FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
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Encyclopedia > Geography of Iran
Fars Province landscape
Fars Province landscape
The Iranian landscape is predominantly mountainous, with high contrasting green oases. (Image was taken in the southern Alborz range near Firouzkuh)
The Iranian landscape is predominantly mountainous, with high contrasting green oases. (Image was taken in the southern Alborz range near Firouzkuh)

Iran is situated in Southwest Asia, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan. Iran is one of the world's most mountainous countries. Its mountains have helped to shape both the political and the economic history of the country for several centuries. The mountains enclose several broad basins, or plateaus, on which major agricultural and urban settlements are located. Until the twentieth century, when major highways and railroads were constructed through the mountains to connect the population centers, these basins tended to be relatively isolated from one another. Typically, one major town dominated each basin, and there were complex economic relationships between the town and the hundreds of villages that surrounded it. In the higher elevations of the mountains rimming the basins, tribally organized groups practiced transhumance, moving with their herds of sheep and goats between traditionally established summer and winter pastures. There are no major river systems in the country, and historically transportation was by means of caravans that followed routes traversing gaps and passes in the mountains. The mountains also impeded easy access to the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea. Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Fars. ... Image File history File links Fars. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Geographic_sample_iran. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Geographic_sample_iran. ... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman (Arabic: خليج عمان; transliterated: khalÄ«j Ê¿umān, Persian: دریای عمان یا دریای پازس; transliterated: daryā-ye Ê¿omān,Pars) Persian sea is a strait that connects the Arabian Sea with the Persian Gulf; it is generally included as a branch of the Persian Gulf, not as an arm of... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18...


With an area of 1,648,000 square kilometers, Iran ranks sixteenth in size among the countries of the world. Iran is about one-fifth the size of the continental United States, or slightly larger than the combined area of the contiguous states of California, Arizona, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho.


Located in southwestern Asia, Iran shares its northern borders with former Soviet Union republics Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan. These borders extend for more than 2,000 kilometers, including nearly 650 kilometers of water along the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. Iran's western borders are with Turkey in the north and Iraq in the south, terminating at the Shatt al Arab (which Iranians call the Arvand Rud). The Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman littorals form the entire 1,770 kilometer southern border. To the east lie Afghanistan on the north and Pakistan on the south. Iran's diagonal distance from Azerbaijan in the northwest to Baluchestan va Sistan in the southeast is approximately 2,333 kilometers.

Contents

Topography

Topography of Iran
Topography of Iran
The two mountain ranges of Iran provide for a variety of climates. Most of Iran however is dry mountainous.
The two mountain ranges of Iran provide for a variety of climates. Most of Iran however is dry mountainous.

Iran (Persia) consists of rugged, mountainous rims surrounding high interior basins. The main mountain chain is the Zagros Mountains, a series of parallel ridges interspersed with plains that bisect the country from northwest to southeast. Many peaks in the Zagros exceed 3,000 meters above sea level, and in the south-central region of the country there are at least five peaks that are over 4,000 meters. As the Zagros continue into southeastern Iran, the average elevation of the peaks declines dramatically to under 1,500 meters. Rimming the Caspian Sea littoral is another chain of mountains, the narrow but high Alborz Mountains. Volcanic Mount Damavand (5 671 m), located in the center of the Alborz, is not only the country's highest peak but also the highest mountain on the Eurasian landmass west of the Hindu Kush. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1291, 685 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1291, 685 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (115x640, 51 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Zagros Mountains (Kurdish: زنجیره‌ چیاکانی زاگروس), make up Irans and Iraqs largest mountain range. ... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ... Mount Damāvand (Persian: ) also known as Donbavand, is a dormant volcano in Iran. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ...


