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Encyclopedia > Geography of Ireland
Ireland is sometimes known as the "Emerald Isle" because of its green scenery.
Ireland is sometimes known as the "Emerald Isle" because of its green scenery.

The geography of Ireland describes an island in northwest Europe in the North Atlantic Ocean. The ocean is responsible for the rugged western coastline, along which are many islands, peninsulas, and headlands. The main geographical features of Ireland are low central plains surrounded by a ring of coastal mountains. The highest peak is Carrauntuohill (Irish: Corrán Tuathail), which is 1041 m (3414 ft). There are a number of sizable lakes along Ireland's rivers, with Lough Neagh being the largest in Ireland. The island is bisected by the River Shannon, at 259 km (161 miles) with a 113 km (70 miles) estuary the longest river in Ireland which flows south from County Cavan in the north to meet the Atlantic just south of Limerick. A true colour image of Ireland captured by a NASA satellite on January 4, 2003. ... A true colour image of Ireland captured by a NASA satellite on January 4, 2003. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Atlantic Ocean forms a component of the all-encompassing World Ocean and is directly linked to the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Southern Ocean. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The bay at San Sebastián, Spain A headland is an area of land adjacent to water on three sides. ... In geography, a plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. ... Lyskamm, 4 527 m, Pennine Alps A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... Carrauntoohill (IPA [ËŒkærÉ™nˈtuːl]; Irish: Corrán Tuathail), also spelt Carrantuohill and in various other ways, is a mountain located in County Kerry, Ireland, and is the highest peak in Ireland. ... The or meter (see spelling differences) is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Carrick-on-Shannon-Bridge Leitrim Shannon-Bridge Offaly The River Shannon (Irish: altenatively Sionna), Irelands longest river, divides the West of Ireland (mostly the province of Connacht) from the east and south (Leinster and most of Munster). ... km redirects here. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Cavan Code: CN Area: 1,931 km² Population (2006) 63,961 Website: www. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ...


The island of Ireland consists politically of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, (United Kingdom). Located west of the island of Great Britain, it is located at approximately 53° N 8° W. It has a total area of 84,079 km² (32,477 mile²). Ireland is separated from Britain by the Irish Sea and from mainland Europe by the Celtic Sea. Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Map of the Celtic Sea, an arm of the Atlantic. ...

Contents

Physical geography

Geological development

Slieve League in Donegal is a fine example of early Irish rock formation.
Slieve League in Donegal is a fine example of early Irish rock formation.

The oldest known Irish rock is about 1.7 billion years old and is found on Inishtrahull Island off the coast of County Donegal. In other parts of Donegal, scientists have discovered rocks that began life as glacial deposits, demonstrating that at this early period, part of what was to become Ireland was in the grip of an ice age. However, because of the effects of later upheavals, it is almost impossible to sequence these early rock layers correctly. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 104 KB) Description: Slieve League cliffs, in County Donegal in Ireland Information: Shot 2002-06-19 with a Canon D60 Source: pdphoto file License: Public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 104 KB) Description: Slieve League cliffs, in County Donegal in Ireland Information: Shot 2002-06-19 with a Canon D60 Source: pdphoto file License: Public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it... Slieve League cliffs Located on the coast of County Donegal, Ireland, Slieve League is one of the tallest sea cliffs in Europe. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 55. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... Glacial and Glaciation redirect here. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


About 600 million years ago, at the end of the Precambrian era, the Irish landmass was divided in two, with one half on the western side of the Iapetus Ocean and the other at the eastern side, both at about the latitude that South Africa currently occupies. From the evidence of fossils found at Bray Head in County Wicklow, Ireland was below sea level at this time. The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... The Iapetus Ocean was an Ocean that existed in the Southern Hemisphere between Scotland, England and Scandinavia between 400 and 600 million years ago. ... FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under DOS. FOSSIL is an acronym for Fido Opus Seadog Standard Interface Layer. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Wicklow Code: WW Area: 2,024 km² Population (2007) 114,676 Website: www. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ...


Over the next 50 million years, these two parts drifted towards each other, eventually uniting about 440 million years ago. Fossils discovered near Clogher Head, County Louth, show the coming together of shoreline fauna from both sides of the original dividing ocean. The mountains of northwest Ireland were formed during the collision, as was the granite that is found in locations in Donegal and Wicklow. Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Dundalk Code: LH Area: 820 km² Population (2006) 110,894 Website: www. ... Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park, valley of the Merced River Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ...


The Irish landmass was now above sea level and lying near the equator, and fossil traces of land-based life forms survive from this period. These include fossilised trees from Kiltorcan, County Kilkenny, widespread bony fish and freshwater mussel fossils and the footprints of a four-footed amphibian preserved in slate on Valentia Island, County Kerry. Old Red Sandstone also formed at this time. County Kilkenny (Contae Chill Chainnigh in Irish) is located in the south east of Ireland in the province of Leinster. ... Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The term mussel is used for several families of bivalve molluscs inhabiting lakes, rivers, and creeks, as well as intertidal areas along coastlines worldwide. ... Subclasses and Orders    Order Temnospondyli - extinct Subclass Lepospondyli - extinct Subclass Lissamphibia    Order Anura    Order Caudata    Order Gymnophiona Amphibians (class Amphibia; from Greek αμφις both and βιος life) are a taxon of animals that include all living tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs, are ectothermic (term for the animals... Slate Thick slate fragment Slate roof Slate is a fine-grained, homogeneous, metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low grade regional metamorphism. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ... The Old Red Sandstone is a rock formation of considerable importance to early paleontology. ...


