work, what kinds of crops are grown, and where they are grown (no part of the country has a year-round growing season). The length and severity of the winter, together with the sharp fluctuations in the mean summer and winter temperatures, impose special requirements on many branches of the economy. In regions of permafrost, buildings must be constructed on pilings, machinery must be made of specially tempered steel, and transportation systems must be engineered to perform reliably in extremely low and extremely high temperatures. In addition, during extended periods of darkness and cold, there are increased demands for energy, health care, and textiles.


Because Russia has little exposure to ocean influences, most of the country receives low to moderate amounts of precipitation. Highest precipitation falls in the northwest, with amounts decreasing from northwest to southeast across European Russia. The wettest areas are the small, lush subtropical region adjacent to the Caucasus and along the Pacific coast. Along the Baltic coast, average annual precipitation is 600 millimeters, and in Moscow it is 525 millimeters. An average of only twenty millimeters falls along the Russian-Kazakh border, and as little as fifteen millimeters may fall along Siberia's Arctic coastline. Average annual days of snow cover, a critical factor for agriculture, depends on both latitude and altitude. Cover varies from forty to 200 days in European Russia, and from 120 to 250 days in Siberia.


Area and boundaries

Area:
total: 17,075,200 km²
land: 16,995,800 km²
water: 79,400 km² To help compare sizes of different areas, here is a list of areas between 10 million km² and 100 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ...


Area - comparative:

  • Australia comparative: slightly more than 2.2 times the size of Australia
  • Canada comparative: slightly more than 1.7 times the size of Canada
  • United Kingdom comparative: slightly more than 70 times the size of the UK
  • United States comparative: slightly more than 1.8 times the size of the U.S.

Land boundaries:
total: 19,917 km To help compare different orders of magnitude, this page lists lengths starting at 107 m (10,000 km). ... km redirects here. ...


Kaliningrad Oblast is a small part of west Russia with no land connection to the rest of Russia.
border countries: Location of the Kaliningrad Oblast Map of the Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast Flag Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: ; German: or Nordostpreussen, Northeast Prussia), informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning Amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast, with no land connection to the rest of Russia; it...

Coastline: 37,653 km


Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles (370 km)
territorial sea: 12 nautical miles (22 km)  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ...


Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caspian Sea: −28 m
highest point: Mount Elbrus: 5,642 m The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by both area and volume,[1] with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometres (143,244 mi²) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometres (18,761 mi³).[2] It is a landlocked endorheic body of water and lies between... Mount Elbrus (Russian: Эльбрус) is a peak located in the western Caucasus mountains, in Russia, near the border of Georgia. ...


Natural resources and land use

Russia holds the greatest reserves of mineral resources than any country in the world. Though they are abundant, they are in remote areas with extreme climates, making them expensive to mine. The country is the most abundant in mineral fuels. It may hold as much as half of the world's coal reserves and even larger reserves of petroleum. Deposits of coal are scattered throughout the region, but the largest are located in central and eastern Siberia. The most developed fields lie in western Siberia, in the northeastern European region, in the area around Moscow, and in the Urals. The major petroleum deposits are located in western Siberia and in the Volga-Urals. Smaller deposits are found throughout the country. Natural gas, a resource of which Russia holds around forty percent of the world's reserves, can be found along Siberia's Arctic coast, in the North Caucasus, and in northwestern Russia. Major iron-ore deposits are located south of Moscow, near the Ukrainian border in the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly; this area contains vast deposits of iron ore that have caused a deviation in the Earth's magnetic field. There are smaller deposits in other parts of the country. The Ural mountains hold small deposits of manganese. Nickel, tungsten, cobalt, and molybdenum and other iron alloys occur in adequate quantities. Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Village of Kolchedan in Ural Mountains in 1912 The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the area around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctican area around the South Pole. ... North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ... Hematite: the main iron ore in Brazilian mines Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. ... Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (Russian: Курская магнитная аномалия) is a territory rich in iron ores located within Kursk Oblast, Belgorod Oblast, and Oryol Oblast, and constitutes a significant part of the Central Chernozyom Region. ... General Name, Symbol, Number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Atomic mass 54. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 4, d Appearance lustrous, metallic Atomic mass 58. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Atomic mass 183. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Atomic mass 95. ...


Russia also contains most of the nonferrous metals. Aluminum ores are scarce and are found primarily in the Ural region, northwestern European Russia, and south central Siberia. Copper is more abundant and major reserves are located in the Urals, the Norilsk area near the mouth of the Yenisey in eastern Siberia, and the Kola Peninsula. Another vast deposit located east of Lake Baikal only became exploited when the Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) railroad was finished in 1989. Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Norilsk downtown was designed in a typical Stalinist style. ... The Yenisei (Енисе́й) is the greatest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean, and the fifth longest river in the world. ... Location of Kola south of the Barents Sea. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Russian Байкало-Амурская Магистраль, Baikal-Amur Magistral, BAM) is a railway line in Russia. ...


The North Caucasus, far eastern Russia, and the western edge of the Kuznetsk Basin in southern Siberia contain an abundance of lead and zinc ores. These are commonly found along with copper, gold, silver, and a large amount of other rare metals. The country has one of the largest gold reserves in the world; mostly in Siberia and the Urals. Mercury deposits can be found in the central and southern Urals and in south central Siberia. The Kuznetsk Basin (often abbreviated as Kuzbas, Russian: Кузбас) in southwestern Siberia, Russia, is one of the biggest coal mining areas in the world, covering an area of around 27,000 square miles (69,900 km³) between Tomsk and Novokuznetsk in the basin of the... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Atomic mass 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 200. ...


Raw materials are abundant as well, including potassium and magnesium salt deposits in the Kama River region of the western Urals. Russia also contains one of the world's largest deposits of apatite found in the central Kola Peninsula. Rock salt is located in the southwestern Urals and the southwest of Lake Baikal. Surface deposits of salt are found in salt lakes along the lower Volga Valley. Sulfur can be found in the Urals and the middle Volga Valley. General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... This article is about the term salt as referred to in chemistry. ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ... ske| Fracture|| Conchoidal to even Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH-, F-, or Cl- ions, respectively, in the crystal. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Atomic mass 32. ...


Eight percent of the land is used for arable farming, four percent—for permanent pastures, forty-six percent of the land is forests and woodland, and forty-two percent is used for other purposes. In geography, arable land is a form of agricultural land use, meaning land that can be (and is) used for growing crops. ...


Environmental concerns

Natural hazards: permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka peninsula Location of Kuril Islands in the Western Pacific. ... Kamchatka is the home of many volcanoes. ...


Environment—current issues: air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electric plants, and transportation in major cities; industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and sea coasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; ground water contamination from toxic waste; considerable biodiversity addressed by the country's Biodiversity Action Plan. The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ...


Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ...


Geography - note: largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture


References


 
 

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