The center of Iran consists of several closed basins that collectively are referred to as the Central Plateau. The average elevation of this plateau is about 900 meters, but several of the mountains that tower over the plateau exceed 3,000 meters. The eastern part of the plateau is covered by two salt deserts, the Dasht-e Kavir(Great Salt Desert) and the Dasht-e Lut. Except for some scattered oases, these deserts are uninhabited. Dasht-e Kavir desert: satellite photograph Dasht-e Kavir (دشت كوير in Persian), also known as Kavir-e Namak or Great Salt Desert is a large desert lying in the middle of the Iranian Plateau. ... As seen from space Dasht-e Lut is a large salt desert in southeastern Iran. ... For the English rock band, see Oasis (band). ...


Iran has only two expanses of lowlands: the Khuzestan Plain in the southwest and the Caspian Sea coastal plain in the north. The former is a roughly triangular-shaped extension of the Mesopotamia plain and averages about 160 kilometers in width. It extends for about 120 kilometers inland, barely rising a few meters above sea level, then meets abruptly with the first foothills of the Zagros. Much of the Khuzestan plain is covered with marshes. The Caspian plain is both longer and narrower. It extends for some 640 kilometers along the Caspian shore, but its widest point is less than 50 kilometers, while at some places less than 2 kilometers separate the shore from the Alborz foothills. The Persian Gulf coast south of Khuzestan and the Gulf of Oman coast have no real plains because the Zagros in these areas come right down to the shore. The Khuzestan Plain is the relatively flat region of Iran where the Khuzestan province and the cities of Ahvaz, Susa and Abadan are located. ...


There are no major rivers in the country. Of the small rivers and streams, the only one that is navigable is the Karun (830 Kilometres long), which shallow-draft boats can negotiate from Khorramshahr to Ahvaz, a distance of about 180 kilometers. Other major rivers include the Kharkeh, which is 700 kilometers long; and the Zayandeh Rud, which is 400 kilometers long. Several other permanent rivers and streams also drain into the Persian Gulf, while a number of small rivers that originate in the northwestern Zagros or Alborz drain into the Caspian Sea. On the Central Plateau, numerous rivers, most of which have dry beds for the greater part of the year, form from snow melting in the mountains during the spring and flow through permanent channels, draining eventually into salt lakes that also tend to dry up during the summer months. There is a permanent salt lake, Lake Urmia (the traditional name, also cited as Lake Urmiyeh, to which it has reverted after being called Lake Rezaiyeh under Mohammad Reza Shah), in the northwest, whose brine content is too high to support fish or most other forms of aquatic life. There are also several connected salt lakes along the Iran-Afghanistan border in the province of Baluchestan va Sistan. Karun River passing the Iranian city of Ahvaz The Karun (also Karoun) is Irans most effluent, and the only navigable, river. ... Khorramshahr (Persian: خرمشهر) is a port city in Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... The city of Ahvaz or Ahwaz[1] (Persian: ahvāz, Arabic: ), is the capital of the Iranian province of Khūzestān. ... Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. ...


Climate

Iran has a variable climate. In the northwest, winters are cold with heavy snowfall and subfreezing temperatures during December and January. Spring and fall are relatively mild, while summers are dry and hot. In the south, winters are mild and the summers are very hot, having average daily temperatures in July exceeding 38 °C (100 °F). On the Khuzestan plain, summer heat is accompanied by high humidity.


In general, Iran has an arid climate in which most of the relatively scant annual precipitation falls from October through April. In most of the country, yearly precipitation averages 25 centimeters or less. The major exceptions are the higher mountain valleys of the Zagros and the Caspian coastal plain, where precipitation averages at least 50 centimeters annually. In the western part of the Caspian, rainfall exceeds 100 centimeters annually and is distributed relatively evenly throughout the year. This contrasts with some basins of the Central Plateau that receive ten centimeters or less of precipitation annually.