Between 400 million and 300 million years ago, northwest Europe – including Ireland – sank beneath a warm, calcium-rich sea. Great coral reefs formed in these waters, eventually creating the limestone that still makes up about 65 per cent of the rock mantle of the island. As the waters receded, tropical forests and swamps flourished. The resulting vegetable debris eventually formed coal, most of which was later eroded. This period, known as the Carboniferous era, ended with further plate movement which saw Ireland drift further northward. The resulting pressure created those Irish mountain and hill ranges that run in a northeast to southwest direction. World map showing the location of Europe. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... Coral reefs are either restricted or sjlgrfugetkhovguyertbnkjcygerjtljhcvgberljkthkjbvljdfhyln from along the west coast of the Americas, as well as the west coast of Africa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ...

Karstic landscape in the Burren
Karstic landscape in the Burren

By 250 million years ago, Ireland was at the latitude of present-day Egypt and had a desert climate. It was at this time that most of the coal and sandstone were eroded. The thinner layers of limestone in the south of the country were also partially affected by this erosion. The limestone that was exposed by the disappearance of its sandstone mantle was affected by carbon dioxide and other factors resulting in a karstic landscape that can still be seen in the Burren in County Clare. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 146 KB)Public domain photo from pdphoto. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 146 KB)Public domain photo from pdphoto. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Karst topography occurs when a landscape is marked by underground drainage patterns. ... Categories: Ireland-place stubs | Geography of Ireland ... County Clare (Contae an Chláir in Irish) is in the Irish province of Munster. ...


Shortly after this period, organic debris in the seas around Ireland began to form the gas and oil deposits that now play an important role in the island's economy. Then, about 150 million years ago, Ireland was again submerged, this time in a chalky sea that resulted in the formation of chalk over large parts of the surface. Traces of this survive under the basalt lava that is found in parts of the north. The Needles,situated on the Isle Of Wight, are part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation. ... Basalt Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black extrusive volcanic rock. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


About 65 million years ago, the volcanic activity that formed this lava began. The Mourne Mountains and other mountains in the northern part of the island formed as a result of this activity. Climatic conditions at this time were warm and vegetation thrived. Vegetable debris in the Antrim depression formed deposits of brown coal or lignite which remain untouched down to the present time. The warm conditions produced high rainfall that accelerated processes of erosion and the formation of karstic landscape forms. For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... The granite Mountains of Mourne are located in the first proposed national park of Northern Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Antrim Area: 2,844 km² Population (est. ... Coal Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by mining. ...


By 25 million years ago, Ireland was close to assuming its present position. The long period of erosion had resulted in considerable soil formation and most of the rock mantle was covered. In areas with good drainage, the covering consisted of brown or grey soil, while in poorly drained areas the black clay tended to dominate. As the climate cooled, soil formation slowed down, and a flora and fauna that would, millions of years later, be familiar to the first human inhabitants began to emerge. By about three million years ago, the present landscape of Ireland had more or less formed. Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, Soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... In Botany a Flora (or Floræ) is a collective term for plant life and can also refer to a descriptive catalogue of the plants of any geographical area, geological period, etc. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life. ...


Since about 1.7 million years ago, the earth has been in the grip of a cycle of warm and cold stages and these have, inevitably, affected Ireland. The earliest evidence we have for this effect comes from the period known as the Ballylinian Warm Stage, some half a million years ago. At this time, most of what are now considered to be native Irish trees were already established on the island. The action of the ice during the cold stages was the major factor in bringing the Irish landscape to its current form.


Obvious impacts of the ice on the landscape include the formation of glacial valleys such as Glendalough in Wicklow and of corries, or glacial lakes. The depositing of mounds of debris under the melting ice created drumlins, a common feature of the landscape across the north midlands. Streams also formed under the ice and the material deposited by these formed eskers (Irish eiscir). The greatest of these, the Esker Riada, divides the northern and southern halves of the island and its ridge once served as the main highway connecting the east and west coasts. About one half of the coastline consists of a low lying dune pasture land known as Machair. Ancient church at Glendalough monastic site Glendalough is a village located at the site of an ancient monastery located in County Wicklow, Ireland. ... It has been suggested that Coombe be merged into this article or section. ... Drumlin in Cato, New York Drowned drumlin in Clew Bay Drumlin at Withrow Moraine and Jameson Lake Drumlin Field National Natural Landmark A drumlin (Irish droimnín, a little hill ridge) is an elongated whale-shaped hill formed by glacial action. ... Eskers are long, winding ridges of stratified sand and gravel which occur in glaciated and formerly glaciated regions of Europe and North America. ... The machair on Berneray, Outer Hebrides The Scottish Gaelic word machair or machar refers to a fertile low-lying raised beach found on the coasts of Ireland and Scotland, in particular the Outer Hebrides. ...


Rocks and soil types

Layers of siltstone, shale and sandstone can be seen in the Cliffs of Moher, near Doolin in County Clare
Layers of siltstone, shale and sandstone can be seen in the Cliffs of Moher, near Doolin in County Clare

The large central lowland is of limestone covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand, with widespread bogs and lakes. The Bog of Allen is one of the largest bogs. The coastal mountains vary greatly in geological structure. In the south, the mountains are composed of old red sandstone with limestone river valleys. In Galway, Mayo, Donegal, Down and Wicklow, the mountains are mainly granite, while much of the north-east of the country is a basalt plateau. An area of particular note is the Giant's Causeway, in County Antrim, a mainly basalt formation. The imposing cliffs of Moher, near Doolin. ... Siltstone Siltstone is a geological term for a sedimentary rock whose composition is intermediate in grain size between the coarser sandstone and the finer mudstone. ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Looking north towards OBriens Tower The Cliffs of Moher (Aillte an Mhothair, Cliffs of the ruin) are located in the parish of Liscannor at the south-western edge of The Burren area near Doolin, which is located in County Clare, Republic of Ireland. ... Image:Dolmkolin harbour, County Clare, evening. ... County Clare (Contae an Chláir in Irish) is in the Irish province of Munster. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Bog of Allen (Móin Alúine in Irish) is a large peat bog in the centre of Ireland between the rivers Liffey and Shannon. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Downpatrick Area: 2,448 km² Population (est. ... Close-up of granite from Yosemite National Park, valley of the Merced River Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... Basalt Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black extrusive volcanic rock. ... The Giants Causeway is an area of 40,000 interlocking basalt columns resulting from a volcanic eruption. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Antrim Area: 2,844 km² Population (est. ...


The soils of the north and west tend to be poorly drained peats and gleys, including peaty podzols. In contrast, in the south and east the soils are free-draining brown earths and brown and grey-brown podzols. This is reflected in the rainfall distribution on the island, with the poorly-drained regions being those with the highest rainfalls. Gley soil sample from Sheffield Gley soils have grey and yellow patches where the soil is waterlogged, the oxygen supply is reduced, and anaerobic micro-organisms flourish by extracting oxygen from chemical compounds. ... Podsol (also spelled Podzol) is the typical soil of Boreal forests. ...


An unusual environment is present in north County Clare, in an area known as The Burren. This karst-like landscape consists of limestone bedrock, with little or no soil in the inner-most areas. There are numerous sink-holes, where surface water disappears through the porous rock surface, and extensive cave systems have been formed in some areas. The Pol an Ionain cave, near Doolin, is the site of one of the world's longest known free-hanging stalactites. County Clare (Contae an Chláir in Irish) is in the Irish province of Munster. ... Burren landscape The Burren (from Irish: , meaning great rock; Boirinn is the modern form used by the Ordnance Survey) is a unique karst-landscape region in northwest County Clare, in the Republic of Ireland. ... Karst topography occurs when a landscape is marked by underground drainage patterns. ... Pol an Ionain is a cave near Doolin in County Clare, Ireland. ... Image:Dolmkolin harbour, County Clare, evening. ...

Mountains, lakes, rivers and other physical features of Ireland are shown on this map ( large version).

Image File history File links Ireland_physical_medium. ... Download high resolution version (592x706, 70 KB)Physical map of Ireland, created by drawing details on a version of Image:Ei-map. ...

Mountain ranges

Ireland consists of a mostly flat low-lying area in the midlands, ringed by mountain ranges such as (beginning in County Kerry and working counter-clockwise) the Macgillycuddy's Reeks, Comeragh Mountains, Blackstair Mountains, Wicklow Mountains, the Mournes, Glens of Antrim, Sperrin Mountains, Bluestack Mountains, Derryveagh Mountains, Ox Mountains, Nephinbeg Mountains and the Twelve Bens/Maumturks group. Some mountain ranges are further inland in the south of Ireland, such as the Galtee Mountains, Silvermines and Slieve Bloom Mountains. The highest peak is Carrauntuohill, which is 1041 m (3414 ft) high. It is in the Macgillycuddy's Reeks, a range of glacier-carved sandstone mountains in County Kerry, in the south-west of the island. The mountains are not high - only three peaks are over 1000 m (just) and another 455 exceed 500 m. [1] Carrantuohill (centre, 1039 m), the highest peak in Macgillycuddys Reeks. ... The Wicklow Mountains are a range of mountains in the south-east of Ireland. ... The granite Mountains of Mourne are located in the first proposed national park of Northern Ireland. ... The Glens of Antrim, or, simply, the Glens, is a region of County Antrim comprised of nine glens, or valleys, that radiate inward from the coast towards Lough Neagh. ... Sperrins is a mountain range in Northern Ireland. ... The Bluestack Mountains (Na Cruacha Gorma in Irish) are the major mountain range in the south of County Donegal, Republic of Ireland. ... The Derryveagh Mountains are the major mountain range in County Donegal, Republic of Ireland. ... Bencorr from across Lough Inagh Benbaun from north of Lough Inagh The Twelve Bens or Twelve Pins (Irish Na Beanna Beola) is a picturesque mountain range in Connemara in the west of Ireland. ... Na Sleibhte Mhám Toirc (The Maumturks/Maamturks) are a picturesque mountain range in Connemara in the west of Ireland. ... The Galtee Mountains are a mountain range in Munster, located in Irelands Golden Vale across parts of counties Limerick, Tipperary and Cork. ... Silvermines are both a mountain range, a town in that mountain range, and a defunct mining site in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Slieve Bloom Mountians rise from the central plain of Ireland to a height of about 560 metres. ... Carrauntoohill (IPA [ËŒkærÉ™nˈtuːl]; Irish: Corrán Tuathail), also spelt Carrantuohill and in various other ways, is a mountain located in County Kerry, Ireland, and is the highest peak in Ireland. ... Glacial and Glaciation redirect here. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ...