Flora and Fauna

See also: Wildlife of Iran
Map of biotopes of Iran      Forest steppe      Forests and woodlands      Semi-desert      Desert lowlands      Steppe      Salted alluvial marshes
Map of biotopes of Iran      Forest steppe      Forests and woodlands      Semi-desert      Desert lowlands      Steppe      Salted alluvial marshes

More than one-tenth of the country is forested. The most extensive growths are found on the mountain slopes rising from the Caspian Sea, with stands of oak, ash, elm, cypress, and other valuable trees. On the plateau proper, areas of scrub oak appear on the best-watered mountain slopes, and villagers cultivate orchards and grow the plane tree, poplar, willow, walnut, beech, maple, and mulberry. Wild plants and shrubs spring from the barren land in the spring and afford pasturage, but the summer sun burns them away. According to FAO reports [1], the major types of forests that exist in Iran and their respective areas are: Wildlife of Iran includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1145x1041, 290 KB) Other versions all the biotopes of Iran : Image:Iran biotopes. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1145x1041, 290 KB) Other versions all the biotopes of Iran : Image:Iran biotopes. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ... Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... u fuck in ua ... The word bush re-directs here; for alternate uses see Bush (disambiguation). ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...

  1. Caspian forests of the northern districts (19,000 km²)
  2. Limestone mountainous forests in the northeastern districts (Juniperus forests, 13,000 km²)
  3. Pistachio forests in the eastern, southern and southeastern districts (26,000 km²)
  4. Oak forests in the central and western districts (35,000 km²)
  5. Shrubs of the Kavir (desert) districts in the central and northeastern part of the country (10,000 km²)
  6. Sub-tropical forests of the southern coast (5,000 km²) like the Hara forests.

More than 2,000 plant species are grown in Iran. The land covered by Iran’s natural flora is four times that of the Europe’s. The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Species 50-55 species; see text. ... Binomial name L. The pistachio (Pistacia vera L., Anacardiaceae; sometimes placed in Pistaciaceae) is a small tree up to 10 m tall, native to mountainous regions of Iran, Turkmenistan and western Afghanistan. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... Hara Forests Hara Forests in Qeshm The Hara forests is the common name for mangrove forests on the southern coast of Iran, particularly on and near the island of Qeshm in the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ...


Wildlife of Iran includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats. One of the most famous members of wildlife in Iran are the world's last surviving, critically endangered Asiatic Cheetah, which today are found nowhere else but in Iran. Iran had lost all its Asiatic Lion and the now extinct Caspian Tigers by the earlier part of the twentyth century. Bears in the mountains, wild sheep and goats, gazelles, wild asses, wild pigs, panthers, and foxes abound. Domestic animals include sheep, goats, cattle, horses, water buffalo, donkeys, and camels. The pheasant, partridge, stork, and falcon are native to Iran. Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ... A habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular organism usually lives or grows. ... Trinomial name Acinonyx jubatus venaticus (Griffith, 1821) The Asiatic Cheetah (cheetah from Hindi चीता cÄ«tā, derived from Sanskrit word chitraka meaning speckled) (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), also known as the Iranian Cheetah is a rare critically endangered subspecies of the Cheetah found primarily in Iran. ... Trinomial name Panthera leo persica Meyer, 1826 Current distribution of the Asiatic Lion in the wild Synonyms Leo leo goojratensis (India) Leo leo persicus (Persia) The Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica; also known as Indian Lion) is a subspecies of the lion found only in India. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris virgata (Illiger, 1815) Distribution of caspian tigers in 1900 (red) Synonyms P. tigris lecoqi (China) Color-enhanced photo of a captive specimen (possibly the same individual as above) The Caspian tiger or Persian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) was the westernmost subspecies of tiger, found in Iran... For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... For the animal, see goat. ... Species Several, see text A gazelle is an antelope of the genus Gazella. ... Ass has several meaninings: Áss - One of the Aesir Asshole - a slang term Anus - an intimate part of the body Buffoon - a fool, idiot, clown Buttocks - an area of the body Donkey - an animal of the horse family Rectum - yet another part of the body Asses is also the plural... // Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis pardus Linnaeus, 1758 The Leopard (Panthera pardus) is an Old World mammal of the Felidae family and one of the four big cats of the genus Panthera, along with the tiger (), the lion () and the jaguar (). Once distributed across southern Eurasia and Africa from... A red fox The foxes comprise 23 species of omnivorous canids, found worldwide. ... Species See text. ... For the animal, see goat. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... Binomial name Equus asinus The donkey or ass (Equus asinus) is a domesticated animal of the horse family, Equidae. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Genera Ithaginis Catreus Rheinartia Crossoptilon Lophura Argusianus Pucrasia Syrmaticus Chrysolophus Phasianus † See also partridge, quail Pheasants are a group of large birds in the order Galliformes. ... For other uses, see Partridge (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Stork (disambiguation). ... Falcons eat humans. ...