Rivers and lakes

Lough Lene, the Lake County
Lough Lene, the Lake County

The main river in Ireland is the River Shannon, 386 km (240 miles), the longest river in either Ireland or Great Britain, which separates the boggy midlands of Ireland from the West of Ireland. The river develops into three lakes along its course, Lough Allen, Lough Ree, and Lough Derg. Of these, Lough Derg is the biggest. The River Shannon enters the Atlantic Ocean after Limerick city at the Shannon Estuary. Other major rivers include the River Liffey, River Lee, River Blackwater, River Nore, River Suir, River Barrow, and River Boyne. (See the list of rivers in Ireland.) Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 234 KB) Lough Lene From near Randoon Fort Loughpark Left to Right a) Nuns Island, b) Turgesius (Viking) Island c) Castle island Not for sale Public Domain with this original detail http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 234 KB) Lough Lene From near Randoon Fort Loughpark Left to Right a) Nuns Island, b) Turgesius (Viking) Island c) Castle island Not for sale Public Domain with this original detail http://www. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Carrick-on-Shannon-Bridge Leitrim Shannon-Bridge Offaly The River Shannon (Irish: altenatively Sionna), Irelands longest river, divides the West of Ireland (mostly the province of Connacht) from the east and south (Leinster and most of Munster). ... Lough Allen on the River Shannon, in County Leitrim Location map of Lough Allen Lough Allen (Loch Aillionn in Irish) is a lake situated on the River Shannon, in the north-central part of the Republic of Ireland, near Irelands border region. ... Lough Ree (Loch Rí in Irish) is a lake in the midlands of Ireland, the second of the three major lakes on the River Shannon. ... Looking out towards County Clare from County Tipperary across the southern part of Lough Derg. ... This article is about the city in Ireland. ... The Liffey in West Wicklow The Liffey (An Life in Irish) is a river in the Republic of Ireland, which flows through the centre of Dublin. ... The River Lee is a river in the Republic of Ireland, flowing through County Cork and Cork city, before draining into Cork Harbour on Irelands south coast. ... In geography, a blackwater river has water-colour ranging from clear tea to coffee. ... The River Nore is one of the Three Sisters rivers in the Republic of Ireland. ... The River Suir (IPA: ) is a river in Ireland that flows into the Atlantic Ocean near Waterford after a distance of 183 kilometres. ... The River Barrow is a river in Ireland, it is one of The Three Sisters, the other two sisters are the River Suir and the River Nore. ... Boyne-Valley from Passage tomb The River Boyne (Irish: ) is a river in Leinster, Ireland, the course of which is about 112 kilometres (70 miles) long. ... This is a list of rivers in the whole island of Ireland; that is to say, it includes rivers in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. ...


Lough Neagh, in Ulster, is the biggest lake in Ireland. Legend has it that a giant, Fionn mac Cumhail, was fighting with another in Scotland, and enraged, scooped out a lump of earth, which he threw. It fell into the Irish Sea, creating the Isle of Man, while the hole filled up with water to become Lough Neagh. Other large lakes include Lough Erne and Lough Corrib. (See the list of Irish loughs.) This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... Fionn mac Cumhail (earlier Finn or Find mac Cumail or mac Umaill, pronounced roughly Finn mac Cool) was a legendary hunter-warrior of Irish mythology, also known in Scotland and the Isle of Man. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Categories: Ireland-related stubs | Irish loughs ... A map of Lough Corrib taken from the Admiralty Chart made in 1846 Lough Corrib (Loch Coirib in Irish) is a lake in the west of Ireland. ... This is a list of Irish loughs. ...


Inlets

Topography of Ireland
Topography of Ireland

Beginning with County Donegal, Lough Swilly separates one side of the Malin peninsula. Lough Foyle on the other side, is one of Ireland's larger inlets, situated between County Donegal and County Londonderry. Further round the coast is Belfast Lough, between County Antrim and County Down. Also in County Down is Strangford Lough, actually an inlet partially separating the Ards peninsula from the mainland. Further down the coast, Carlingford Lough is situated between Down and County Louth. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 474 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (6587 × 8336 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 474 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (6587 × 8336 pixel, file size: 6. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... Lough Swilly (Loch Súilí in Irish) in Ireland is a fjord-like body of water lying between the eastern side of the Inishowen Peninsula in County Donegal and the rest of northern Donegal. ... Lough Foyle (Loch Feabhail in Irish) is the name given to the estuary of the River Foyle. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Derry Area: 2,074 km² Population (est. ... Belfast Lough (Loch Lao in Irish) is a large intertidal sea lough situated at the mouth of the River Lagan on the east coast of Northern Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Antrim Area: 2,844 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Downpatrick Area: 2,448 km² Population (est. ... View of Portaferry from the Strangford side of the lough Strangford Lough (Loch Cuan in Irish) is a lough in County Down, Northern Ireland, separated from the Irish Sea by the Ards peninsula. ... The Ards peninsula is a peninsula in County Down, Northern Ireland which separates Strangford Lough from the North Channel on Irelands northeast coast. ... Carlingford Lough (Loch Cairlinn in Irish) (Cairlinn being shortened form of Cathair Linn literally translated as City of the Pool) is a sea loch that forms part of the international border between Northern Ireland to the north and the Republic of Ireland to the south. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Dundalk Code: LH Area: 820 km² Population (2006) 110,894 Website: www. ...


Dublin Bay is the next sizable inlet, while the eastern coast of Ireland is mostly uniform until Wexford Harbour at the mouth of the River Slaney. On the southern coast, Waterford Harbour is situated at the mouth of the River Suir (into which the other two of the Three Sisters (River Nore and River Barrow) flow). The next major inlet is Cork Harbour, at the mouth of the River Lee, in which Great Island is situated. Dublin Bay in relation to Ireland. ... Wexford Harbour is the natural harbour at the mouth of the River Slaney. ... The Slaney is a river in the southeast of Ireland. ... Waterford Harbour is a natual harbour at the mouth of the River Suir. ... The River Suir (IPA: ) is a river in Ireland that flows into the Atlantic Ocean near Waterford after a distance of 183 kilometres. ... The Three Sisters are an extensive network of three rivers which drain a large part of Ireland including County Tipperary, County Carlow, County Kilkenny and County Waterford, among others, the rivers enter the sea near Waterford City. ... The River Nore is one of the Three Sisters rivers in the Republic of Ireland. ... The River Barrow is a river in Ireland, it is one of The Three Sisters, the other two sisters are the River Suir and the River Nore. ... Cork Harbour is the second largest natural harbour in the world by navigational area. ... Great Island (Oileann Mor an Barraigh in Irish) is the name of an island in Cork Harbour, just outside Cork city, at the mouth of the River Lee. ...


Dunmanus Bay, Bantry Bay, Kenmare estuary and Dingle Bay are all inlets between the peninsulas of County Kerry. North of these is the Shannon estuary. Between north County Clare and County Galway is Galway Bay. Bantry Bay is a bay located in southwest Ireland, in County Cork. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 51. ... Location of Dingle Bay Dingle Bay is a bay located in western Ireland, in County Kerry. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ... The Shannon Estuary is a large estuary where the River Shannon flows into the Atlantic Ocean. ... County Clare (Contae an Chláir in Irish) is in the Irish province of Munster. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Galway Code: G (GY proposed) Area: 6,148 km² Population (2006) 231,035 (including Galway City); 159,052 (without Galway City) Website: www. ... Galway Bay (Irish: Loch Lurgain or Cuan na Gaillimhe) is a large bay on the west coast of Ireland, between County Galway in the province of Connacht to the north and the district of Burren in County Clare in the province of Munster to the south. ...


Clew Bay is located on the coast of County Mayo, south of Achill, while Blacksod Bay is north of the island. Killala Bay is on the north coast of Mayo. Donegal Bay is a major inlet between County Donegal and County Sligo. Clew Bay (Irish Cuan Mó) is a natural ocean bay in County Mayo, Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ... Keem bay on Achill island is said to be one of the most beautiful beaches in Ireland. ... Donegal Bay (Bá Dhún na nGall in Irish) is an inlet (or bay) in the north western region of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Sligo Code: SO Area: 1,836 km² Population (2006) 60,863 Website: www. ...


Headlands

Malin Head, County Donegal is the most northern point in Ireland, while Mizen Head is one of the most southern points, hence the term "Malin head to Mizen head" (or the reverse) is used for anything applying to the island of Ireland as a whole. Carnsore Point, County Wexford is another extreme point of Ireland, being the southeasternmost point of Ireland. Malin Head (Irish: Cionn Mhálanna) Visitors should not miss Banbas Crown Malin Head. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... Categories: Ireland geography stubs | Headlands of Ireland ... Carnsore Point in County Wexford, Ireland is famous for being the proposed location of the Nuclear Energy Board power plant which was to be built in the 1970s. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Wexford Code: WX Area: 2,352 km² Population (2006) 131,615 Website: www. ... This is a list of the extreme points of Ireland, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location. ...


Further along the coast is Hook Head, also in County Wexford, while the Old Head of Kinsale in County Cork is one of many headlands along the south coast of Ireland. Hook Head is a peninsula in County Wexford, Republic of Ireland on the R734, 50 km from Wexford town. ... The Old Head of Kinsale is a headland in County Cork, Republic of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Cork Code: C (CK proposed) Area: 7,457 km² Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ...


Loop Head is the headland at which County Clare comes to a point on the west coast of Ireland, with the Atlantic on the north, and further inland on the south, the Shannon estuary. Hags Head is another headland further up Clare's north/western coastline, with the Cliffs of Moher along the coastline north of the point. Lighthouse at Loop Head operated by the Commissioners of Irish Lights Loop Head is the headland on North side of the mouth of the River Shannon. ... County Clare (Contae an Chláir in Irish) is in the Irish province of Munster. ... The Atlantic Ocean forms a component of the all-encompassing World Ocean and is directly linked to the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Southern Ocean. ... Carrick-on-Shannon-Bridge Leitrim Shannon-Bridge Offaly The River Shannon (Irish: altenatively Sionna), Irelands longest river, divides the West of Ireland (mostly the province of Connacht) from the east and south (Leinster and most of Munster). ... Looking north towards OBriens Tower The Cliffs of Moher (Aillte an Mhothair, Cliffs of the ruin) are located in the parish of Liscannor at the south-western edge of The Burren area near Doolin, which is located in County Clare, Republic of Ireland. ...


Erris Head, County Mayo is the northwesternmost point of Connacht. Erris Head is at the northernmost tip of the Mullet Peninsula in northwest Co. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ... Statistics Area: 17,713. ...


Islands and peninsulas

Dingle Peninsula as viewed from Banna Strand
Dingle Peninsula as viewed from Banna Strand

Achill Island, County Mayo in the northwest of Ireland is the largest island off Ireland's coast. The island is inhabited, and is connected to the mainland by a bridge. Some of the next largest islands are the Aran Islands, off the coast of County Galway, host to an Irish-speaking community, or Gaeltacht. Valentia Island off the Iveragh peninsula in County Kerry is also one of Ireland's larger islands, and is relatively settled, as well as being connected by bridge at its southeastern end. Omey Island, off the coast of Connemara in County Galway is a tidal island. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 446 KB) Dingle Peninsula, Co Kerry, Ireland File links The following pages link to this file: Geography of Ireland Dingle Peninsula ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 446 KB) Dingle Peninsula, Co Kerry, Ireland File links The following pages link to this file: Geography of Ireland Dingle Peninsula ... Banna Strand Banana Strand is an Atlanic ocean beach extending from Ballyheigue in the North to Barrow Harbour at its southern edge, located in County Kerry. ... Location of Achill Island. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Galway Code: G (GY proposed) Area: 6,148 km² Population (2006) 231,035 (including Galway City); 159,052 (without Galway City) Website: www. ... Gaeltacht regions in Ireland Gaeltacht (pronounced ; plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish word for an Irish-speaking region. ... Valentia Island (Dairbhre in Irish), is one of Europes westernmost inhabited locations, lying off the Iveragh Peninsula in the southwest of County Kerry in the Republic of Ireland. ... Iveragh is a peninsula of County Kerry in the Republic of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ... Omey Island is a Tidal island, though rather more low lying than Mont Saint Michel. ... Connemara (Irish Conamara), which derives from Conmhaicne Mara (meaning: descendants of Con Mhac, of the sea), is a district in the west of Ireland (County Galway). ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Galway Code: G (GY proposed) Area: 6,148 km² Population (2006) 231,035 (including Galway City); 159,052 (without Galway City) Website: www. ... St. ...