The European Bee-eater of Iran.
The European Bee-eater of Iran.

The Persian leopard is said to be the largest of all the subspecies of leopards in the world. The main range of this species in Iran closely overlaps with that of Bezoar Ibex. Hence, it is found throughout Alborz and Zagros mountain ranges, as well as smaller ranges within the Iranian plateau. Leopard population is very sparse, due to loss of habitat, loss of natural prey, and population fragmentation. Apart from Bezoar Ibex, wild sheep, boar, deer (either Maral red deer or roe deer), and domestic animals constitute leoprads' diet in Iran. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Binomial name Merops apiaster Linnaeus, 1758 The European Bee-eater, Merops apiaster is a near passerine bird in the bee-eater family Meropidae. ... Trinomial name Panthera pardus saxicolor Pocock, 1927 The Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), or Iranian leopard is one of the subspecies of leopards thats native to western Asia, The Persian leopard is endangered through out its distribution area in the Middle East. ... Binomial name Capra aegagrus Erxleben, 1777 Subspecies Capra aegagrus aegagrus Capra aegagrus blythi Capra aegagrus chialtanensis Capra aegagrus cretica Capra aegagrus hircus Capra aegagrus turcmenica The wild goat (Capra aegagrus) is a common type of goat species, with a distribution ranging from Europe and Asia Minor to central Asia and... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ... The Zagros Mountains (Kurdish: زنجیره‌ چیاکانی زاگروس), make up Irans and Iraqs largest mountain range. ... Binomial name Capra aegagrus Erxleben, 1777 Subspecies Capra aegagrus aegagrus Capra aegagrus blythi Capra aegagrus chialtanensis Capra aegagrus cretica Capra aegagrus hircus Capra aegagrus turcmenica The wild goat (Capra aegagrus) is a common type of goat species, with a distribution ranging from Europe and Asia Minor to central Asia and... Species See text. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... Binomial name Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest species of deer in the world. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions. ...


National parks

Ramsar sites

Area and boundaries

Iran's cities and main towns

Area:
total: 1.648 million km²
land: 1.636 million km²
water: 12 000 km² Image File history File links Size of this preview: 708 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (930 × 788 pixel, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/png) A map showing Irans cities and main towns. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 708 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (930 × 788 pixel, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/png) A map showing Irans cities and main towns. ...


Land boundaries:
total: 5 440 km
border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Nakhchivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1 458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km This article is about the autonomous region. ...


Coastline: 2 440 km
note: Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)


Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nautical miles (44 km)
continental shelf: natural prolongation
exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements, or median lines in the Persian Gulf
territorial sea: 12 nautical miles


Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Qolleh-ye Damavand 5 610 m The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Mount Damāvand (Persian: ) also known as Donbavand, is a dormant volcano in Iran. ...

Disputes - international

Iran protests Afghanistan's limiting flow of dammed tributaries to the Helmand River in periods of drought; Iraq's lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf; Iran and UAE dispute Tunb Islands and Abu Musa Island, which are occupied by Iran; Iran stands alone among littoral states in insisting upon a division of the Caspian Sea into five equal sectors. [1] The Helmand River: Avestan: HaÄ“tumant rich in dams (also Helmend, Helmund, Hirmand or Tarnak) is the longest river in Afghanistan. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ... The Greater and Lesser Tunbs, and Abu Musa Greater Tunb and Lesser Tunb (Persian: , Tonb-e Bozorg and Tonb-e Kuchak; Arabic: , Tunb al-kubra and Tunb al-sughra) are two small islands in the eastern Persian Gulf, close to the Strait of Hormuz. ... Abu Musa and its environs This is a geographical article. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18...