Some of the best-known peninsulas in Ireland are in County Kerry; the Dingle peninsula, the aforementioned Iveragh peninsula and the Beara peninsula. The Ards peninsula in County Down is one of the larger peninsulas outside Kerry. The Inishowen Peninsula in County Donegal includes Ireland's most northerly point, Malin Head and several important towns including Buncrana on Lough Swilly, Carndonagh and Moville on Lough Foyle. Dingle Peninsula as viewed from Banna Strand The Dingle Peninsula (Irish: Corca Dhuibhne) is located in County Kerry and is the most westerly point of the Republic of Ireland. ... Iveragh is a peninsula of County Kerry in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Beara peninsula in Ireland is the southernmost of the main peninsulas on the south-west coast. ... The Ards peninsula is a peninsula in County Down, Northern Ireland which separates Strangford Lough from the North Channel on Irelands northeast coast. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Downpatrick Area: 2,448 km² Population (est. ... Location of Inishowen Inishowen (Irish: Inis Eoghain) is a historical peninsular region in County Donegal, and also the largest peninsula in Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... Malin Head (Irish: Cionn Mhálanna) Visitors should not miss Banbas Crown Malin Head. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , , Irish Grid Reference C346320 Statistics Province: Ulster County: Elevation: 62 m (206 ft) Population (2002)  - Town:  - Rural:   3,420  1,851 Buncrana (Irish: ) is a town in County Donegal, Ireland. ... Lough Swilly (Loch Súilí in Irish) in Ireland is a fjord-like body of water lying between the eastern side of the Inishowen Peninsula in County Donegal and the rest of northern Donegal. ... Lough Foyle (Loch Feabhail in Irish) is the name given to the estuary of the River Foyle. ...


Ireland's most northerly land feature is Inishtrahull island, off Malin Head, although Rockall Island may deserve this honour but its status is disputed, being claimed by the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Denmark (for the Faroe Islands) and Iceland. Its most southerly is the Fastnet Rock. Rockall, a small, isolated rocky islet in the North Atlantic Ocean Rockall is a small rocky islet in the North Atlantic, in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the United Kingdom. ... Fastnet Rock (, ) is a small clay-slate island with quartz veins and the most southerly point of the Republic of Ireland, 6. ...


Climate

Ireland's climate is temperate, though significantly warmer than almost all other locations at similar latitude, such as Poland (on the continent) or Newfoundland (on the opposite edge of the Atlantic), due to the warming influence of the North Atlantic drift. The prevailing wind blows from the south-west to the north-east, breaking on the high mountains of the west coast. Rainfall is therefore a particularly prominent part of western Irish life, with Valentia Island, off the west coast of County Kerry, getting almost twice as much annual rainfall as Dublin on the east (1400 mm vs. 762 mm). Across the country, about 60% of the annual rainfall occurs between August and January. In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... The North Atlantic drift is a powerful warm ocean current that continues the Gulf Stream northeast. ... A distant Rain Rain is a type of precipitation which forms when separate drops of water fall to the Earths surface from clouds. ... Valentia Island (Dairbhre in Irish), is one of Europes westernmost inhabited locations, lying off the Iveragh Peninsula in the southwest of County Kerry in the Republic of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: 01, +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ...


January and February are the coldest months of the year, and mean daily air temperatures fall between 4 and 7 °C during these months. July and August are the warmest, with a range of 14 to 16 °C. The sunniest months are May and June, with an average of five to seven hours sunshine per day.


Though extreme weather events in Ireland are comparatively rare when compared with other countries in the European Continent, they do occur. Explosive Atlantic depressions, occurring mainly in the months of December, January and February, can occasionally bring winds of up to 160 km/ph (100 mph) to Western coastal counties; while the summer months, and particularly around late July/early August, sudden and violent thunderstorms can develop, more especially, but not exclusively, across midland and western areas of the country.


The table shows mean climate figures for the Dublin Airport weather station for the period 1961 to 1990.

Factor Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; Year
Mean daily max temp (°C) 7.6 7.5 9.5 11.4 14.2 17.2 18.9 18.6 16.6 13.7 9.8 8.4 12.8
Mean daily min temp (°C) 2.5 2.5 3.1 4.4 6.8 9.6 11.4 11.1 9.6 7.6 4.2 3.4 6.
Mean daily sunshine (h) 1.8 2.5 3.6 5.2 6.1 6.0 5.4 5.1 4.3 3.1 2.4 1.7 3.9
Mean monthly rain (mm) 69.4 50.4 53.8 50.7 55.1 56.0 49.9 70.5 66.7 69.7 64.7 75.6 732.7

A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ...

Political and human geography

Ireland is divided into four provinces, Connacht, Leinster, Munster and Ulster, and 32 counties. Six of the nine Ulster counties form Northern Ireland and the other 26 form the Republic of Ireland. The map shows the county boundaries for all 32 counties. During late Gaelic and early historic times Ireland was divided into provinces to replace the earlier system of the tuatha. ... Statistics Area: 17,713. ... Statistics Area: 19,774. ... Statistics Area: 24,607. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... For much of its history, the island of Ireland was divided into 32 counties (Irish language contae or condae, pronounced IPA: ). Two historical counties, County Desmond and County Coleraine, no longer exist. ...

Map of Ireland with numbered counties Republic of Ireland
  1. Dublin
  2. Wicklow
  3. Wexford
  4. Carlow
  5. Kildare
  6. Meath
  7. Louth
  8. Monaghan
  9. Cavan
  10. Longford
  11. Westmeath
  12. Offaly
  13. Laois
  14. Kilkenny
  15. Waterford
  16. Cork
  1. Kerry
  2. Limerick
  3. Tipperary
  4. Clare
  5. Galway
  6. Mayo
  7. Roscommon
  8. Sligo
  9. Leitrim
  10. Donegal

Northern Ireland Image File history File links IrelandNumbered. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Dublin Code: D Area: 921 km² Population (2006) 1,186,821 County Dublin (Irish: Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath), or more correctly today the Dublin Region[1] (Réigiúin Átha Cliath), is the area that contains the city of Dublin, the capital and largest city... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Wicklow Code: WW Area: 2,024 km² Population (2007) 114,676 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Wexford Code: WX Area: 2,352 km² Population (2006) 131,615 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Carlow Code: CW Area: 896 km² Population (2006) 50,471 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Naas Code: KE Area: 1,693 km² Population (2006) 186,075 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Navan Code: MH Area: 2,342 km² Population (2006) 162,621 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Dundalk Code: LH Area: 820 km² Population (2006) 110,894 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Monaghan Code: MN Area: 1,294 km² Population (2006) 55,816 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Cavan Code: CN Area: 1,931 km² Population (2006) 63,961 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Longford Code: LD Area: 1,091 km² Population (2006) 34,361 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Mullingar Code: WH Area: 1,764 km² Population (2006) 79,403 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Tullamore Code: OY Area: 1,999 km² Population (2006) 70,604 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Portlaoise Code: LS Area: 1,719 km² Population (2006) 69,012 Website: www. ... County Kilkenny (Contae Chill Chainnigh in Irish) is located in the south east of Ireland in the province of Leinster. ... County Waterford (Port Láirge in Irish) is a county in the province of Munster on the south coast of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Cork Code: C (CK proposed) Area: 7,457 km² Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Limerick Code: LK Area: 2,686 km² Population (2006) 183,863 (including Limerick City); 131,303 (without Limerick City) Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: North: Nenagh South: Clonmel Code: North: TN South: TS Area: 4,303 km² Population (2006) 149,040[[1]] County Tipperary (Contae Thiobraid Árann in Irish) is a county in the Republic of Ireland, and situated in the province of Munster. ... County Clare (Contae an Chláir in Irish) is in the Irish province of Munster. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Galway Code: G (GY proposed) Area: 6,148 km² Population (2006) 231,035 (including Galway City); 159,052 (without Galway City) Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Roscommon Code: RN Area: 2,547 km² (983 mi²) Population (2006) 58,700 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Sligo Code: SO Area: 1,836 km² Population (2006) 60,863 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Carrick-on-Shannon Code: LM Area: 1,588 km² Population (2006) 28,837 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ...

  1. Fermanagh
  2. Tyrone
  3. Londonderry/Derry
  4. Antrim
  5. Down
  6. Armagh

From an administrative viewpoint, 20 of the counties in the Republic are units of local government. The other six have more than one local authority area, producing a total of 34 county-level authorities. Tipperary has two parts, North Tipperary and South Tipperary. The cities of Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway and Waterford have city councils and are administered separately from the counties bearing those names. The remaining part of County Dublin is split into Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal, and South Dublin. Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Enniskillen Area: 1,691 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Omagh Area: 3,155 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Derry Area: 2,074 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Antrim Area: 2,844 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Downpatrick Area: 2,448 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Armagh Area: 1,254 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: North: Nenagh South: Clonmel Code: North: TN South: TS Area: 4,303 km² Population (2006) 149,040[[1]] County Tipperary (Contae Thiobraid Árann in Irish) is a county in the Republic of Ireland, and situated in the province of Munster. ... North Tipperary (Tiobraid Árann Thuaidh in Irish), known until 2002 as Tipperary North Riding, is a local government area in Ireland, consisting of the northern part of County Tipperary. ... South Tipperary (Tiobraid Árann Theas in Irish), known until 2002 as Tipperary South Riding, is a local government area in Ireland, consisting of the southern part of County Tipperary. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , , Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 37. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Dublin Code: D Area: 921 km² Population (2006) 1,186,821 County Dublin (Irish: Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath), or more correctly today the Dublin Region[1] (Réigiúin Átha Cliath), is the area that contains the city of Dublin, the capital and largest city... Dun Laoghaire–Rathdown1 (Irish: Dún Laoghaire–Ráth an Dúin) is an administrative county in the Republic of Ireland forming part of the traditional county of Dublin. ... Fingal is also the name of a town in the Fingal Valley of Tasmania, Australia. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Tallaght Code: D (SN proposed) Area: 222. ...


Electoral areas in the Republic of Ireland, called constituencies in accordance with Irish law, mostly follow county boundaries. Maintaining links to the county system is a mandatory consideration in the re-organisation of constituency boundaries. The Republic of Ireland has a common law legal system with four main sources of law: Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) Legislation Primary Legislation - Acts of the Oireachtas Secondary Legislation - Statutory Instrument Case law European Community Law Historical The state became independent in 1922 as the Irish Free...


In Northern Ireland, a major re-organisation of local government in 1973 replaced the six traditional counties and two county boroughs (Belfast and Derry) by 26 single-tier districts, which, apart from Fermanagh cross the traditional county boundaries. The six counties and two county-boroughs remain in use for purposes such as Lieutenancy. In November 2005, proposals were announced which would see the number of local authorities reduced to seven. County borough was a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom to refer to a borough or a city independent of county administration. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... Northern Ireland is divided into 26 districts for local government purposes. ... Flag of a Lord Lieutenant The title Lord Lieutenant is given to the British monarchs personal representatives around the United Kingdom, usually in a county or similar circumscription, with varying tasks throughout history. ...


The island's total population of approximately 6 million people is concentrated on the east coast, particularly in Dublin and Belfast and their surrounding areas.