Resources and land use

See also: Mining in Iran
See also: Agriculture of Iran

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 27%
forests and woodlands: 13%
other: 49% (1998 est.) Iran’s mining industry is under-developed. ... Map of Irans major crops, circa 1978. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ...


Irrigated land: 94,000 km² (1993 est.)

Environmental concerns

Natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes along western border and in the northeast Environmental issue in Iran Especially in urban areas, vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents contribute to poor air quality. ... This is a list of recent major earthquakes in Iran:[1] Environmental issues in Iran Geography of Iran ^ Prof. ...


Environment - current issues: air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought; soil degradation (salination); inadequate supplies of potable water in some areas; urbanization.


Endangered species: As of 2001, 20 of Iran's mammal species and 14 bird species are endangered. Endangered species in Iran include the Baluchistan bear, Asiatic cheetah, Persian fallow deer, Siberian white crane, hawksbill turtle, green turtle, Oxus cobra, Latifi's viper, dugong, and dolphins. The Syrian wild ass has become extinct.

See also

The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Historical map of the area (1892) Map Of Strait of Hormuz Satellite image The Strait of Hormuz (Arabic: ‎, Persian: ‎) is a narrow, strategically important stretch of ocean between the Gulf of Oman in the southeast and the Persian Gulf in the southwest. ... This is a list of mountains in the country of Iran. ... This is a list of Irans islands: Coastal islands Caspian Sea Ashooradeh archipelago Ashooradeh island Persian Gulf Abu Musa island Buneh island Dara island Farsi island Forur Bozorg island Forur Koochak island Forurgan island Greater and Lesser Tunbs Hendurabi island Hengam island Hormuz island Jonobi island Khark island Kish... Wildlife of Iran includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats. ... This is a list of recent major earthquakes in Iran:[1] Environmental issues in Iran Geography of Iran ^ Prof. ...

References

  1. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html

Coordinates: 32°00′N, 53°00′E The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The World Factbook 2007 (government edtion) cover. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Asia is the central and eastern part of Eurasia, comprising approximately fifty countries. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... China stretches some 5,000 kilometers across the East Asian landmass in an eratically changing configuration of broad plains, expansive deserts, and lofty mountain ranges, including vast areas of inhospitable terrain. ... Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Economy Education - History - Politics Hong Kong Portal The Geography of Hong Kong primarily consists of three main territories: Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and the New Territories. ... // Physical boundaries Taiwan is a medium-sized archipelago in East Asia, located at 23°30N, 121°00E and running through the middle of the Tropic of Cancer (23°5N). ... For the West Bank and Gaza Strip please see one of the following: Judea and Samaria West Bank Gaza Strip Yesha Israeli-Palestinian conflict Israel Palestinian territories Gush Katif Category: ... See: Geography of North Korea Geography of South Korea ... Map of North Korea North Korea is located in eastern Asia, on the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. ... Map of South Korea South Korea is located in Eastern Asia, on the southern half of the Korean Peninsula jutting out from the far east of the Asian land mass. ... Location: Southwest Asia, largest country of Arabia, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen. ... This article needs to be updated. ... This article describes the geography of East Timor. ... Map of United Arab Emirates Location: Southwest Asia, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia. ... A transcontinental nation is a country belonging to more than one continent. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Iran (1126 words)
Iran is a country in the Middle East, in the southwest of Asia.
In 1953, Iran's socialist prime minister Mohammed Mossadeq, who had been elected to parliament in 1923 and again in 1944, and who had been prime minister since 1951, was removed from power in a complex plot orchestrated by British and US intelligence agencies("Operation Ajax").
Iran's economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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