Natural resources

Bogs

Ireland has 12,000 km² of bogland, consisting of two distinct types, blanket bogs and raised bogs. Blanket bogs are the more widespread of the two types. They are essentially a product of human activity aided by the moist Irish climate. Blanket bogs formed on sites where Neolithic farmers cleared trees for farming. As the land so cleared fell into disuse, the soil began to leach and become more acidic, producing a suitable environment for the growth of heather and rushes. The debris from these plants accumulated and a layer of peat formed. Lütt-Witt Moor, a bog in Henstedt-Ulzburg in northern Germany. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Binomial name Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull “Heather” redirects here. ... Genera Andesia Distichia Juncus - Rush Luzula - Woodrush Marsippospermum Oxychloë Prionium Rostkovia The Juncaceae, or the Rush Family, is a rather small monocot flowering plant family. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ...


Raised bogs are most common in the Shannon basin. They formed when depressions left behind after the ice age filled with water to form lakes. Debris from reeds in these lakes formed a layer of at the bottom of the water. This eventually choked the lakes and raised above the surface, forming raised bogs.


Since the 17th century, peat has been cut for fuel for domestic heating and cooking and it is called turf when so used. The process accelerated as commercial exploitation of bogs grew. In the 1940s, machines for cutting turf were introduced and larger-scale exploitation became possible. In the Republic, this became the responsibility of a semi-state company called Bord na Móna. In addition to domestic uses, commercially extracted turf is used in a number of industries, especially electricity generation. Bord na Móna (lit. ...


In recent years, the high level of bog being destroyed by cutting has raised environmental concerns. The problem is particularly acute for raised bogs as they yield a higher-grade fuel than blanket bogs. Plans are now in place in both the Republic and Northern Ireland to conserve most of the remaining raised bogs on the island.


Gas and minerals

Offshore exploration for gas began in 1970. The first major discovery was the Kinsale Gas Field in 1971. Next was the smaller Ballycotton Gas Field in 1989, and the Corrib Gas Field in 1996. Exploitation of the Corrib Field has yet to get off the ground because the controversial proposal to refine the gas onshore, rather than at sea has been met with widespread opposition. Gas from these fields is pumped ashore and used for both domestic and industrial purposes. The Helvick oil field, estimated to contain over 5 million barrels of oil, is another recent discovery. Ireland is the largest European producer of zinc with three operating zinc-lead mines at Navan, Galmoy and Lisheen. Other mineral deposits with actual or potential commercial value include gold, silver, gypsum, talc, calcite, dolomite, roofing slate, limestone aggregate, building stone, and sand and gravel. The Corrib Gas Field is a natural gas deposit off the northwest coast of Ireland. ... Shell To Sea is a campaign based in County Mayo, Ireland against the construction by Shell of a high pressure gas pipeline and a refinery at Bellanaboy which would process the gas from the Corrib Gas Field. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... The Lisheen lead and zinc mine is located in Co. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. // Heating gypsum to between 100°C and 150°C (302°F) partially dehydrates the mineral by driving off exactly 75% of the water contained in its chemical structure. ... Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... Dolomite crystals from Touissite, Morocco Dolomite is the name of both a carbonate rock and a mineral consisting of calcium magnesium carbonate (formula: CaMg(CO3)2) found in crystals. ... Slate Thick slate fragment Slate roof Slate is a fine-grained, homogeneous, metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low grade regional metamorphism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ... Gravel being unloaded from a barge Gravel is rock that is of a certain grain size range. ...


References

Print

  • Mitchell, Frank and Ryan, Michael. Reading the Irish landscape (1998). ISBN 1-86059-055-1
  • Whittow, J. B. Geography and Scenery in Ireland (Penguin Books 1974)

See Also

Ireland is sometimes known as the Emerald Isle because of its green scenery. ... See Also: Geography of Ireland Location: Western Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of Ireland in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain Geographic coordinates: 53° N, 8° W Map references: Europe Area: total: 70,280 km² land: 68,890 km² water: 1,390 km² Area - comparative: slightly... The United Kingdom occupies a substantial part of the British Isles. ...

By Category

  • Category:Geography_of_Ireland

External Links

  • Irish Department of Foreign Affairs: Facts about Ireland
  • Ireland – The World Factbook
  • OnlineWeather.com – climate details for Ireland
  • Ireland's Peat Bogs
  • OSI FAQ – Lists of the longest, highest and other statistics
  • A discussion on RTÉ Radio One's science show Quantum Leap about the quality of GPS mapping in Ireland is available here. The discussion starts 8mins 17sec into the show. It was aired on 18 Jan 2007 Requires Real player.

Maps from The World Factbook 2007 (government edtion) cover. ... Radio Telefís Éireann[1] (RTÉ; IPA: ,  ) is the Public Service Broadcaster of the Republic of Ireland. ... RTÉ Radio 1 is the principal radio channel of Irish public-service broadcaster Radio Telefís Éireann and is the direct descendant of Dublin radio station 2RN, which began broadcasting on a regular basis on 1 January 1926. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... RealPlayer is a media player, created by RealNetworks, that plays a number of multimedia formats including multiple generations of RealAudio and RealVideo codecs as well as MP3, MPEG-4, QuickTime, etc. ...

  • irelandstory.com
  • Geography Ireland


  Results from FactBites:
 
Geography of Ireland (4597 words)
Ireland is an island on the western fringe of Europe between latitude 51 1/2 and 55 1/2 degrees north, and longitude 5 1/2 to 10 1/2 degrees west.
Ireland's mild and equable climate is a reflection of the fact that its shores are bathed by the relatively warm ocean waters of the North Atlantic Drift.
Ireland is dependent on imported fuels for the major part of its energy supply but the policy has been to utilise native resources to the maximum in the generation of electricity.
Celtic Origins (0 words)
Sometimes Northern Ireland is referred to as Ulster, because it consists of six of the nine counties that were parts of the Province of Ulster.
The population of Northern Ireland is 1,577,836 (as of 1991).
Since Ireland's climate is influenced by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream and the prevailing southwesterly winds blowing gently from the Atlantic Ocean, Ireland never exeriences extremes of weather.
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